Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

High Middle Ages- part I: The Growth of Royal Power

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "High Middle Ages- part I: The Growth of Royal Power"— Presentation transcript:

1 High Middle Ages- part I: The Growth of Royal Power
Honors Western Civilization Mrs. Civitella

2 I. Growth of Royal Power During the Early Middle Ages- 500-1300 A.D.:
Feudal Power Church Power Lords offered protection Owned huge amounts of land Nobles ruled their own courts Church courts heard cases involving clergy and Canon Law Coined their own money Had their own army Could raise armies

3 II. Trade led to an increase in Royal power
Feudal warfare disrupted trade The new middle class (merchants living in trading cities) preferred powerful kings who encouraged trade: Reduced tolls on trade routes Reduced sales taxes Kings established royal courts Royal courts administered uniform laws throughout the country


5 III. Trade benefited kings
Wealthier towns could be more heavily taxed Paid soldiers were hired for royal armies (lessened the dependence on feudal lords for military protection of the kingdom) Monarchs took advantage of political, economic, and social changes to centralize power


7 IV. The Anglo-Saxons The Norman Conquest
1066 Anglo-Saxon Edward the Confessor died without an heir to the throne Three rival kings all claimed rights to the throne One of the claimants was William, the Duke of Normandy A cousin of the Edward Descendant of the Vikings (tough) Vassal of the French king Held a feudal stronghold in northwestern France

8 Battle of Hastings Gathering a force of several hundred boats and some 6,000 soldiers, he invaded England in 1066 A.D. He had the backing of the Pope William defeated Harold, the king chosen by the Anglo-Saxon nobles, on Christmas Day 1066 The victory gave William the English crown and the title William the Conqueror



11 V. The Growth of Royal Power
A. William I was very involved in the decisions of his kingdom He took Anglo-Saxon lands and kept some for himself Gave some land to his Norman (French) vassals in return for military service Gave some land to the Church He required every vassal to swear allegiance to him (instead of a feudal lord)

12 Growth of royal power continued
In 1086, William had a complete census taken to determine taxable wealth This was the first census of western Europe taken since Roman times Every person, manor, and farm animal was counted The census data was recorded in the Domesday Book



15 VI. A blending of English and French culture
William I’s court and nobles were French-speaking England’s population remained largely Anglo-Saxon Over the next 300 years Norman French and Anglo-Saxon ways blended to form a new English culture

16 4. William’s heirs increase royal power
Henry I, William’s son (ruled ) created the royal exchequer, or treasury to efficiently collect taxes Henry I expanded the power of royal courts by sending circuit judges into the countryside In each town, a circuit judge ordered juries to report on crimes and disputes

17 5. Henry II established an early jury system
The jurors made their decisions based on whatever facts were generally known Eventually two types of juries developed: grand jury- decided what cases would be brought to trial trial jury- gave verdicts on the cases

18 VII. Common Law and dependence on the King
Any free man could bring a case before a royal court These court decisions became the basis for common law Accepted legal principles were applied to everyone throughout England Royal courts increased the people’s dependence on the King Fees and fines of the court increased the treasury of the King

19 VIII. Henry II vs. Thomas Becket
Henry II came into power in England in 1154 In 1162 Henry II made Thomas Becket the Archbishop of Canterbury Becket had been a long-time advisor and friend to the King Prior to Henry’s reforms, members of the clergy who were accused of a crime could claim “benefit of the clergy” and were tried in Church courts Church punishments were much less severe than those of feudal or royal courts In 1162 Henry declared that everyone, even clergy, must be tried for crimes in royal courts

20 Henry II vs. Thomas Becket
Becket protested and claimed that clergy were not subject to royal laws and royal courts Becket excommunicated one of Henry’s vassals This meant that the vassal could no longer serve in the royal army This put the Church and the King in direct conflict with one another

21 In 1170 Henry ordered four of his knights to execute Becket
They assassinated Becket in Canterbury Cathedral after he finished mass The assassination backfired on Henry The English people were upheld that Becket was murdered He became a martyr


23 IX. Becket the Martyr The Church made Thomas Becket as saint
Miracles were said to have taken place at his tomb Canterbury Cathedral became a major pilgrimage and tourist site in England Henry backed down on the issue of clergy being tried in royal courts


25 X. King John and the Magna Carta
John (Henry II’s youngest son) reigned from He inherited a huge debt John believed that the nobles in England were plotting against him In 1204 John lost the region of Normandy to France He spent much of his reign trying to get it back

26 XI The Magna Carta John put enormous taxes on the English people in an attempt to get out of debt and fight the war He alienated the Church by not accepting the Pope’s nominee for archbishop of Canterbury Pope Innocent III placed all of England under an interdict- no one in the country could receive any sacraments In 1214, the nobles revolted and forced John to sign the Magna Cart “Great Charter”

27 Magna Carta significance
Spelled out the rights of the nobility Stated that the king was subject to the same rules of law as the nobility The foundation for all constitutional government Written on parchment in Latin Copies were sent to churches throughout England

28 Four times a year, the sheriffs had it read aloud in the county courts
After John’s death in 1216, the Magna Carta was modified and reissued

29 XII. The development of Parliament
The new middle class (those engaged in business, craftsmanship, or trade) began to play an increasing role in European society Henry III added townspeople (called Burgesses) to the Great Council that advised the king In 1295, Edward called representatitives from the clergy, nobility and burgesses into session

30 Parliament continued This new legislative body was called the Model Parliament By 1400, Parliament had divided into two chambers: House of Lords- nobles and clergy House of Commons- knights and burgesses


32 Separation of powers Eventually Parliament would be given the “power of the purse”, meaning the right to approve any new taxes The “power of the purse” allowed Parliament to provide an important check on royal power

33 XII. Monarchs in France In 987, the Capetians (ruling family in France) made the throne hereditary Won support of the Catholic Church Built an efficient system of government agencies to carry out the King’s policy called a bureaucracy collected taxes enforced royal law

34 XIII. The Estates General
Philip IV established a legislature in France in 1302 The Estates General had three types of representatives: first estate- clergy second estate- nobles & the middle class third estate- peasants and unskilled laborers


36 XIV. The Holy Roman Empire
Unlike England and France, Germany remained divided because of disputes between the emperor, the pope, and powerful German nobles In 1122, the pope and the emperor reached a settlement about choosing bishops


38 The Holy Roman Empire vs. the Church
The emperor could appoint bishops and give them land The pope could reject a candidate that they found unworthy During the 1100s and 1200s Holy Roman emperors tried to gain control of Italy The pope and his Italian nobles defeated the Germans

39 In 284, emperor Diocletian divided the empire into two parts to make
it easier to govern. He kept control of the wealthier eastern part but appointed a co-emperor to rule the western provinces


41 XV. The Byzantine Empire
After the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 A. D., the western region of the Roman Empire fell leading to the “dark ages” The eastern part of the empire did not fall, it became known as the Byzantine Empire The capital was Constantinople (named for the Roman Emperor Constantine

42 Byzantine Empire 395-1453 A.D. Strengths of the Empire:
Efficient government Loyal, well-trained army Strong economy (trade flourished) Constantinople became the center of world commerce (trade)

43 The Byzantine Empire

44 E. Fall of the Byzantine Empire
Civil wars over succession weakened the empire Late in the eleventh century, Seljuk Turks (Muslims) invaded Byzantium The Byzantine Empire seeks help from the Roman Catholic Church leading to the crusades By 1453, the Ottoman Empire took Constantinople and changed the name of the capital from Constantinople to Istanbul

Download ppt "High Middle Ages- part I: The Growth of Royal Power"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google