2IntroductionMuslims are agreed that the sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) is the second of the two revealed fundamental sources of Islam.During the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and after his death , his companions used to refer to him directly, when quoting his sayings.
3IntroductionThe next generation to Tabi’een (successors) used to follow their steps and quote the Prophet (peace be upon him ) directly, while others would still mention the link. ( he is usually a Sahabi or senior Tabi’ee)After the fitnah (civil war) happened , some sects appeared within the Muslim nation.
4IntroductionVarious groups supported their views by fabricating some ahadeeth.The need for verification of each Hadith arose.Imam Malik (d.179) said : “ The first one to utilize the Isnad/sanad was Ibn Shihab Alzuhri (d.124)
5IntroductionA hadith is composed of two parts: the matn (text) and the isnad / sanad ( chain of reporters)A text may seem to be logical and reasonable but needs an authentic isnad with reliable reporters to be acceptable.
6IntroductionImam Abdullah ibn Al-Mubarak (d.181).H said: “The isnad is part of the religion, had it not been for the isnad, whoever wished to, would have said what ever he likes.”
7IntroductionIbn Sireen (d.110) said:” They would not ask about the isnad, but when the fitnah happened they said: Name to us your men. So the narrations of Ahla-alsunnah would be accepted, while those of Ahl-albida’h would not be accepted.”
9A brief history of Mustalah al-Hadith As time passed, more reporters were involved in each isnad / sanad.The situation demanded strict discipline in the acceptance of Ahadith.The set of rules governing this area of knowledge is called “Mustalah al-Hadith.”
10A brief history of Mustalah al-Hadith Among the early writing about these rules, the work of Al-Imam Ashafie (d.204) in his book called Al-Risalah, Imam Muslim (d.261) in his introduction to his sahih and the notes found in Jami Atthirmithi (d.279)
11A brief history of Mustalah al-Hadith The first work that was comprehensive and purely dedicated to the rules of Mustalah Al-Hadith is what was written by Al-Ramahurmuzi (d.360)[المحدث الفاصل بين الراوي والسامع].
12A brief history of Mustalah al-Hadith The next major contribution was Ma’rifat Ulum Al-hadeeth by Al-Hakim (d.405) H. He covered fifty classifications of Hadith, but still he left some points untouched.Abu Nu’aim Al-asbahani (d.430) completed some of the missing work.
13A brief history of Mustalah al-Hadith Then came Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdadi (d.463) with his work Al-Kifayah fi ilm Al-Riwayah.(الكفاية في علم الرواية)and his 2nd work (Al-Jami’ Li-Akhlaaq Al-raawy wa Adab Al-sami’)( الجامع لأخلاق الراوي وآداب السامع)
14A brief history of Mustalah al-Hadith Then came Al-Qadi Iyad (d.544) with his work(الإلماع في ضبط الرواية وقوانين السماع)“ Al-lma’ Fi thabth Al-riwayah wa Kawaneen Al-sama’ “
15A brief history of Mustalah al-Hadith Then came Ibn salaah (d.643) with his famous work ”علوم الحديث““ the science of Hadith” commonly known as Muqadimah Ibn al-salah, it contained series of lessons taught by Ibn Alsalah in Al-Ashrafiyah School in Damascus.
16A brief history of Mustalah al-Hadith Imam Al-nawawi (d.774) summarized Al-muqqadimah in a book called Al-Irshad, and then he summarized Al-Irshad in his book Al-taqrib (التقريب)Imam As-suyouti wrote a commentary on Al-taqrib and called it Tadrib al-Rawy
17Classification of Hadith According to the reference to a particular authority