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Topic 11 – Wave Phenomena

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**Standing/stationary waves**

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Interference of waves Remember that when two waves of the same frequency interfere, we can get constructive interference or destructive interference. + = = +

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**Formation of a standing wave**

Standing wave (explanation by superposition with the reflected wave) wave-on-a-string_en

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**Formation of a standing (stationary wave)**

Two waves of same speed and wavelength and equal or almost equal amplitudes travelling in opposite directions superimpose and interfere A standing wave is produced with nodes at points of destructive interference and antinodes at points of constructive interference

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**Travelling waves and standing waves**

Travelling waves transfer energy, standing waves do not. All points on a travelling wave have the same amplitude, in a standing wave they do not. On either side of a node the points on a standing wave are 180° out of phase.

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Boundary conditions

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**Formation of a standing wave by reflection**

A travelling wave is reflected The reflected wave is 180° out of phase with the original wave The two waves travelling in opposite directions superimpose and interfere A standing wave is produced with nodes at points of destructive interference and antinodes at points of constructive interference

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Boundary conditions For a standing wave on a stretched string, there has to be a node at each end 1st harmonic or fundamental 2nd harmonic nodes 3rd harmonic 4th harmonic antinodes

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Boundary conditions For sound waves in a tube it depends on whether the tube is open or closed Standing longitudinal waves

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Boundary conditions For an open tube, there has to be an antinode at each end

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Boundary conditions For a tube closed at one end, there is a node at the closed end and an antinode at the other

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**Some standing wave investigations**

We are now going to do two investigations involving standing waves

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Stationary Waves Stationary waves are produced by superposition of two progressive waves of equal amplitude and frequency, travelling with the same speed.

Stationary Waves Stationary waves are produced by superposition of two progressive waves of equal amplitude and frequency, travelling with the same speed.

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