2Structure and Properties of Matter Georgia High School Graduation Test: Science Review
3What is an atom?the smallest particle of an ________ that has the ___________ of that elementelement = a substance that cannot be ____________ by ordinary chemical means to a smaller substancebuilding block of matterAtoms are made of:___________ (__)___________ (__________)Most of the mass is concentrated in the _______ (location of ________ & ___________)
4Atomic Structure Nucleus Electron Cloud ___________________________ where most of the _____ of the atom is concentrated__________________Electron Cloudthe space ____________________ in which electrons move rapidly_________________divided into _______________________________________________________________________
5Atomic Structure atomic number = number of _________ Silver has ____ protonsatomic mass = number of _______ + ________Silver has ____ neutronsvalence electrons = electrons in the ___________________
6Atomic StructureLooking at the periodic table, answer the following questions:What element does this atom represent?How many valence electrons does this atom have?How many neutrons does this element have according to the periodic table?
7Isotopesatoms of the same element having different numbers of ____________identified with different _____________mass number on the periodic table _________ the mass of all known isotopesisotopes have the same ____________ _________________
8Solutionssolution = _________________ of two or more substances that are evenly distributedexamples: Coca-Cola, air, sea water, Kool-aidmade of solute and solventsolute = ____________________________example: _______________________________solvent = ___________________________example: ____________________________________
9Phases of Matter STATE OF MATTER SHAPE VOLUME PARTICLE DESCRIPTION SOLIDLIQUIDGAS
11Types of Chemical Reactions Combination/Synthesis ReactionsTwo or more substances ________ to form a single substance.A + B ABCaO + H2O Ca(OH)2Yield SignReactantsProduct
12Types of Chemical Reactions Decomposition ReactionsA single compound is ______________ into two or more products.AB A + BCaCO3 CaO + CO2Yield SignProductsReactant
13Types of Chemical Reactions Single Replacement ReactionOne element ____________ a second element in a compound.A + BC AC + BMg + Zn(NO3)2 Mg(NO3)2 + Zn
14Types of Chemical Reactions Double Replacement ReactionsTwo compounds swap what they are bonded with.AB + CD AD + CBK2CO3 + BaCl2 2KCl + BaCO3
15Balanced Chemical Equations Balanced chemical equations follow the law of________________________.Law of Conservation of Matter/Mass: matter/mass can not be-_______________________,- _______________The amount of matter after a change must be the __________________of matter that was present before the change.
16Balanced Chemical Equations Fe + O2 Fe2O3Balanced? Yes ___ No ___P + O2 P4O10Balanced? Yes ___ No ___ReactantsProductsFeOReactantsProductsPO
17Balanced Chemical Equations Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2Balanced? Yes ___ No ___2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2Balanced? Yes ___ No ___ReactantsProductsZnHClReactantsProductsNaHO
18Balanced Chemical Equations Ca + Mg(OH)2 Mg + Ca(OH)2Balanced? Yes ___ No ___ReactantsProductsCaMgOH
19pH Scale The pH scale measures how ________ or _____ a substance is. The pH scale ranges from___________.A pH of ___ is ___________.A pH _____ than _____________.A pH _________ than ____________.