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Unit 7 MODERN WORLD HISTORY.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 7 MODERN WORLD HISTORY."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 7 MODERN WORLD HISTORY

2 Unit 7 Agenda Day 1 – Cold War
Day 2 – Conflicts After 1945: Korea; Vietnam & Israel/Palestine Day 3 - End of the Cold War & China After Mao

3 The World after 1945 Israeli & Palestinian Conflict Cold War
United Nations vs. League of Nations NATO & Warsaw Pact Building of the Berlin Wall Hungarian dissidents defeated Reaction to the Czech uprising of 1968 Containment Brinkmanship Détente Cold War Conflicts – Korea and Vietnam Israeli & Palestinian Conflict Lord Balfour’s Declaration Collapse of the Soviet Union – Gorbachev’s Reforms Glasnost Perestroika Foreign policy democratization Post Mao China – Deng’s 4 Modernizations Tiananmen Square

4 Differing ideologies of the USSR & USA
Communism Basic Principles -Marxist-Leninist ideas, dictatorship of the proletariat Political - Internationalistic, one party rule, supreme leader Social - Supported by workers and peasants Cultural - Censorship, indoctrination, secret police Economic - Collective ownership, centralized state planning Capitalism/Democracy Basic Principles – Democratic, individual rights Political – National elections of leaders, multi party rule Social – Supported by citizens Cultural – individualistic, freedom of expression and from tyranny Economic – Individual wealth, capitalistic economy with some restrictions, opportunity to become wealthy

5 The Cold War The state of diplomatic hostility between the United States and the Soviet Union in the decades following World War II.

6 Differing Goals of USSR and USA:
Encourage communism Rebuild war ravaged economy using satellite nations Control eastern Europe to balance US influence Keep GR divided to prevent war Encourage democracy Gain access to raw materials for industry Rebuild Europe to create new markets Reunite GR to stabilize it and increase security

7 The Start of the Cold War
The Yalta Conference (Feb. ’45) Dropping the bomb (Aug. ’45) Who are “The Big Three”

8 Yalta Conf. : leaders of GB, US & USSR
Agreed to divide Germany into 3 zones of occupation Germany would have to pay USSR reparations Satellite nations under Stalin would have free elections Stalin agreed to help in war with Japan

9 Germany and Berlin Divided into two parts, East and West
East Germany, East Berlin – Soviet control (communist) West Germany, West Berlin – Allied control 1961 construction of the Berlin Wall –becomes a symbol of the Cold War

10 What were the satellite nations?
Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, Yugoslavia A wall of nations that was to shield the USSR from invasion.

11 Satellite Nations:

12 June 1945 Creation of the United Nations
Replaces the FAILED League of Nations World peace-keeping body “to save succeeding nations from the scourge of war” Security Council : US, USSR, GB, China & France

13 Potsdam Conference July 1945
Truman – “I went to Pottsdam with the kindliest feeling toward Russia – in a year and a half they cured me of it”. Stalin – “Communism and capitalism cannot exist in the same world. War between the two is inevitable.” Stalin doesn’t keep his promises from Yalta -refuses free elections in satellite nations

14 “The IRON CURTAIN” “…an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe… All these famous cities and the populations around them lie in the Soviet sphere and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and increasing measure of control from Moscow.” Winston Churchill, March, ‘46

15 Satellite Nations:

16 NATO – 1949 & Warsaw Pact - 1955 Cold War Rivals:
1949 – North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) – alliance of 10 Western European nations, US & Canada Promised to meet an attack on any NATO member with armed force. Warsaw Pact – alliance of Soviet satellite countries (Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, and East Germany) to protect against Capitalist attack

17 First World – nations aligned with the US
Dividing the Globe First World – nations aligned with the US Second World – nations aligned with the USSR Third World – non aligned nations

18 Cold War – USSR In the post war years, the Soviets kept a firm grip on satellite nations – Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania and East Germany After the Death of Stalin, March of 1953, more moderate leaders come to power During the 50’s and 60’s, Eastern European nations try to gain more autonomy and independence

19 Soviets Dominate Eastern Europe: Nikita Khrushchev
Denounces Stalin Enacts de-Stalinization (purging the country of Stalin’s memory) program Nevertheless resentment in the satellite countries still builds… Soviet policies greatly hampered Eastern Europe’s economic recovery

20 Soviet Union puts down reform protests
Cold War Dissidents (those who protest Soviet policies) - not tolerated by USSR leadership: 1956 in Hungary Imre Nagy forms a new government Response of Soviet Union – Soviet forces overpowered the Hungary’s freedom fighters USSR leader, Nikita Khrushchev replaced Nagy’s gov’t and had him executed

21 Nikita Khrushchev

22 More Protests for Reform in the Soviet Union
Cold War Dissidents (those who protest Soviet policies) - not tolerated by USSR leadership: 1964 Alexander Dubcek’s Czechoslovakia invaded by member countries of the Warsaw Pact – USSR leader - Brezhnev – claimed Soviet right to prevent its satellites from rejecting communism

23 Leonid Brezhnev

24 Containment & Brinkmanship
Containment Policy (Pres. Truman): 1949 US Proposal for dealing with the Soviet Union “The communist government will break down if we contain it”. (examples: Greece, Turkey, Korea) Brinkmanship Policy (Pres. Eisenhower): 1953 Eisenhower becomes US president -1953 US secretary of state John Foster Dulles – begins policy of “brinkmanship”. If the USSR or its supporters attack US interests, the US would be willing to go to the edge or “brink” of war with the USSR. Examples: Cuban Missile Crisis & War in Vietnam

25 From Brinkmanship to Detente
In the 1970’s both the US and USSR backed away from aggressive policies of “Brinkmanship” Moved toward a period of lowered tensions US embraces DÉTENTE – President Nixon adopted this policy of reducing COLD WAR tensions

26 COLD WAR CONFLICTS: KOREA & VIETNAM

27 1950 Korean war begins Soviets in charge in North, US in South
North invaded the south

28 1950 Causes Truman to agree about a conspiracy that the Soviets are trying to take over and spread communism Idea that can’t just contain them any more but must roll them back

29

30 1950 UN ordered troops to help South Korea
Any part of the world is a potential battlefield

31 Korean War Korea 1. Why was Korea divided at the 38th parallel? Split b/w US/USSR What nation surrendered this territory? Communist Industrial North Non Communist Rural South How was it divided? Japan How did the US and the UN react? 2. What happened in June of 1950? Followed policy of containment and sent an army to oppose N.K invaded S.K Chinese felt threatened when American troops were near border Why did Truman disagree with MacArthur over military policy? 3. Why did China send 300,000 troops to aid N. Korea? thought it would be reckless - start world war Both US and Soviet Union involvement stemmed from each nations goals for the Cold War signed a cease fire agreement and divided Korea along 38th parallel Why is this war considered a Cold War conflict? 4. What was the result?

32 Korean War Neither side gained an advantage in the 3 year war July 1953 – UN forces and North Korea signed a cease-fire agreement. Both North Korea and South Korea remain divided today North Korea – remains communist South Korea – 1987 adopted a democratic constitution and held free elections

33 US perspective: “A defeat for freedom anywhere is a defeat for freedom everywhere”

34 Vietnam = French colony never under one solidified gov’t before
1945 Japanese withdraw from Vietnam – French want their colony back… 1954 groups of Vietnamese succeeded in overthrowing the French

35 Ho Chi Minh claims to be a communist
Vietnam US supports France through funds because Vietnam’s revolutionary leader of the Nationalist group, the Vietminh Ho Chi Minh claims to be a communist

36 Communist & Nationalist Revolutionary

37 a freedom fighter who asked the Communists for help against French
Vietnam War Vietnam 1 . Why was America supplying financial aid, advisors, etc to Vietnam? Cold War superpowers (US/USSR) struggling for power in Indochina Was Vietnam once a French Colony? Yes Who was Ho Chi Minh? a freedom fighter who asked the Communists for help against French 2. When the Japanese lost World War Two, did Ho Chi Minh believe Vietnam would be free? Yes What was the Vietminh? Vietnam Independence League (Nationalist/Communists united against the French How did Vietnam get divided at the 17th parallel? Geneva peace talks divided Vietnam 3. When the French lost control in 1954, why did America get involved? domino theory 4. Who was the leader in the North and the South? Ho Chi Minh –north & Ngo Dinh Diem in south What was the Vietcong? Communist guerillas who hated Diem and his policies What was the Gulf of Tonkin resolution? after an incident where N. Vietnamese ships attacked American ships - America escalates involvement in Vietnam in 1965

38 Domino Theory- explains US involvement in Vietnam
“You have a row of dominoes set up, and you knock over the first one, and what will happen to the last one is the certainty that it will go over very quickly” Pres. Eisenhower explaining why the US needed to stop the Communists in Vietnam

39 Vietnam is divided at the 17th parallel
A Divided Vietnam… France is defeated & the Geneva Conference divides Vietnam in two with US supporting the South and the USSR supporting the North Vietnam is divided at the 17th parallel

40

41 a freedom fighter who asked the Communists for help against French
Vietnam War Vietnam 1 . Why was America supplying financial aid, advisors, etc to Vietnam? Cold War superpowers (US/USSR) struggling for power in Indochina Was Vietnam once a French Colony? Yes Who was Ho Chi Minh? a freedom fighter who asked the Communists for help against French 2. When the Japanese lost World War Two, did Ho Chi Minh believe Vietnam would be free? Yes What was the Vietminh? Vietnam Independence League (Nationalist/Communists united against the French How did Vietnam get divided at the 17th parallel? Geneva peace talks divided Vietnam 3. When the French lost control in 1954, why did America get involved? domino theory 4. Who was the leader in the North and the South? Ho Chi Minh –north & Ngo Dinh Diem in south What was the Vietcong? Communist guerillas who hated Diem and his policies What was the Gulf of Tonkin resolution? after an incident where N. Vietnamese ships attacked American ships - America escalates involvement in Vietnam in 1965

42 South Vietnam gets US support…
US pours a lot of money into effort and sends advisors to help police and military in S. Vietnam become more effective By 1963 US loses confidence in leader of S. Viet (Ngo Dinh Diem) and so, the US supports a military coup

43 US Escalates Involvement in War
By 1965 – 15, US advisors are involved Can’t withdraw now and have to increase effort to win Gulf of Tonkin Resolution begin with bombing, therefore needed air force, bases, Marines, military to fight the VIETCONG (communist guerillas)

44 a freedom fighter who asked the Communists for help against French
Vietnam War Vietnam 1 . Why was America supplying financial aid, advisors, etc to Vietnam? Cold War superpowers (US/USSR) struggling for power in Indochina Was Vietnam once a French Colony? Yes Who was Ho Chi Minh? a freedom fighter who asked the Communists for help against French 2. When the Japanese lost World War Two, did Ho Chi Minh believe Vietnam would be free? Yes What was the Vietminh? Vietnam Independence League (Nationalist/Communists united against the French How did Vietnam get divided at the 17th parallel? Geneva peace talks divided Vietnam 3. When the French lost control in 1954, why did America get involved? domino theory 4. Who was the leader in the North and the South? Ho Chi Minh –north & Ngo Dinh Diem in south What was the Vietcong? Communist guerillas who hated Diem and his policies What was the Gulf of Tonkin resolution? after an incident where N. Vietnamese ships attacked American ships - America escalates involvement in Vietnam in 1965

45 1965 – internal documents listed the following
Reasons for Vietnam 1965 – internal documents listed the following 10% - freedom/independence for Vietnam 20% - to avoid Vietnam going to the communists 70% - to avoid a humiliating US defeat

46

47 The End of the Vietnam War
U.S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.S. Congress. The capture of Saigon by the Vietnam People's Army in April 1975 marked the end of the war and North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year.

48 The Fall of Saigon

49 Post War Vietnam Vietnam is still governed by Communists today. However the country now welcomes foreign investment - much of these investments come from the US. As of December 2007, Vietnam had established diplomatic relations with 172 countries (including the United States, which normalized relations in 1995).

50 Palestine/Israel: Post World War II Conflicts

51

52 Zionists, Ottoman Empire, WWI
People who favor a Jewish homeland in Palestine They had settled in this region in the 1800’s and 1900’s Ottoman empire owned this area until WWI After WWI, Great Britain was asked by the League of Nations to oversee Palestine until it was ready for independence

53 Balfour Declaration Made in 1917 by Britain’s foreign secretary Balfour - Britain’s “promise” to support the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine and to be respectful to existing population. Two sides could not work together – Jews and Palestinians Britain called for a partition of the country and then left the matter to the United Nations The UN, in 1947, called for a partition of Palestine into a Palestinian state and a Jewish state

54 Division of Palestine after WWII
Sets off bitter disputes in the Middle East The division was ordered to accommodate the creation of Israel

55 1947 partition

56 The State of Israel is Formed
The United Nations, established after WWII, called for a partition of Palestine into a Palestinian state and a Jewish state. Islamic countries voted against partition and Palestinians rejected it outright. May 14, 1948, The formation of Israel The day after, 6 Arab states invaded Israel

57 Promises to Jews and Palestinians?
Palestinians feared that an increasing number of Jewish immigrants would result in hardships for them Jews wanted a Jewish nation carved out of Palestine

58 Israel and Palestine differ
Israel wants a nation in Palestine because: It had been their historical and religious homeland Palestinians lay claim to this territory as their historical and religious homeland too! Balfour Declaration –Great Britain officially recognized Jewish interest in Palestine. Palestinians want an independent nation-the PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization) has been set-up to meet that goal. Palestine (Gaza strip/West Bank) is not yet an independent country. The two parts of "Palestine" are entities that, in the eyes of the international community, have yet to develop or have international recognition to be considered a full independent country.

59 The End of the Cold War & Collapse of the USSR

60 The Collapse of the Soviet Union
Mikhail Gorbachev comes to power in 1982 He will fundamentally change the USSR with his policies of Perestroika and Glasnost Perestroika: economic restructuring Glasnost: openness, allowed for the FREE flow of ideas and information

61 Reforms in Poland, 1989 Gorbachev’s policies cue the satellite nations that change can come Poland – Union of workers called Solidarity call for reforms in Communist State Enough pressure was put on government for change 1989 – first free elections democratically elects Lech Walesa as president Communism is out

62 Hungary, 1989 Inspired by Poland, reforms are encouraged
Private enterprise, stock market, new constitution Communist party dissolves itself under pressure and national elections brings in a democratic govt

63 Fall of the Berlin Wall, 1989 East Germany tried to resist change going on in Poland and Hungary Hungary allowed East Germans to cross border into Austria and into West Germany East Germany closes border completely Protests erupt Pressure allows Berlin Wall to fall Communist party dissolves

64 Fall of the Berlin Wall, 1989

65 Collapse of the Soviet Union
Gorbachev was in charge as Eastern European nations break away Now those within the Soviet Union, like Lithuania, try to break away from Soviet Union Horrifies many of the hardliner or hard core communists Try to overthrow Gorbachev – August Coup

66 Boris Yeltsin First elected president of Russia
After the failure of the August Coup, Yeltsin dissolves the Communist party Gorbachev resigns USSR become Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) (1991)

67 Video End of the Cold War with USSR Collapse of the Soviet Union Youtube video

68 Post Mao China China After Mao Video – Discovery Education

69 China Mao’s legacy Five year Plans Communes
Fallout from the Cultural Revolution – Red Guard Stagnant economy / agriculture

70 Economic disaster Facing enormous economic challenges –change comes to China Deng emerges as leader of China in 1978 (he would act as leader until 1992) FYI:: Deng Xiaoping  Jiang Zemin  Hu Jintao

71 Economic Recovery Facing enormous economic challenges –change comes to China – Deng’s FOUR MODERNIZATIONS (policy for progress in agriculture, industry, defense, and science/technology)

72 Deng’s Crackdown on Human Rights: Tiananmen Square
A huge public space in Beijing, China in 1989, the site of a student protest or uprising in support of democratic reforms. “Down with corruption” “Down with dictatorship” and “Long live democracy!” Deng Xiaoping ordered more than 250,000 troops to surround Beijing. Tanks smashed through June 4, 1989. Soldiers sprayed gunfire. Killed 100s wounded 1,000s. Arrested over 10,000 people


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