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Aerobic and Anaerobic Forms of Metabolism. Exercise and energy Energy is needed for all exercises ATP, the most important molecule carrying energy, can.

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Presentation on theme: "Aerobic and Anaerobic Forms of Metabolism. Exercise and energy Energy is needed for all exercises ATP, the most important molecule carrying energy, can."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aerobic and Anaerobic Forms of Metabolism

2 Exercise and energy Energy is needed for all exercises ATP, the most important molecule carrying energy, can be stored in small amount but is not exchange à need to be made on a constant

3 Mechanisms of ATP production 4 major sets of reactions in aerobic catalysis: –Glycolysis –Krebs cycle –Electron transport chain (ETC) –Oxidative phosphorylation All 3 major categories of food can be degraded through these processes


5 Electron transport chain

6 Net results from glycolysis and Krebs cycle Glycolysis: 1 glucose + 2 ADP + 2 NAD + 2 P à 2 pyruvic acid + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + + 2 H 2 O Krebs cycle 2 pyruvic acid + 6 NAD + 2 FAD à 8 NADH + + 2 FADH + 2 GTP + 6 CO 2 Electron Transport Chain (ETC) NADH + + ADP + ½ O 2 à NAD + 3 ATP + H 2 O FADH + ADP + ½ O 2 à FAD + 2 ATP + H 2 0 Oxidative phosphorylation ADP + P i à ATP

7 P/O ratio = expresses the yield of ATP formation by oxidative phosphorylation (OP) per atom of O 2 reduced to H 2 O If complete coupling between ETC and OP: 3 ATP formed If completely uncoupled: 0 ATP During uncoupling, NAD and FAD are formed but instead of ATPs formed, heat is produced à used by mammals to produce heat during cold seasons and a mean to control weight. Max of 34 ATPs from OP Additional ATPs from substrate phosphorylation Total ATPs = 40-2 = 38

8 Consequences of O2 deficiency Lack of O 2 à ETC becomes fully reduced and is blocked à no ATP, no NAD and FAD regenerations Some tissues can generate some ATP without O 2 à anaerobic glycolysis Formation of lactic acid and regeneration of NAD Muscles can do that, not brain Net production of 2 ATP / glucose

9 Mammalian brains use ATP much faster than can be produced anaerobically à these brains must have O 2 ! If no ATP à Na + K + pump, Ca ++ pump do not function à neurons destroyed

10 Fates of catabolic end-products Aerobic glycolysis: Glucose is fully degraded à CO 2 + H 2 O production à respiration Anaerobic end-products: lactic acid: –molecule still rich in energyà wasteful to eliminate –But too toxic to retain in large amount –Anaerobic conditions are usually short à possibility to use lactic acid later

11 Vertebrates can metabolize lactic acid –Gluconeogenesis (6 ATP + O 2 used) –Or full oxidation to CO 2 + H 2 O and 36 ATP formation

12 Steady / Non-steady state Steady-state mechanism of ATP production if: –1. ATP produced as fast as it is used –2. uses raw materials no faster than it is replenished –3. chemical by-products voided as fast as produced –4. cell remains in homeostatic equilibrium Non-steady state: –ATP is consumed faster than it is produced –Wastes are accumulating faster than they can be eliminated –Ex: phosphagen system

13 Patterns of Energy Use –Sustained or short burst –Mild or Strenuous

14 Patterns of Energy Use During sustained exercise: - ATP is consumed - when the ATP stores are down, use of the phosphagen compounds - creatinine phosphate found in vertebrate muscle, - arginine phosphate in invertebrates Then, ATP is aerobically synthesized from fatty-acids and/or glucose Muscles are especially geared to use fatty- acids à derived from fat (triglycerides through b-oxidation in the liver) -Glucose is used or synthesized from glycogen reserves

15 Aerobic ATP synthesis needs….. O 2 ! If the exercise is strenuous, the O 2 store might not be adequate to support this synthesis Then, the body has no choice but to turn to anaerobic glycolysis à less efficient ATP synthesis + lactic acid accumulation

16 Muscle fatigue and return to resting state Many causes: –Lack of O 2 in the muscle or in the blood –Lack of glucose or glycogen store –Accumulation of lactic acid –Accumulation of calcium ions in inappropriate cell compartments

17 Mechanisms of ATP production and use Mechanisms of ATP production Mode of operation ATP yieldATP rate - production at onset ATP rate - production Return to normal Aerobic catabolism using pre- existing O2 Non steadySmallFastHighFast Aerobic catabolism SteadyHighSlowModerate------ Phosphagen use Non steadySmallFastHighFast Anaerobic glycolysis Non steadyModerate - small FastHighSlow

18 Muscle fiber types Slow oxidative (SO) –Rich in mitochondria –High level of enzymes involvd in oxidative pathways –Muscle rich in blood vessels and myoglobin à red color Fast glycolytic (FG) –Rich in ATPase –Less blood vessels, mitochondria à white color



21 Uses of energy in animals ?? Birds during migration Lobsters during escape behavior (short burst of tail muscle contraction) Salmons during upstream migration Antelope during escape run

22 Response to decreased O2 in environment Shut-down metabolism à dormancy (brine- shrimp embryo Diving animals: dive long enough to use O 2 store and/or use anaerobic glycolysis à lactic acid use à must be eliminated prior to next dive

23 Some animals (diving turtles) can sustain long periods without oxygen: –Uses metabolic depression to maintain brain tissue integrity –Turtles become comatose, accumulate large store of lactic acid

24 ATP synthesis under reduced O2 availability O 2 regulation: steady rate of O 2 consumption and ATP synthesis despite changing level of O 2. possible only over a certain range of [O 2 ] O 2 conformity: O 2 rate of consumption falls with O 2 in environment

25 Water-breathing anaerobes Uncommon: some clams, mussels, worms, some goldfishes à buried in marsh sediments (no O 2 ) Strategy to survive anoxia: – metabolic depression –ATP synthesis through acetic, succinic, proprionic acids and alanine synthesis à excreted in environment à less acidity

26 Anaerobiosis in goldfish and crucian carp These fishes synthesize LDH à lactic acid formation Muscles can convert lactic acid to ethanol + CO 2 Consequences?

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