2Exercises & Applications Reflect on your experience with a school counselor. Based on this, describe the role of the school counselor.Compare this description to the ASCA description of a school counselor. Discuss differences and similarities.
3History of School Counseling The counseling profession entered the schoolhouse in the early 20th century
4HistoryJesse B. Davis - introduced “vocational and moral guidance” as a curriculum into an English courseThis was the first systematic guidance program in public schools
5History Frank Parsons - the “Father of Guidance” His work had significant impact on the vocational guidance movementWrote the book, Choosing a Vocation, which offered a method to match a person’s personal characteristics with an occupation
6HistoryThe work of Jesse Davis, Eli Weaver, and Frank Parsons and a host of other pioneers created momentum for the development of a school counseling profession.During the 1920s-1940s, many events occurred that gave clarity and direction to this emerging profession.
7History World War I - gave more reason for testing individuals The term “counselor” rarely heard prior to the depression, was now a part of the vocabulary of all educators.Prior to this time, the term “guidance” was used
8HistoryWorld War II - and it’s aftermath created a greater emphasis on “psychological testing” that directly influenced school guidanceWorld War II - government requested assistance from counselors for screening, selecting military and industrial specialist
9History1930s - the first theory of guidance was introduced. E. G. Williamson’s Trait and Factor theory.This was known as directive or counselor-centered
10HistoryGeorge Barden Act - legislation that provided funds to develop and support guidance and counseling activities in schools and other settingsThis was the first time school counselors and state and local supervisors received resources, leadership and financial support from the government
11HistorySputnik - first earth satellite that was launched by the Soviet UnionSputnik was the “lift-off” and “orbit” for counseling & guidance in the USNat’l Defense Ed. Act
12History Part of the NDEA focused on: 1. Providing funds to help states establish and maintain school counseling, testing, guidance activities2. Authorized the establishment of counseling institutions and training programs in colleges and universities
13History 1953 - ASCA joined APGA Wrenn’s book, The Counselor in a Changing World -solidified the goals of school c’ingASCA develops a role and function statement for counselors a
14HistoryElem & secondary Ed Act - provided funding to improve educational opportunities of low-income familiess - Collaboration with teachersPLs - maturation of legislative efforts, need for clear identify, roles
15HistoryNational Standards for School Counseling Programs is publishedLate 1990s-00s - Transforming school counseling
16School Guidance( ) - Occupational Selection and Placement was emphasized( ) - School Adjustment(1960- present) - Personal Development
17AlCA’s Formative Years/History Guidance St DeptNDEA = Guidance InstitutesJoins APGA as “AlPGA”rd state in nation to have licensure for professional counselors
18Defining Guidance & Counseling What is guidance?What is counseling?
19DefiningSchool counselors serve 3 populations: students, parents and teachers.Counselors deliver these services within the framework of an organized programThe design of the program is guided by the overall mission of the school, the desires and needs of the local community and the expanded goals of the state(Schmidt, 1999)
20Defining"School counseling is a relatively young profession having emerged out of the vocational guidance movement in the early 1900s. In the decades since then, the profession has searched for a clear identity and the role for counselors in schools. Over 50 years ago, counselors struggled with their direction and purpose in schools, and today this struggle continues. Because of
21Definingthis uncertainty, school counselors are sometimes criticized for not fulfilling their obligations. Exactly what these obligations are is a basic question all school counselors must ascertain in developing appropriate goals and objectives for their programs. Without clear goals and objectives, a
22Definingcounselor's obligations can easily be misinterpreted and misunderstood by both the professional and the people who seek counseling services.""Misunderstandings about the counselor's role are related in some measure to the confusion between the terms guidance and counseling and how these terms are used to describe what school counselors do."
23School Counselor Role Interventions Individual and small group counselingGroup guidanceConsultation with parents, teachers, othersProgram coordination(Cobia & Henderson)
24ASCA Ethical Standards ResponsibilitiesTo studentsTo parentsTo colleagues and professional associatesTo the school and communityTo selfTo the profession(Cobia & Henderson)
25Struggles and Confusion with Professional Identity Schmidt’s view (1993):Confusion between the terms “guidance” and “counseling”Myrick’s view (1992):No “clear understanding of the programs and processes involved in guidance and counseling
26Defining Guidance Imprecise meaning and usage Has been flip-flopped with counseling for over 50 yearsTraditionally an “umbrella” termGuidance, guidance program, guidance services, guidance lesson, guidance personnel, guidance counselor, guidance lessons, etc..
27GuidanceAn umbrella term that includes such a constellation of services aimed at personal and career development and school adjustmentGuidance also describes the overall school program and implies personal assistance to students, teachers, parents and administrators
28Defining CounselingCounseling has been perceived as a process in which someone who has a problem receives personal assistance, usually through private discussionTerm not used exclusively by school counselors or other professional counselors. Who else uses our term?What is counseling? What factors are involved?
29CounselingThe term "counseling" is used by people in the counseling profession to describe a special type of helping process.There is a trust relationship in which the focus is on personal meaning of events and experiences. Counseling focuses on personal awareness, interests, attitudes, and
30Counselinggoals. It has a philosophical and theoretical base which conceptualizes learning, human behavior, and interpersonal relationships.Counseling considered a professional endeavor by a professionally trained and certified person
31CounselingCounseling can be described as a job function and a helping process. It identifies the work or service of the counselor and the way in which the counselor helps the students.
32What Can Counseling Do?1. Counseling can help prevent “normal” problems from becoming more serious. More serious ones could result in delinquency, school failure, emotional disturbance2. Counseling can create a healthy environment to help children cope with the stresses and conflicts of their growth and development.
33What Can Counseling Do?3. Counseling can also be a major remedial force for healing children in trouble. They can be helped through the counseling interventions offered at school.
36ACA’s Formative Years & History APGA establishedName changed to AACDName changed to ACA60,000 members in ACA13,000 in ASCA
37Status What is the role of the school counselor? What should the school counselor do? What should they not do?
38StatusMyrick stated: “As a whole, we have a poor identity. Even today, we are many things to many people.”“… they are miracle workers, record keeping and scheduling clerks, ….their own guidance program.”
39StatusThis inability to identify a clear purpose has placed some counselors in clerical, administrative, and instructional roles, diminishing their value in school.
40StatusIn contrast, by developing a clear understanding of their purpose, school counselors can establish a philosophical basis on which to build a credible program.
41StatusIn the past, school counselors have been willing to be viewed as “support personnel.” Accepting the “support role” instead of the “essential role” allows others to define the role, assign functions, dictate the mission, and design the program.
42EXERCISES:1. Professional identity is an important issue for school counselors. If you were hired by a school tomorrow as its new counselor, what five actions would you take to begin establishing a professional identity? Discuss and compare your actions with a group of your classmates.
43Discuss factors and events that influenced your decision to enter or consider the counseling professionSelect and write down any historic leader’s name. In 15 minutes, describe how the leader would have benefited from counseling at some particular point of his/her career.
44ExercisesReview the ASCA role statement (see Appendix A in Cobia & Henderson) and identify any aspects that are different from the previous preceptions of a school counselor’s role. Reflecting on these differences, speculate about how you came to hold these beliefs. How might your awareness of these preconceptions influence your training experiences?