2 IntroductionMuslims are agreed that the sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) is the second of the two revealed fundamental sources of Islam.During the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and after his death , his companions used to refer to him directly, when quoting his sayings.
3 IntroductionThe next generation to Tabi’een (successors) used to follow their steps and quote the Prophet (peace be upon him ) directly, while others would still mention the link. ( he is usually a Sahabi or senior Tabi’ee)After the fitnah (civil war) happened , some sects appeared within the Muslim nation.
4 IntroductionVarious groups supported their views by fabricating some ahadeeth.The need for verification of each Hadith arose.Imam Malik (d.179) said : “ The first one to utilize the Isnad/sanad was Ibn Shihab Alzuhri (d.124)
5 IntroductionA hadith is composed of two parts: the matn (text) and the isnad / sanad ( chain of reporters)A text may seem to be logical and reasonable but needs an authentic isnad with reliable reporters to be acceptable.
6 IntroductionImam Abdullah ibn Al-Mubarak (d.181).H said: “The isnad is part of the religion, had it not been for the isnad, whoever wished to, would have said what ever he likes.”
7 IntroductionIbn Sireen (d.110) said:” They would not ask about the isnad, but when the fitnah happened they said: Name to us your men. So the narrations of Ahla-alsunnah would be accepted, while those of Ahl-albida’h would not be accepted.”
9 A brief history of Mustalah al-Hadith As time passed, more reporters were involved in each isnad / sanad.The situation demanded strict discipline in the acceptance of Ahadith.The set of rules governing this area of knowledge is called “Mustalah al-Hadith.”
10 A brief history of Mustalah al-Hadith Among the early writing about these rules, the work of Al-Imam Ashafie (d.204) in his book called Al-Risalah, Imam Muslim (d.261) in his introduction to his sahih and the notes found in Jami Atthirmithi (d.279)
11 A brief history of Mustalah al-Hadith The first work that was comprehensive and purely dedicated to the rules of Mustalah Al-Hadith is what was written by Al-Ramahurmuzi (d.360)[المحدث الفاصل بين الراوي والسامع].
12 A brief history of Mustalah al-Hadith The next major contribution was Ma’rifat Ulum Al-hadeeth by Al-Hakim (d.405) H. He covered fifty classifications of Hadith, but still he left some points untouched.Abu Nu’aim Al-asbahani (d.430) completed some of the missing work.
13 A brief history of Mustalah al-Hadith Then came Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdadi (d.463) with his work Al-Kifayah fi ilm Al-Riwayah.(الكفاية في علم الرواية)and his 2nd work (Al-Jami’ Li-Akhlaaq Al-raawy wa Adab Al-sami’)( الجامع لأخلاق الراوي وآداب السامع)
14 A brief history of Mustalah al-Hadith Then came Al-Qadi Iyad (d.544) with his work(الإلماع في ضبط الرواية وقوانين السماع)“ Al-lma’ Fi thabth Al-riwayah wa Kawaneen Al-sama’ “
15 A brief history of Mustalah al-Hadith Then came Ibn salaah (d.643) with his famous work ”علوم الحديث““ the science of Hadith” commonly known as Muqadimah Ibn al-salah, it contained series of lessons taught by Ibn Alsalah in Al-Ashrafiyah School in Damascus.
16 A brief history of Mustalah al-Hadith Imam Al-nawawi (d.774) summarized Al-muqqadimah in a book called Al-Irshad, and then he summarized Al-Irshad in his book Al-taqrib (التقريب)Imam As-suyouti wrote a commentary on Al-taqrib and called it Tadrib al-Rawy
17 Classification of Hadith According to the reference to a particular authority