2 Structure and Properties of Matter Georgia High School Graduation Test: Science Review
3 What is an atom?the smallest particle of an ________ that has the ___________ of that elementelement = a substance that cannot be ____________ by ordinary chemical means to a smaller substancebuilding block of matterAtoms are made of:___________ (__)___________ (__________)Most of the mass is concentrated in the _______ (location of ________ & ___________)
4 Atomic Structure Nucleus Electron Cloud ___________________________ where most of the _____ of the atom is concentrated__________________Electron Cloudthe space ____________________ in which electrons move rapidly_________________divided into _______________________________________________________________________
5 Atomic Structure atomic number = number of _________ Silver has ____ protonsatomic mass = number of _______ + ________Silver has ____ neutronsvalence electrons = electrons in the ___________________
6 Atomic StructureLooking at the periodic table, answer the following questions:What element does this atom represent?How many valence electrons does this atom have?How many neutrons does this element have according to the periodic table?
7 Isotopesatoms of the same element having different numbers of ____________identified with different _____________mass number on the periodic table _________ the mass of all known isotopesisotopes have the same ____________ _________________
8 Solutionssolution = _________________ of two or more substances that are evenly distributedexamples: Coca-Cola, air, sea water, Kool-aidmade of solute and solventsolute = ____________________________example: _______________________________solvent = ___________________________example: ____________________________________
9 Phases of Matter STATE OF MATTER SHAPE VOLUME PARTICLE DESCRIPTION SOLIDLIQUIDGAS
11 Types of Chemical Reactions Combination/Synthesis ReactionsTwo or more substances ________ to form a single substance.A + B ABCaO + H2O Ca(OH)2Yield SignReactantsProduct
12 Types of Chemical Reactions Decomposition ReactionsA single compound is ______________ into two or more products.AB A + BCaCO3 CaO + CO2Yield SignProductsReactant
13 Types of Chemical Reactions Single Replacement ReactionOne element ____________ a second element in a compound.A + BC AC + BMg + Zn(NO3)2 Mg(NO3)2 + Zn
14 Types of Chemical Reactions Double Replacement ReactionsTwo compounds swap what they are bonded with.AB + CD AD + CBK2CO3 + BaCl2 2KCl + BaCO3
15 Balanced Chemical Equations Balanced chemical equations follow the law of________________________.Law of Conservation of Matter/Mass: matter/mass can not be-_______________________,- _______________The amount of matter after a change must be the __________________of matter that was present before the change.
16 Balanced Chemical Equations Fe + O2 Fe2O3Balanced? Yes ___ No ___P + O2 P4O10Balanced? Yes ___ No ___ReactantsProductsFeOReactantsProductsPO
17 Balanced Chemical Equations Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2Balanced? Yes ___ No ___2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2Balanced? Yes ___ No ___ReactantsProductsZnHClReactantsProductsNaHO
18 Balanced Chemical Equations Ca + Mg(OH)2 Mg + Ca(OH)2Balanced? Yes ___ No ___ReactantsProductsCaMgOH
19 pH Scale The pH scale measures how ________ or _____ a substance is. The pH scale ranges from___________.A pH of ___ is ___________.A pH _____ than _____________.A pH _________ than ____________.