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Structure and Properties of Matter Georgia High School Graduation Test: Science Review.

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Presentation on theme: "Structure and Properties of Matter Georgia High School Graduation Test: Science Review."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Structure and Properties of Matter Georgia High School Graduation Test: Science Review

3 What is an atom? the smallest particle of an ________ that has the ___________ of that element –element = a substance that cannot be ____________ by ordinary chemical means to a smaller substance building block of matter Atoms are made of: –___________ (__) – ___________ (__________) –___________ (__) Most of the mass is concentrated in the _______ (location of ________ & ___________)

4 Atomic Structure Nucleus –___________________________ –where most of the _____ of the atom is concentrated –__________________ Electron Cloud –the space ____________________ in which electrons move rapidly –_________________ –divided into ___________________ ____________________________________________________

5 Atomic Structure atomic number = number of _________ –Silver has ____ protons atomic mass = number of _______ + ________ –Silver has ____ neutrons valence electrons = electrons in the ___________________

6 Atomic Structure Looking at the periodic table, answer the following questions: –What element does this atom represent? –How many valence electrons does this atom have? –How many neutrons does this element have according to the periodic table?

7 Isotopes atoms of the same element having different numbers of ____________ identified with different _____________ mass number on the periodic table _________ the mass of all known isotopes isotopes have the same ____________ _________________

8 Solutions solution = _________________ of two or more substances that are evenly distributed –examples: Coca-Cola, air, sea water, Kool-aid –made of solute and solvent solute = ____________________________ –example: _______________________________ solvent = ___________________________ –example: ____________________________________

9 Phases of Matter STATE OF MATTER SHAPEVOLUME PARTICLE DESCRIPTION SOLID LIQUID GAS

10 Phase Changes of Water

11 Types of Chemical Reactions Combination/Synthesis Reactions Two or more substances ________ to form a single substance. A + B AB CaO + H 2 O Ca(OH) 2 ReactantsProduct Yield Sign

12 Types of Chemical Reactions Decomposition Reactions A single compound is ______________ into two or more products. AB A + B CaCO 3 CaO + CO 2 Yield Sign Reactant Products

13 Types of Chemical Reactions Single Replacement Reaction One element ____________ a second element in a compound. A + BC AC + B Mg + Zn(NO 3 ) 2 Mg(NO 3 ) 2 + Zn

14 Types of Chemical Reactions Double Replacement Reactions Two compounds swap what they are bonded with. AB + CD AD + CB K 2 CO 3 + BaCl 2 2KCl + BaCO 3

15 Balanced Chemical Equations Balanced chemical equations follow the law of________________________. Law of Conservation of Matter/Mass: matter/mass can not be -_______________________, - _______________ The amount of matter after a change must be the __________________of matter that was present before the change.

16 Balanced Chemical Equations Fe + O 2 Fe 2 O 3 Balanced? Yes ___ No ___ ReactantsProducts Fe O P + O 2 P 4 O 10 Balanced? Yes ___ No ___ ReactantsProducts P O

17 Balanced Chemical Equations 2Na + 2H 2 O 2NaOH + H 2 Balanced? Yes ___ No ___ ReactantsProducts Zn H Cl Zn + 2HCl ZnCl 2 + H 2 Balanced? Yes ___ No ___ ReactantsProducts Na H O

18 Balanced Chemical Equations Ca + Mg(OH) 2 Mg + Ca(OH) 2 Balanced? Yes ___ No ___ ReactantsProducts Ca Mg O H

19 pH Scale The pH scale measures how ________ or _____ a substance is. The pH scale ranges from___________. A pH of ___ is ___________. A pH _____ than _____________. A pH _________ than ____________.


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