Presentation on theme: "Structure and Properties of Matter Georgia High School Graduation Test: Science Review."— Presentation transcript:
Structure and Properties of Matter Georgia High School Graduation Test: Science Review
What is an atom? the smallest particle of an ________ that has the ___________ of that element –element = a substance that cannot be ____________ by ordinary chemical means to a smaller substance building block of matter Atoms are made of: –___________ (__) – ___________ (__________) –___________ (__) Most of the mass is concentrated in the _______ (location of ________ & ___________)
Atomic Structure Nucleus –___________________________ –where most of the _____ of the atom is concentrated –__________________ Electron Cloud –the space ____________________ in which electrons move rapidly –_________________ –divided into ___________________ ____________________________________________________
Atomic Structure atomic number = number of _________ –Silver has ____ protons atomic mass = number of _______ + ________ –Silver has ____ neutrons valence electrons = electrons in the ___________________
Atomic Structure Looking at the periodic table, answer the following questions: –What element does this atom represent? –How many valence electrons does this atom have? –How many neutrons does this element have according to the periodic table?
Isotopes atoms of the same element having different numbers of ____________ identified with different _____________ mass number on the periodic table _________ the mass of all known isotopes isotopes have the same ____________ _________________
Solutions solution = _________________ of two or more substances that are evenly distributed –examples: Coca-Cola, air, sea water, Kool-aid –made of solute and solvent solute = ____________________________ –example: _______________________________ solvent = ___________________________ –example: ____________________________________
Phases of Matter STATE OF MATTER SHAPEVOLUME PARTICLE DESCRIPTION SOLID LIQUID GAS
Phase Changes of Water
Types of Chemical Reactions Combination/Synthesis Reactions Two or more substances ________ to form a single substance. A + B AB CaO + H 2 O Ca(OH) 2 ReactantsProduct Yield Sign
Types of Chemical Reactions Decomposition Reactions A single compound is ______________ into two or more products. AB A + B CaCO 3 CaO + CO 2 Yield Sign Reactant Products
Types of Chemical Reactions Single Replacement Reaction One element ____________ a second element in a compound. A + BC AC + B Mg + Zn(NO 3 ) 2 Mg(NO 3 ) 2 + Zn
Types of Chemical Reactions Double Replacement Reactions Two compounds swap what they are bonded with. AB + CD AD + CB K 2 CO 3 + BaCl 2 2KCl + BaCO 3
Balanced Chemical Equations Balanced chemical equations follow the law of________________________. Law of Conservation of Matter/Mass: matter/mass can not be -_______________________, - _______________ The amount of matter after a change must be the __________________of matter that was present before the change.
Balanced Chemical Equations Fe + O 2 Fe 2 O 3 Balanced? Yes ___ No ___ ReactantsProducts Fe O P + O 2 P 4 O 10 Balanced? Yes ___ No ___ ReactantsProducts P O
Balanced Chemical Equations 2Na + 2H 2 O 2NaOH + H 2 Balanced? Yes ___ No ___ ReactantsProducts Zn H Cl Zn + 2HCl ZnCl 2 + H 2 Balanced? Yes ___ No ___ ReactantsProducts Na H O
Balanced Chemical Equations Ca + Mg(OH) 2 Mg + Ca(OH) 2 Balanced? Yes ___ No ___ ReactantsProducts Ca Mg O H
pH Scale The pH scale measures how ________ or _____ a substance is. The pH scale ranges from___________. A pH of ___ is ___________. A pH _____ than _____________. A pH _________ than ____________.