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The Trial of Galileo Galilei

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1 The Trial of Galileo Galilei

2 The Inquisition In the 12th century, a fight against heresy began by several institutions within the justice=system of the Catholic Church. In 1542, the Roman Inquisition was under way. They could torture those who were shown to be heretics. Anything viewed against the church’s views or canon law would be taken seriously and sometimes exterminated. Among the offenses were advances in scientific theory that were considered heresy, because they seemed to contradict the Bible. Among the offenders was Nicolaus Copernicus.

3 Copernicus In1514, Nicolaus Copernicus produces the first feasible model of a sun-centered system. He completed a manuscript and did not want to openly publish his views. He feared backlash from the church and other criticisms. The scientific world was interest in his Hellenistic model of the universe and learned as much as possible, while this began to be an issue for the Catholic church.

4 Galileo Galilei Copernicus’ theory was being scrutinized and used both others as fact by the time Galileo was born in Pisa, Italy on February 15, He was born to Vencenzo Galilei who was a musician. In 1572, Galileo was baptized in the Pisa cathedral. Two years later, his family moves to Florence.

5 School & Teaching In 1579, Galileo considers to join the monastery of Santa Marla di Vallombrosa, but he decides to enroll at the University of Pisa in the Arts two years later. He studies Euclid’s Elements not at the university. He did not have enough funds to complete his university degree. In 1586, he begins to study and work on physics then goes beyond the work of Archimedes. He started teaching in universities at Pisa, Siena, Padua, and Bolonga.

6 Teaching While Galileo is teaching, his is also doing science and math experiments that test scientific theories. In 1592, he obtains a chair of mathematics at the university of Padua. He was set to lecture on geometry and astronomy, but also to give private lessons in Euclid, arithmetic, fortification, surveying, cosmography, optics, and the use of a sector.

7 Scientific Exploration
In 1595, Galileo develops an explanation of the tides which invokes the annual and diurnal motion of the Earth. This seems to be where his preference for Copernican theory begins.

8 Scientific Exploration
In 1604, Galileo views the new star called the supernova for the first time. He begins to give lectures on the new star a month later at the University of Padua. He believed that the new star was beyond the moon and that it is in the heavens.

9 The Telescope In 1609, Galileo hears about the invention of the telescope that allows you to see far away. He makes a duplicate a month later of a three-powered telescope. With the help of Paolo Sarpi, he creates an eight-powered telescope and is generously rewarded by the University of Padua. He continues to improve the telescope while making celestial observations and observations about the moon.

10 Jupiter In 1610, he starts to make other observations about Jupiter, Jupiter’s satellites, Saturn’s strange appearances, and other star formations.

11 Universe Conclusions In December 1610, Galileo confirms that Venus goes through phases like the Moon. The phases of Venus prove that the Ptolemaic System is false and that Venus goes around the sun, in conformance with the Copernican System. Galileo also pointed out the sun spots to his friend later that year.

12 The Inquisition In December 1614, Tommaso Caccini, a Dominican friar preaches a sermon in Florence against Galileo and mathematicians who subscribe to the Copernican view which, Caccini avers, is heretical. But a month later Caccini apologies in a letter to Galileo.

13 The Inquisition In 1615, Dominican friar Niccolo Lorini, wrote a formal written complaint with the Inquisition against Galileo’s Copernican views. He includes a copy of Galileo’s letter to Castelli. Galileo later that year writes a long letter defending his views to Monsignor Piero Dini, a well connected official in the Vatican. In December, he goes to Rome to defend his Copernican ideas.

14 The Inquisition In 1616, the sun as the center of the universe is considered heretical and absurd by the members of the Inquisition. By orders of Pope Paul V, Cardinal Ballarmine calls Galileo to his residence and administers a warning not to hold or defend the Copernican theory. An unsigned transcript in the Inquisitio fril, discovered in 1633, states that Galileo is also forbidden to discuss the theory orally or in writing .

15 The Inquisition Cardinal Ballarmine writes to Galileo to inform him that he had not been on trial or condemned by the Inquisition. Galileo was still writing and communicating with other scientists. His work on comets was highly sought after

16 The Inquisition In April 1624, Galileo goes to Rome where he has six audiences with Pope Ubran VIII and a number of cardinals. The Pope assured him that he could write about the Copernican theory as long as he treated it as a mathematical hypothesis.

17 The Notification In 1632, Galileo is summoned to Rome over the book Dialogue. Galileo tries to get the meeting in Florence, but is denied. Galileo was too sick and bedridden to go to Rome so a Florentine Inquisitor sent the message to the Inquisition. However, the Inquisition rejects Galileo’s excuse and sends him a notification that if he does not voluntarily come to Rome we will be arrested and brought to Rome in chains. The verses from scripture being used to condemn him were Joshua 10:13, Psalm 19:1-5, Psalm 104:1-5 , Isaiah 40:22.

18 The Crime of Galileo “Whereas you, Galileo, son of the late Vincenzio Galilei, of Florence, aged seventy years, were denounced in 1615, to this Holy Office, for holding as true a false doctrine taught by many, namely, that the sun is immovable in the center of the world, and that the earth moves, and also with a diurnal motion; also, for having pupils whom you instructed in the same opinions; also, for maintaining a correspondence on the same with some German mathematicians; also for publishing certain letters on the sun-spots, in which you developed the same doctrine as true; also, for answering the objections which were continually produced from the Holy Scriptures, by glozing the said Scriptures according to your own meaning; and whereas thereupon was produced the copy of a writing, in form of a letter professedly written by you to a person formerly your pupil, in which, following the hypothesis of Copernicus, you include several propositions contrary to the true sense and authority of the Holy Scriptures…”

19 The Inquisition's Proposal
“Our pleasure that you be absolved, provided that with a sincere heart and unfeigned faith, in Our presence, you abjure, curse, and detest, the said error and heresies, and every other error and heresy contrary to the Catholic and Apostolic Church of Rome.”

20 The Confession In January 1633, he goes to Rome and finally arrives the 13th of February. Galileo stays with a Tuscan ambassador and is forbidden to socialize with others. In April, he is formally interrogated by the Inquisition. He is detained in a building for 18 days. Galileo is allowed to plea guilty to lesser charges to receives a lesser sentence. He confesses on April 30th. He confessed that he may have made the Copernican case in the Dialogue too strong and offers to refute it in his next book.

21 Part of the Actual Confession
“But since I, after having been admonished by this Holy Office entirely to abandon the false opinion that the Sun was the centre of the universe and immoveable, and that the Earth was not the centre of the same and that it moved, and that I was neither to hold, defend, nor teach in any manner whatever, either orally or in writing, the said false doctrine; and after having received a notification that the said doctrine is contrary to Holy Writ, I did write and cause to be printed a book in which I treat of the said already condemned doctrine, and bring forward arguments of much efficacy in its favour, without arriving at any solution: I have been judged vehemently suspected of heresy, that is, of having held and believed that the Sun is the centre of the universe and immoveable, and that the Earth is not the centre of the same, and that it does move.”

22 House Arrest In June, Ubran VIII decided that Galileo should be imprisoned for an indefinite period. Galileo renounces his errors at the Maria Sopra Minerva. He is placed under house arrest at the Tuscan ambassador’s residence. In December, he is allowed to continue his house arrest in Arcetri. I634, he suffers from a hernia and the Pope and Inquisition refuse to let him talk or meet with doctors in Florence. He looses his vision a few years later.

23 The End of His Life In 1638, he become totally blind. He petitions to be free from the Inquisition and it is denied. He is allowed to be transferred to Florence to be closer to doctors. He also is allowed to attend church holidays, but is not allowed to communicate with others. He dies on January 8th, In 1992, the Catholic church finally agrees with Galileo’s once thought heretical views.

24 Quiz 1. What religion was the Inquisition? Protestant Catholic- Muslim

25 Quiz 2. True or False. The Inquisition could kill or torture heretics.

26 Quiz 3. Who proposed that the Earth moves around the sun? Galileo
Johnanes Fabricius Giordano Bruno Nicolaus Copernicus-

27 Quiz 4. What was probably the reason that Copernicus did not share his views widely and immediately? The Catholic Church The Inquisition Criticism from Scientists All of the Above-

28 Quiz 5. Where was Galileo born? Florence, Italy Rome, Italy
Pisa, Italy- Arcentri, Italy

29 Quiz 6. True or False. Galileo never considered to join a monastery.

30 Quiz 7. Where did Galileo first begin teaching? University of Padua-
University of Roma University of Firenze University of Espana

31 Quiz 8. Which did Galileo not make new insights about?
The moon and tides Jupiter C. Saturn D. Venus E. Answer not pictured -

32 Quiz 9. What invention did Galileo not invent, but improve on? Wheel
Thermometer Telescope- Stove

33 Quiz 10. True or False. Tommaso Caccini was a Dominican friar who preached a sermon against Galileo then apologized in a letter later. True- False

34 Quiz 11. Who officially writes the pope and with condemning Galileo with charges of heresy? Tommaso Caccini Niccolo Lorini – Monsignor Piero Dini Cardinal Ballarmine

35 Quiz 12. True or False. By orders of Pope Paul V, Cardinal Ballarmine calls Galileo to his residence and administers a warning not to hold or defend the Copernican theory. True - False

36 Quiz 13. True or False. An unsigned transcript in the Inquisitio fril, discovered in 1595, states that Galileo is also forbidden to discuss the theory orally or in writing . A True B. False -

37 Quiz 14. In April 1624, Galileo goes to Rome where he has six audiences with Pope Ubran VIII and a number of cardinals. The Pope assured him that he could write about the Copernican theory as long as he treated it as _________. False A Mathematical theory- A Physic theory Improbability

38 Quiz 15. Galileo was forced to come to Rome mainly due to ________________. His book the Dialogue- His communication with scientists Attendance of church His refusal to be baptized

39 Quiz 16. Galileo tries to get a pardon to not come to Rome, but the Inquisition states that either he comes to Rome or ________. He will be put to death He will be subject to torture He will be brought to Rome in chains- He will be never allowed to Rome again

40 Quiz 17. Which one of these verses was not part of the basis for Galileo’s trial? Joshua 10:13 Psalm 19:1-5 Psalm 40: 9- Psalm 104:1-5 Isaiah 40:22.

41 Quiz 18. True or False. Galileo recants his views and teachings against the Catholic church. True- False

42 Quiz 19. True or False. Galileo is placed under house arrest until he dies. He tried to be pardoned from house arrest after he became completely blind, but was refused. True- False

43 Quiz 20. In what year did the Catholic church finally accept Galileo’s scientific views. 1847 1684 1793 1992-

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