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A second global conflict and the end of the European World Order.

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1 A second global conflict and the end of the European World Order

2 Introduction Japanese: early stages of WWII the Japanese saw themselves as liberators. They felt they were freeing Asia of Europeans (British, French, Dutch, and even US) that had humiliated and exploited the people and who also thought they were a superior race The Japanese forced the European forces to march long stretches to prison camps (many died in route or in the camps) in an effort to break the psychological hold the Europeans had over the colonized. But the Japanese were fascists who wanted to create their own imperial empire in Asia. They soon proved to be far worse than European rulers. They ruled with an iron first and tortured and killed anyone who was even suspected of disagreeing with their rule. They also forced peasants and workers in labor to get the raw materials they needed in order to put up a fight against the Allies. Many died in the forced labor system (romusha). Sukarno-Indonesian nationalist leader fighting against both the European and Japanese imperialists. He held large rallies and spoke in Javanese or Indonesian so his Japanese handlers couldnt understand. Used weakening powers of both sides during the war to launch nationalistic efforts and gain independence for his country. After independence problems-many local leaders lacked skill and political base to effectively deal with the country (ethnically and religiously divided/ economically poor). This lead to failures of leaders that lead to military coups WW II became an even larger global conflict than WWI

3 Sukarno Franco –dictator of Spain

4 Old and New Causes of WWII Major factor was the social and political changes in nations that fought in WWI and grievances related to WWI. Japan-gradual shift towards militarization. In China nationalist forces began getting the upper hands vs. warlords (Guomindang –Nationalists) and Japan didnt want to see China develop a strong national government. Fears of curbs of their expansionist goals combined with weak civilian government at home lead to the Japanese seizing Manchuria in 1931 (Manchukuo). Civilian leaders in Japan were fearful to object over this because it might lead to weaken negotiations between Japan and the US as well as other powers. This act only further empowered the Japanese military. Germany-Weimar Republic under attack because they couldnt handle post war problems and they agreed to the Treaty of Versailles (war guilt clause ) coupled of course with the Great Depression! Into this environment came Adolf Hitler and the Nationalist Socialist party (Nazi) and his promised for stability, economic freedom, and confidence. Once in power, Hitler began to dismantle the Treaty of Versailles. Hitlers successes inspired Mussolini in Italy who promised the same thing to his people and began to invade Ethiopia. Hitler and Mussolini militarily intervened in Spanish Civil War in the hopes of creating an allied fascist regime. The Italians and Germans used this opportunity to train their soldiers (ground forces and civilian attacks). Franco seized power in Spain and ended elected republican government. Soviet Union did provide military aid, but France, UK, and US only sent volunteer forces…couldnt compete against Axis powers. Franco then became the dictator of Spain. However, after the Spanish Civil War, Franco refused to fight along side of the Axis powers in WWII.

5 Unchecked Aggression Hitler annexed Austria in 1938 and set his eyes upon Poland and Czechoslovakia Other states in Europe and the U.S. failed to take action prior to 1939 to halt aggression of Germany and Japan Germany seized lands in Europe while Japan seized lands in China Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, and Japan vs. Grand Alliance: British Empire, France, Soviet Union, and the U.S. Hitler rearmed Germany, withdrew from League of Nations, ignored the Treaty of Versailles, annexed Austria, and threatened Czechoslovakia under the pretext of protecting Germans in the Sudentenland France and England unwilling to risk war to defend Czechoslovakia 1938 Munich conference: Granted (appeased) Hitlers increased demands to avoid war. Soon Hitlers armies occupied all of Czechoslovakia Brought closer to living space goal in Russia

6 Hitlers War Hitler was aware of impending warfare and starting making alliances: Italy: Pact of Steel 1939 and Soviet Union: Non- Aggression Pact of 1939 Hitler believed the alliance with Soviets would force France and Britain into neutral stances while he dismantled Poland, his last obstacle in eastward expansion Soviets were to gain parts of lost Baltic provinces British and French made a pact in the event Poland was invaded Official start of WWII: Poland invaded on September 1, 1939 by Germany-1 month Germany and Russia split spoils. Soviets set up military bases to protect Leningrad. Stalin did not trust Hitler Japan: Japan moved even before Germany! In 1937 Japan launched an invasion into China (from Manchuria)-wanted to conquer all of China. Had success initially. But the Chinese did resist which lead to the Japanese attacking both soldiers and civilians. Rape of Nanking (Nanjing) Dec Carried out order to its people b/c it was Guomingdang capital. Japanese soldiers were urged to rape, torture, and then later kill Chinese POWs and civilians. Approximately 200, ,000 people in Nanking were murdered in the following weeks. When news reached Japan many received it was great news. Thousands of women were raped and some people were even hacked into pieces. Accounts of Japanese soldiers even bayoneting babies.

7 Interestingly, the Nazis actually helped the Guomindang officers to fight against the Japanese. The Rape of Nanking was even reported by a Nazi officer who tried to save the people of the city. The Tripartite Pact wasnt signed between Germany, Italy, and Japan until 1940 well into WWII. (Part 1 of 7) TWtokeF5Q&feature=player_embedde d TWtokeF5Q&feature=player_embedde d (Part 2 of 7) VWe3xgAo&feature=related (Part 3 of 7) TIylgLDHE&NR=1 (part 4 of 7) z-fZwpmME&NR=1

8 WWII France and Great Britain held true to their alliance and declared war on Germany September 3, 1939 Six months after fall of Poland no military actions took place because of poor weather…called phony war (Maginot Line) France and Great Britain awaited Hitlers next move It came in spring of 1940 when Germany attack Denmark and Norway…could set up bases to attack Great Britain May 1940 Hitler began sweeping through Holland, Belgium, and Luxembourg…part of his strategy to attack France While allies were tied up with the fight there, Hitler sent an ever larger army through the Ardennes in northeastern France Moving through the forest the Germans made it across the Maginot Line and across France to its northern coast in 10 days Upon reaching the northern coast the Germans swung north again to join forces with troops in Belgium May 26, 1940 Germans trapped allied forces around the city of Lille Belgium surrendered Allies escaped to the beaches of Dunkirk…with their backs to the sea

9 War in France Great Britain set out to rescue the men at Dunkirk- 850 ships and carried 338,000 men to safety June 10, 1940 Mussolini join Hitler and declared war on France and Great Britain Italy attacked France from the south By June 14, 1940 Paris had fallen to the Germans New prime mister of France: Henri Petain France surrendered June 22, 1940 France fell due to weak leadership and outdated defenses Germans took northern part of country and left the southern part to a puppet government headed by Petain…headquarters of the government was in the city of Vichy Charles de Gaulle set up government while in exile in England and fought


11 Battle of Britain After fall of France, Great Britain stood alone Winston Churchill-English Prime minister declared nation would never give in (listen to speech) Hitler turned his eyes towards England- Operation Sea Lion: invasion of England. Knock our Royal Air Force (RAF) then send in troops Summer 1940 Luftwaffe (German air force) began the blitzkrieg or lightening war: bombing campaign At first targets were airfields then focused switched to cities such as London Two secret weapons of England: radar and the Enigma (German code-making machine) Bombing started at night due to British uncanny ability to resist the Germans Battle continued until May 10, 1941 when Hitler called off the attacks stunned by English resistance and decided to focus on Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean Italy moved to Libya to seized Egypt Hitlers goal seized Suez Canal and oil field in the Middle East and to cut off Great Britain from its colonies in Asia Italy did not fare well against British so Hitler sent in General Rommel Rommel pushed British across Africa

12 Balkans/Collaboration-Resistance Hitler began planning an attack on his ally the USSR and the Balkans were key to carrying out his invasion plan Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary cooperated and joined Axis powers in 1941 while Yugoslavia and Greece resisted…by April of 1941 both counties surrendered to Hitler Balkans government were ruled by those who cooperated with Hitler because of fear or promises There was resistance to Nazi occupation Josip Broz of Yugoslavia (Tito) was the most successful of these resistance fighters and due to his actions became the leader of his country post WWII

13 Allied Victory Spring 1941 Germany controlled Europe and was allied with Soviet Union, Italy, and Japan (However, this was about to change) Summer of 1941 Germany invaded Russia (ending the Russian- German non aggression pact) and Japan bombed the U.S. (pulling the U.S. into the war) With western countries neutralized Hitler carried out his plans towards ending communism and expanding German territory in Russia (Operation Barbarossa) Stalin then made an alliance with Great Britain and the U.S.

14 Soviet Union Battle for Moscow in : Germans attack Moscow Unprepared for weather problems: not dressed for winter, tanks didnt start, weapons jammed in subzero temperatures Russians counterattack (General Gyorgi Zhukov) forcing ill prepared German soldiers to retreat Battle of Stalingrad (Volgograd) of : fierce battle where city was repeatedly bombed, however, once winter came around same problems Russians had 2 advantages: population and weather 1.5 million dead 50% of all death and causalities of the war were incurred by the Soviets Battle of Kursk-1943-biggest tank battle of the war. Bulge in Germany –Russian line and wanted to make sure the Russians couldnt launch a offensive from this bulge area so had to take them out. Russians found out their plans from German POWs and started planning counteroffensive. They surprised the Germans! Last major German offensive against Russia. Germans retreated-lost many lives and much equipment in battle. Battle of Kursk: AqgBNX8OduY&feature=related AqgBNX8OduY&feature=related Battle of Russia: gjr6PgieDY&feature=related gjr6PgieDY&feature=related Battle of Stalingrad:

15 Assault at Stalingrad Photographs by Georgi Zelma Assault at Stalingrad Photographs by Georgi Zelma Battle for Moscow: Battle_russian_soldiers.jpg&imgrefurl=http://ww2- =__QQWJI1KQVhXedornstn0gYh44N8=&h=259&w= 400&sz=70&hl=en&start=12&itbs=1&tbnid=8i0CQU NUYqjQkM:&tbnh=80&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3 Fq%3DBattle%2Bof%2BMoscow%26hl%3Den%26saf e%3Dstrict%26gbv%3D2%26tbs%3Disch:1

16 Racism and Destruction Germans and Japanese utilized pseudoscientific theories to justify the slaughter of certain groups to make way for the master race U.S. used racism towards the enemy Asians and started internment camps Nazis began enforcing these racist policies in 1933 with the Gypsies Germans I.D. groups that were racially and genetically inferior: mixed marriage children, mentally ill, physically defective, Jews homeless, criminals, alcoholics, prostitutes, those with STDs, and homosexual men

17 Jews Plan of final solution: total extermination of European Jews Began with deportation to ghettos Berlin Conference of 1942: Reinhard Heydrich plan for the SS and extermination Final solution began with the conquest of Poland and invasion of Russia in Operation Barbarossa Executions carried out by the SS and Himmler out of fear that Hitler would favor military over SS Lowest: Judeocommunists Himmler established more efficient killing devices: gas camber (I.G. Farben developed the Zyklon B gas just for this purpose) 1941 extermination camps

18 Jews 5 major camps: Chelmno, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, and Auschwitz Many died on journey to death camps: RR cars sealed with no food, water or sanitation 12 million died/ 6 million Jews Targeted were the old, sick, weak, pregnant, and menstruating women Jews could offer no resistance because they were locked in a country that universally accepted their fate while immigration policies of most other nations made it impossible for them to leave

19 Jews Burying the Remains of Children by David Olère. Olère's first assignment at Auschwitz was as a grave digger of bunker 2. His prisoner number, , is seen both on his shirt and as a tattoo on his left arm.

20 Gassing / Gazage The container in the lower right is labeled Zyklon B. Although Olère spent most of his time doing art for the SS and translating BBC radio broadcasts, he was, from time to time, called upon to help empty the gas chambers.

21 Holocaust German soldiers of the Waffen-SS and the Reich Labor Service look on as a member of Einsatzgruppe D prepares to shoot a Ukrainian Jew kneeling on the edge of a mass grave filled with the bodies of previous victims.

22 Holocaust In March, 1942, the Jews of the Lublin Province of Poland are deported to the Belzec death camp Crematorium furnaces in the Gusen concentration camp after the liberation

23 5/jpg_B.htm

24 Near the end of the war, in order to cut expenses and save gas, "cost- accountant considerations" led to an order to place living children directly into the ovens or throw them into open burning pits. _27.htm

25 At peak efficiency Auschwitz had the capacity to 'get rid of ten thousand people in 24 hours,' as the SS Kommandant Rudolf Hoess would testify during the War Crimes Trials after WW2. Witness after witness, document after document produced irrefutable evidence of the crimes committed, and no witness was more shocking than Rudolf Hoess, who calmly explained how he had come to exterminate 2,5 million people. bums5/jpg _B.htm dk/id17.htm

26 Dr. Herta Oberheuser killed children with oil and evipan injections, then removed their limbs and vital organs. The time from the injection to death was between three and five minutes, with the person being fully conscious until the last moment. She made some of the most gruesome and painful medical experiments, focused on deliberately inflicting wounds on the subjects. In order to simulate the combat wounds of German soldiers fighting in the war, Herta Oberheuser rubbed foreign objects, such as wood, rusty nails, slivers of glass, dirt or sawdust into the wounds.children eriments/jpg_exp15.htm High-Altitude Experiments to investigate the limits of human endurance and existence at extremely high altitudes. The victims were placed in the low-pressure chamber and thereafter the simulated altitude therein was raised. Many victims died as a result of these experiments and others suffered grave injury, torture, and ill- treatment.

27 The identical twins Eva Mozes Kor and Miriam Mozes survived the deadly genetic experiments conducted by Josef Mengele in Auschwitz. Their parents, grandparents, two older sisters, uncles, aunts and cousins were killed. The sisters were put through many extremely brutal surgeries and experiments by Mengele, who experimented mainly on twins. Eva later recalled:Auschwitz "I was given five injections. That evening I developed extremely high fever. I was trembling. My arms and my legs were swollen, huge size. Mengele and Dr. Konig and three other doctors came in the next morning. They looked at my fever chart, and Dr. Mengele said, laughingly, 'Too bad, she is so young. She has only two weeks to live.." Eva later told how a set of Gypsy twins was brought back from Mengele's lab after they were sewn back to back. Mengele had attempted to create a Siamese twin by connecting blood vessels and organs. The twins screamed day and night until gangrene set in, and after three days, they died... The fact that Eva and Miriam survived Auschwitz was a miracle in itself, as only few individual twins were still alive at the time the camp was liberated. As adults, Eva and Miriam suffered serious health problems. Eva suffered from miscarriages and tuberculosis. Her son had cancer. Miriam's kidneys never fully developed and she died in 1993 of a rare form of cancer, probably brought on by the unknown medical experiments and injections which she was subjected to at the hands of Josef Mengele.

28 Holocaust SS-women at the Belsen Camp.

29 Holocaust In 1943, the Allies stopped Germany's eastward advance into the U.S.S.R. The Soviet Army began pressing westward, through Poland, toward Germany. Under pressure of the Soviet Army offensive, SS-men selected those inmates from concentration camps who were still fit for work. The rest were killed. In this photo, the inmates to be taken to camps inside the Third Reich say good-bye to those who are left behind

30 United States Japan expanding into China and southeast Asia- opposed by the U.S. through economic embargoes 1940 Tripartite Pact: Japan join Axis Powers Japan invades China/ Indochina, which the U.S. insisted upon evacuation and the reestablishment of the open door policy Lend-Lease Act of authorized Roosevelt to provide armaments to Great Britain and Soviets without payment December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor: Japan attacked U.S. fleet in Hawaii Surprised: worst single engagement in U.S. naval history U.S. declared war on Japan December 7, 1941

31 USS Utah USS Arizona USS Downes USS Cassin

32 U.S. Two front war: Japan in the Pacific and Germany in Europe December 11, 1941 Germany declared war on the U.S. U.S. power was in their industrial capabilities- increased 400% by 1943 Much discussion about strategies on side of Allies Stalin wanted relief for his troops against Germans in Eastern Europe, U.S. focus was on the Pacific, … … and British focus was on North Africa (Suez Canal) 1942 Allies moved from North Africa into Italy Successful in taking over southern Italy Mussolini was stripped of his powers by King Emanuele III. Took control of northern Italy. He was killed in 1945 General Peitro Badoglio replaced Mussolini and September 8, 1943 signed an armistice with the Allies

33 Clara Petacci (left) and Benito Mussolini (right) hung by their feet after death. Mussolini and Hitler

34 U.S. Churchill, F. Roosevelt, and Stalin met in November 1943 at Teheran, Iran to discuss new objectives Roosevelt and Churchill were to open up a second front in France June 6, 1944 Allied troops under General Eisenhower came ashore the beaches at Normandy (D-Day) Operation Overlord: 2.2 million Allied forces poured into northern France Allied forces broke through German lines to liberate Paris in August Battle of the Bulge: December 1944 was the Germans last attempt to halt Allied advances, but it only slowed down the Allies March 1945 Allies marched from the Rhine into Germany Russians seized capital of Berlin in April 1945 Hitler committed suicide later that month May 8 th 1945 official surrender of Germany

35 Troops in an LCVP landing craft approaching "Omaha" Beach on "D-Day", 6 June 1944

36 Survivors of a sunken troop transport wade ashore on Omaha Beach Storming of Normandy

37 Liberation of Death Camps Survivors of Bergen-Belsen walk along the main street of the camp, past a pile of victims' shoes.

38 Survivors in hospital barracks 2 (for Jews) after liberation. Check out this site:

39 Pacific Theatre Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere : Japan ending imperialism in Asia and liberating its peoples…so it claimed In reality Japanese viewed southeast Asia as a market for manufactured goods, sources of raw materials, and a source of profits from capital investment (imperialism) Japan had been involved prior to WWII in an invasion of China which began as we learned earlier in After Pearl Harbor bombing Dec. 7 th of /3 of Japanese military forces remained bogged down in China! The American fleet was temporarily out which then allowed for the Japanese to expand and take over colonial areas of European powers like Hong Kong, Burma, Dutch East Indies, the Philippines, and French Indochina. Great Britain was a major player with Australia and New Zealand support. However, the US emerged as the major contender to Japan (why?) Japanese alienated European allies b/c they took their colonies while they were distracted with Nazis The Japanese also needed raw material and food for home so they were brutally oppressive to people they came to rule over (this led to resistance movements) Resistance fighters and guerrillas forces helped British and American forces and also sabotaged the Japanese. Shipping lanes from distant colonies were taken out by American subs.

40 Japan and the Pacific Japanese viewed their emperor as head of the state and as a God on earth Allies: General MacArthur – Japan: Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto Viewed Americans and Europeans as morally deficient and racist Battle of Midway June 1942: defeat on Japanese navy from which it could not recover. U.S. intercepted plan of attack and prepared…were waiting for the Japanese (war turning) Battle of Guadalcanal : Japanese wanted to set up bases on islands in southeast Pacific –Allies decided to attack at Guadalcanal due to location- 1 st land offensive The Imperial Japanese Navy intended to turn the Solomons Islands into strategic bases and start a program of occupying islands in the chain to build airbases with Guadalcanal being the major base-Allies secured the island in Feb Battle of Coral Sea: tch?v=1cD9lkGW8Ic tch?v=1cD9lkGW8Ic


42 Allies vs. Japan By 1944 the Allies were in striking distance of Japan and began regular bombings. Thought it would save more lives to bomb rather than launch a land invasion (too many soldiers had already died). By 1945 mass bombings in important cities (Japanese homes made out of wood and paper construction so easily fell to bombs) In Tokyo alone 125,000 Japanese (mostly civilian) died. August 6 and 9 of 1945 atomic bombings (Hiroshima and Nagaski). Well over 100,000 died in both cities and more later due to radiation. Bombings:



45 After War Wanted to avoid poor peace treaty like the one after WWI (Versailles). They wanted to build the framework for more lasting peace so they created the United Nations (UN). This body represented the worlds people in all countries both large and small. After the US agreed to join many states followed. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan. Main aim to resolve disputes, keep peace, human rights issues, women rights issues, child labor, environmental protection, refugees, and aid Cold War began after WWII as a result of the final conferences because Soviet Union expect large lands gains while Britain and the US wanted to limit this and have lands under their influence instead Tehran Conference-Stalin wanted the Allies to focus on USSR and push back Germans, but the Allies decided to invade in France and push back Germans Yalta Conference-Wanted Soviet help against Japan-would give Manchuria and northern Japanese islands to them (waited until 2 days after the 1 st atomic bomb was dropped to declare war on Japan), divided up Germany into various zones, created the UN, and Polish liberation

46 Occupation zones of Germany in 1945.

47 Post war conferences/ outcomes Potsdam Truman told Stalin of new weapon (although didnt mention it was atomic). Stalin still waited too long to join effort…no land gains. Stalin wanted to gain reparations payments from Germany to rebuilt his country that had been devastated by war. Austria divided and occupied- independent in 1956 Japan occupied by US after war Korea divided into 2 zones: Soviet and US Old colonial areas returned, but many succumbed quickly to nationalistic movements China regained its lands-but quickly thrown into fight between nationalists and communists India, Middle East, and Africa helped in fighting during war and changes were expected. Soviet Union pressed boundaries Westward-gained lands lost after WWI back. Communist governments forced on the people with soldiers to back it up. US influence over western European nations grew as did too economic aid Stage of 2 Great Changes: 1) Decolonizatin 2) Cold War

48 Nationalism and Decolonization Watching fellow Asians (Japanese) capture and conquered Europeans destroyed illusion of white superiority. Death marches like Bataan furthered this. However, the Japanese were very harsh and demanded much of locals. Locals began to realized that self-rule was the only way to go. US and Soviets both condemned colonies (Atlantic Charter of 1941) India: National Congress said theyd support Allies during WWII if the British would grant them independence-idea rejected by Churchill. Quit India movement -summer mass campaigns of civil disobedience. British responded with repression and imprisoned main leaders like Gandhi. Muslim League in India did support British during war. They were led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. They won much favor in the British government and began advocating a separate Muslim state in the subcontinent. In 1945 Winston Churchill was defeated and the Labour government came to power. They were willing to give India independence. In 1947 the British handed power over to the Congress leaders who headed the new government of India AND to Jinnah who became the first president of Pakistan. Fighting did occur between various religious fractions and thousands lost their lives in this power transition. Gandhi was killed Jan. 30, 1948 by a Hindu fanatic Soon Burma (Myanmar) and Ceylon (Sri Lanka) followed. As British let go the Dutch and French still tried to hold out on their colonies, but eventually lost out to independence movements US-prior to war working on independence in Philippines-got lots of help from locals and quick to give independence after war for this.

49 Nonsettler Africa War pressures (forced labor, confiscation of crops and minerals, and inflations) and African recruits who killed Europeans and saw their losses to Japan shattered the colonizers reputation for military prowess (they could be beat-look at France) Industrial development started in Africa- something that had been restricted. These factories attracted unemployed Africans from the countryside. Migrations caused large urban growth coupled with idle workers! 2 paths (1 st -Nkrumah, 2 nd -negotiations) Kwame Nkrumah (British Coast colony) launched decolonization process. Radical and well educated African leader-many others didnt want to tap into civil unrest of lower class out of fear of being kicked out of British legislature, but not Nkrumah. He established his own political party (Convention Peoples Party CPP) and organized mass rallies, boycotts, and strikes. By 1957 The British recognized Nkrumah as the prime minister of an independent Ghana French and Belgian African gained independence a little differently. France had ongoing negotiations that lead to reforms and concessions and eventually independence. In this process, however, ties to France were kept economically and culturally. By 1960 all of Frances west African colonies were free. Belgians just left the Congo-no real nationalistic pressure for few well educated individuals. Congo became independent in 1960 (only 16 African college graduates in a population of 13 million!!!!) By mid 1960s the European colonial era had come to an end

50 Repression and Guerrilla War-Settler Colonies No peaceful decolonization in settler colonies (Kenya, South Africa, and Algeria). Settlers blocked indigenous nationalist movements Settlers saw this as their permanent home and refused to give power or civil rights to African majority. Refused colonial reforms to give back lands to indigenous Africans Non-violent ways were forbidden and local leaders afraid of angering settler minority so African nationalists turned to violence! Kenya-1950s-(failure of non- violence led by Jomo Kenyatta and the Kenya African Union (KAU) led to a radical leaders and the formation of the Land Freedom Army In 1954 Land Freedom Army had 20,000 rebels in Nairobi – they mounted terror campaign against British, settlers, and African collaborators. Military response by British and imprisonment of non-violent leadership-no alternative? Defeated rebels in However the rebels wore on British and they were willing to negotiate-Kenyatta released from prison. In 1963 Kenya won its independence with Kenyattas one party rule until the 1980s-stable and prosperous.

51 Algeria-French regarded it as part of its nation-like a province. National Liberation Front (FLN) (1950s) revolt against French rule and settler dominance. Rebels were defeated, but they gradually negotiated the independence of Algeria. De Gaulle felt that too many resources were going towards the conflict in Algeria and that the country was being drained. Violent settler backlash-Secret Army Organization (OAS) directed against Arabs, Berbers, and French that supported independence (1 million settlers) Algerians finally won their independence in 1962 after a bitter civil war, but multiracial accommodations couldnt be made after such violence –about 900,000 left the new nation. Many harkis or Arabs and Berbers fled to France. Angola and Mozambique became independent in 1975 and Zimbabwe by (violent revolutions against settlers) South Africa-largest settler population (4.5 million vs. 23 mill African and 3.5 East Indian etc). Afrikaners also didnt have a connection back to a European homeland b/c many had been there longer than the existence of the US! (had no where to go-saw themselves different than Dutch)… very racist. The British beat the Afrikaners in the Boer war (1902) but gave some concessions due to guilt over Boer women and children death-they allowed the Afrikaners to have internal political control-included fate of African majority-continued subjugation of Africans. Afrikaner National Party-moved towards independence from Britain which happened in Afterwards Afrikaners began a system of racial segregation- apartheid –legally established by thousands of laws: reserved best jobs for whites, only whites could vote, stopped meetings, rallies, political parties, and labor union of Africans. Limited African education.

52 Conflicting Nationalism Egypt, Iraq, and Syria became independent between the wars Hitlers final solution had provided support for Zionists plus many countries didnt allow Jews to immigrate and felt guilty for causing their deaths Immigration to Palestine grew as Hitler killed more and more Jews. In the Palestine Arab resistance to Jewish settlement grew-riots and violent assaults on Zionist communities. British began to restrict immigration to the colony. (Remember its a British mandate now) British put down major Muslim revolt and tried to stem flow of Jews into Palestine. Jews in Palestine responded with violence to the British who were trying to keep Jewish immigration down during a time of Nazi oppression against Jews. They formed their own Zionist military force, Haganah, as well as other terrorist organizations. By end of WWII stalemate-Zionists wanted a state, Palestinian Arabs wanted a multi-religious nation in which Arabs held power. Possible solution-partition 1948 United Nations agreed to the partitioning of the Palestine between the Palestinian Arabs and the Jews. Soon after the Palestinians and Israelis were fighting and the Israelis surprised everyone by being better armed and better prepared. They held onto their tiny country, but expanded it by taking over Arab lands. It created hundreds of thousands of Palestinian Arab refugees and cemented the hostilities between Palestinians and Israelis into the future.

53 Global Connections Fall of colonial order not a surprise because of post WWI nationalistic activities Independence many times was a transfer of power from one elite to another and was typically peaceful Limited social and economic changes occurred to help the majority of people in these countries-some land redistribution but only in Kenya, Zimbabwe, and Algeria) Educational reforms-more science and African history- communication continued in many placed in European languages though (cultural influences still there to this day) Liberation didnt change economic dominance of Western countries-leaders often explicitly promised to protect Western trade interests Consequences of colonial rule still prevalent.

54 Works Cited Sukarno Franco of.jpg&imgrefurl= Ou31y8vLKYod8qg5UM=&h=437&w=327&sz=28&hl=en&start=1&itbs=1&tbnid=h67MMETF33fRLM:&tbnh=126&tbnw=94&prev=/imag es%3Fq%3Drape%2Bof%2Bnanjing%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dstrict%26sa%3DG%26gbv%3D2%26tbs%3Disch:1

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