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Background of the School Counseling Profession

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Presentation on theme: "Background of the School Counseling Profession"— Presentation transcript:

1 Background of the School Counseling Profession

2 Exercises & Applications
Reflect on your experience with a school counselor. Based on this, describe the role of the school counselor. Compare this description to the ASCA description of a school counselor. Discuss differences and similarities.

3 History of School Counseling
The counseling profession entered the schoolhouse in the early 20th century

4 History Jesse B. Davis - introduced “vocational and moral guidance” as a curriculum into an English course This was the first systematic guidance program in public schools

5 History Frank Parsons - the “Father of Guidance”
His work had significant impact on the vocational guidance movement Wrote the book, Choosing a Vocation, which offered a method to match a person’s personal characteristics with an occupation

6 History The work of Jesse Davis, Eli Weaver, and Frank Parsons and a host of other pioneers created momentum for the development of a school counseling profession. During the 1920s-1940s, many events occurred that gave clarity and direction to this emerging profession.

7 History World War I - gave more reason for testing individuals
The term “counselor” rarely heard prior to the depression, was now a part of the vocabulary of all educators. Prior to this time, the term “guidance” was used

8 History World War II - and it’s aftermath created a greater emphasis on “psychological testing” that directly influenced school guidance World War II - government requested assistance from counselors for screening, selecting military and industrial specialist

9 History 1930s - the first theory of guidance was introduced. E. G. Williamson’s Trait and Factor theory. This was known as directive or counselor-centered

10 History George Barden Act - legislation that provided funds to develop and support guidance and counseling activities in schools and other settings This was the first time school counselors and state and local supervisors received resources, leadership and financial support from the government

11 History Sputnik - first earth satellite that was launched by the Soviet Union Sputnik was the “lift-off” and “orbit” for counseling & guidance in the US Nat’l Defense Ed. Act

12 History Part of the NDEA focused on:
1. Providing funds to help states establish and maintain school counseling, testing, guidance activities 2. Authorized the establishment of counseling institutions and training programs in colleges and universities

13 History 1953 - ASCA joined APGA
Wrenn’s book, The Counselor in a Changing World -solidified the goals of school c’ing ASCA develops a role and function statement for counselors a

14 History Elem & secondary Ed Act - provided funding to improve educational opportunities of low-income families s - Collaboration with teachers PL s - maturation of legislative efforts, need for clear identify, roles

15 History National Standards for School Counseling Programs is published Late 1990s-00s - Transforming school counseling

16 School Guidance ( ) - Occupational Selection and Placement was emphasized ( ) - School Adjustment (1960- present) - Personal Development

17 AlCA’s Formative Years/History
Guidance St Dept NDEA = Guidance Institutes Joins APGA as “AlPGA” rd state in nation to have licensure for professional counselors

18 Defining Guidance & Counseling
What is guidance? What is counseling?

19 Defining School counselors serve 3 populations: students, parents and teachers. Counselors deliver these services within the framework of an organized program The design of the program is guided by the overall mission of the school, the desires and needs of the local community and the expanded goals of the state (Schmidt, 1999)

20 Defining "School counseling is a relatively young profession having emerged out of the vocational guidance movement in the early 1900s. In the decades since then, the profession has searched for a clear identity and the role for counselors in schools. Over 50 years ago, counselors struggled with their direction and purpose in schools, and today this struggle continues. Because of

21 Defining this uncertainty, school counselors are sometimes criticized for not fulfilling their obligations. Exactly what these obligations are is a basic question all school counselors must ascertain in developing appropriate goals and objectives for their programs. Without clear goals and objectives, a

22 Defining counselor's obligations can easily be misinterpreted and misunderstood by both the professional and the people who seek counseling services." "Misunderstandings about the counselor's role are related in some measure to the confusion between the terms guidance and counseling and how these terms are used to describe what school counselors do."

23 School Counselor Role Interventions
Individual and small group counseling Group guidance Consultation with parents, teachers, others Program coordination (Cobia & Henderson)

24 ASCA Ethical Standards
Responsibilities To students To parents To colleagues and professional associates To the school and community To self To the profession (Cobia & Henderson)

25 Struggles and Confusion with Professional Identity
Schmidt’s view (1993): Confusion between the terms “guidance” and “counseling” Myrick’s view (1992): No “clear understanding of the programs and processes involved in guidance and counseling

26 Defining Guidance Imprecise meaning and usage
Has been flip-flopped with counseling for over 50 years Traditionally an “umbrella” term Guidance, guidance program, guidance services, guidance lesson, guidance personnel, guidance counselor, guidance lessons, etc..

27 Guidance An umbrella term that includes such a constellation of services aimed at personal and career development and school adjustment Guidance also describes the overall school program and implies personal assistance to students, teachers, parents and administrators

28 Defining Counseling Counseling has been perceived as a process in which someone who has a problem receives personal assistance, usually through private discussion Term not used exclusively by school counselors or other professional counselors. Who else uses our term? What is counseling? What factors are involved?

29 Counseling The term "counseling" is used by people in the counseling profession to describe a special type of helping process. There is a trust relationship in which the focus is on personal meaning of events and experiences. Counseling focuses on personal awareness, interests, attitudes, and

30 Counseling goals. It has a philosophical and theoretical base which conceptualizes learning, human behavior, and interpersonal relationships. Counseling considered a professional endeavor by a professionally trained and certified person

31 Counseling Counseling can be described as a job function and a helping process. It identifies the work or service of the counselor and the way in which the counselor helps the students.

32 What Can Counseling Do? 1. Counseling can help prevent “normal” problems from becoming more serious. More serious ones could result in delinquency, school failure, emotional disturbance 2. Counseling can create a healthy environment to help children cope with the stresses and conflicts of their growth and development.

33 What Can Counseling Do? 3. Counseling can also be a major remedial force for healing children in trouble. They can be helped through the counseling interventions offered at school.

34 Historical Approaches to C&G
Myrick (1992) offered 4 approaches: 1. Crisis Approach 2. Remedial Approach 3. Preventive Approach 4. Developmental Approach

35 Status of the Profession

36 ACA’s Formative Years & History
APGA established Name changed to AACD Name changed to ACA 60,000 members in ACA 13,000 in ASCA

37 Status What is the role of the school counselor?
What should the school counselor do? What should they not do?

38 Status Myrick stated: “As a whole, we have a poor identity. Even today, we are many things to many people.” “… they are miracle workers, record keeping and scheduling clerks, ….their own guidance program.”

39 Status This inability to identify a clear purpose has placed some counselors in clerical, administrative, and instructional roles, diminishing their value in school.

40 Status In contrast, by developing a clear understanding of their purpose, school counselors can establish a philosophical basis on which to build a credible program.

41 Status In the past, school counselors have been willing to be viewed as “support personnel.” Accepting the “support role” instead of the “essential role” allows others to define the role, assign functions, dictate the mission, and design the program.

42 EXERCISES: 1. Professional identity is an important issue for school counselors. If you were hired by a school tomorrow as its new counselor, what five actions would you take to begin establishing a professional identity? Discuss and compare your actions with a group of your classmates.

43 Discuss factors and events that influenced your decision to enter or consider the counseling profession Select and write down any historic leader’s name. In 15 minutes, describe how the leader would have benefited from counseling at some particular point of his/her career.

44 Exercises Review the ASCA role statement (see Appendix A in Cobia & Henderson) and identify any aspects that are different from the previous preceptions of a school counselor’s role. Reflecting on these differences, speculate about how you came to hold these beliefs. How might your awareness of these preconceptions influence your training experiences?

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