Presentation on theme: "Articles of Confederation and Constitutional Convention Mac 2005."— Presentation transcript:
Articles of Confederation and Constitutional Convention Mac 2005
1.Jay-Gardoqui Treaty, 1786 2.Land Ordinance of 1785 3.Northwest Ordinance, 1787 4.Daniel Shays, 1787 5.Annapolis Convention 6.The Constitution of the United States 7.Article I 8.Article II 9.Article III 10.Bill of Rights 11.Ratification a.Great Compromise b.Three-fifths Compromise c.Federalism d.Separation of powers e.Checks and balances f.Popular Sovereignty g.Civilian Control of Military h.Preamble i.Impeachment j.Elastic clause k.Writ of habeas corpus l.Ex post facto law m.Electoral college n.Judicial review 1.Alexander Hamilton 2.Federalist Papers 3.Federalists 4.First Congress- What did they do? 5.Republicans 6.Funding 7.Assumption 8.Bank of the United States 9.Whiskey Tax, 1791 10."Report on Manufacturers" 11.James Madison 12.Neutrality Proclamation, 1793 13.Citizen Genet 14.Jay Treaty, 1794 15.Pinckney Treaty, 1795 16.John Adams 17.Farewell Address, 1796 18.XYZ Affair, 1797 19.Barbary Pirates 20.Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798 21.Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, 1798
What is the single most significant factor of a Confederation? Weak Central Government A loose alignment of independent states See George Washington reading168-69 Cite three examples of Washingtons criticisms.
Articles of Confederation Congress (the central government) was made up of delegates chosen by the states and could conduct foreign affairs, make treaties, declare war, maintain an army and a navy, coin money, and establish post offices. Measures passed by Congress had to be approved by 9 of the 13 states.
Northwest Ordinance The Confederation Congress did provide for settlement of the Ohio Territory. Entering the union Eastern states had to relinquish claims to western lands (example Maryland) See map
Northwest Territory The ordinance organized the territory into a grid pattern for townships.
Confederation Problems Congress was severely limited in its powers. It could not raise money by collecting taxes; it had no control over foreign commerce; it could pass laws but could not force the states to comply with them. Thus, the government was dependent on the willingness of the various states to carry out its measures, and often the states refused to cooperate. The articles were virtually impossible to amend, so problems could not be corrected.
Call For Change As the need for a stronger federal government began to be realized, leaders from throughout the states got together to decide how to create it. One example of the need for a stronger central government was Shays Rebellion
Shays Rebellion Massachusetts 1786-87 Tax protest turns violent Poor farmers couldnt pay taxes Asked for redress Took up arms and were suppressed Caused-showed problems with the MOB Leaders were afraid of Anarchy and more support for revising of Articles of Confederation
Philadelphia Convention Many delegates/leaders gather to revise the Articles of Confederation Washington, Franklin, Hamilton, Madison… Decide to make the discussions secret Immediately decide to start over the process of organizing a national or central government
Virginia and New Jersey Plans Virginia Plan Strong National Government Separation of Powers Bicameral legislature Checks on power Representation according to population= Large State Plan New Jersey Plan Strong National Government Separation of Powers Unicameral Legislature Small State Plan= Representation equal for all states Power to tax, duties on imports Supremacy of National Law Use force against states
Great Compromise House of Representatives: Representation determined by population-more people more reps Large states get more reps/power Senate- Each state gets 2 Senators Benefits small states
Great Compromise and Slavery Very Divisive issue Southern State threaten ratification if Slavery is touched. 20 year moratorium on addressing Slavery Trade See article I Section 9 3/5ths Compromise- Slave populations will count for representation-5 slaves=3 people
Federalists and Anti-Federalists Washington, Franklin, Hamilton, Madison, Jay Argued for strong Federal Government Printers/traders merchants supported Patrick Henry, George Mason, Lee, Sam Adams Did not want strong Federal Government Did not support the Constitution Wanted to protect individual rights Bill of Rights Wanted to protect States Rights
The Constitution is Ratified December 7, 1787 Delaware is the first state to ratify the Constitution Pennsylvania December 12 New Jersey Dec. 18 Georgia January 2, 1788 Connecticut Jan. 9 Massachusetts Feb. 7 Maryland April 28 South Carolina May 23 New Hampshire, June 21 (9 th state to ratify Constitution goes into effect)