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Aerobic and Anaerobic Forms of Metabolism

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Presentation on theme: "Aerobic and Anaerobic Forms of Metabolism"— Presentation transcript:

1 Aerobic and Anaerobic Forms of Metabolism

2 Exercise and energy Energy is needed for all exercises
ATP, the most important molecule carrying energy, can be stored in small amount but is not exchange à need to be made on a constant

3 Mechanisms of ATP production
4 major sets of reactions in aerobic catalysis: Glycolysis Krebs cycle Electron transport chain (ETC) Oxidative phosphorylation All 3 major categories of food can be degraded through these processes


5 Electron transport chain

6 Net results from glycolysis and Krebs cycle
1 glucose + 2 ADP + 2 NAD + 2 P à 2 pyruvic acid + 2 ATP + 2 NADH+ + 2 H2O Krebs cycle 2 pyruvic acid + 6 NAD + 2 FAD à 8 NADH+ + 2 FADH + 2 GTP + 6 CO2 Electron Transport Chain (ETC) NADH+ + ADP + ½ O2 à NAD + 3 ATP + H2O FADH + ADP + ½ O2 à FAD + 2 ATP + H20 Oxidative phosphorylation ADP + Pi à ATP

7 P/O ratio = expresses the yield of ATP formation by oxidative phosphorylation (OP) per atom of O2 reduced to H2O If complete coupling between ETC and OP: 3 ATP formed If completely uncoupled: 0 ATP During uncoupling, NAD and FAD are formed but instead of ATPs formed, heat is produced à used by mammals to produce heat during cold seasons and a mean to control weight. Max of 34 ATPs from OP Additional ATPs from substrate phosphorylation Total ATPs = 40-2 = 38

8 Consequences of O2 deficiency
Lack of O2 à ETC becomes fully reduced and is blocked à no ATP, no NAD and FAD regenerations Some tissues can generate some ATP without O2 à anaerobic glycolysis Formation of lactic acid and regeneration of NAD Muscles can do that, not brain Net production of 2 ATP / glucose

9 Mammalian brains use ATP much faster than can be produced anaerobically à these brains must have O2!
If no ATP à Na+ K+ pump, Ca++ pump do not function à neurons destroyed

10 Fates of catabolic end-products
Aerobic glycolysis: Glucose is fully degraded à CO2 + H2O production à respiration Anaerobic end-products: lactic acid: molecule still rich in energyà wasteful to eliminate But too toxic to retain in large amount Anaerobic conditions are usually short à possibility to use lactic acid later

11 Vertebrates can metabolize lactic acid
Gluconeogenesis (6 ATP + O2 used) Or full oxidation to CO2 + H2O and 36 ATP formation

12 Steady / Non-steady state
Steady-state mechanism of ATP production if: 1. ATP produced as fast as it is used 2. uses raw materials no faster than it is replenished 3. chemical by-products voided as fast as produced 4. cell remains in homeostatic equilibrium Non-steady state: ATP is consumed faster than it is produced Wastes are accumulating faster than they can be eliminated Ex: phosphagen system

13 Patterns of Energy Use Sustained or short burst Mild or Strenuous

14 Patterns of Energy Use During sustained exercise: - ATP is consumed
- when the ATP stores are down, use of the phosphagen compounds - creatinine phosphate found in vertebrate muscle, - arginine phosphate in invertebrates Then, ATP is aerobically synthesized from fatty-acids and/or glucose Muscles are especially geared to use fatty- acids à derived from fat (triglycerides through b-oxidation in the liver) Glucose is used or synthesized from glycogen reserves

15 Aerobic ATP synthesis needs….. O2!
If the exercise is strenuous, the O2 store might not be adequate to support this synthesis Then, the body has no choice but to turn to anaerobic glycolysis à less efficient ATP synthesis + lactic acid accumulation

16 Muscle fatigue and return to resting state
Many causes: Lack of O2 in the muscle or in the blood Lack of glucose or glycogen store Accumulation of lactic acid Accumulation of calcium ions in inappropriate cell compartments

17 Mechanisms of ATP production and use
Mode of operation ATP yield ATP rate - production at onset ATP rate - production Return to normal Aerobic catabolism using pre- existing O2 Non steady Small Fast High Aerobic catabolism Steady Slow Moderate ------ Phosphagen use Anaerobic glycolysis Moderate - small

18 Muscle fiber types Slow oxidative (SO) Fast glycolytic (FG)
Rich in mitochondria High level of enzymes involvd in oxidative pathways Muscle rich in blood vessels and myoglobin à red color Fast glycolytic (FG) Rich in ATPase Less blood vessels, mitochondria à white color



21 Uses of energy in animals ??
Birds during migration Lobsters during escape behavior (short burst of tail muscle contraction) Salmons during upstream migration Antelope during escape run

22 Response to decreased O2 in environment
Shut-down metabolism à dormancy (brine- shrimp embryo Diving animals: dive long enough to use O2 store and/or use anaerobic glycolysis à lactic acid use à must be eliminated prior to next dive

23 Some animals (diving turtles) can sustain long periods without oxygen:
Uses metabolic depression to maintain brain tissue integrity Turtles become comatose, accumulate large store of lactic acid

24 ATP synthesis under reduced O2 availability
O2 regulation: steady rate of O2 consumption and ATP synthesis despite changing level of O2. possible only over a certain range of [O2] O2 conformity: O2 rate of consumption falls with O2 in environment

25 Water-breathing anaerobes
Uncommon: some clams, mussels, worms, some goldfishes à buried in marsh sediments (no O2) Strategy to survive anoxia: metabolic depression ATP synthesis through acetic, succinic, proprionic acids and alanine synthesis à excreted in environment à less acidity

26 Anaerobiosis in goldfish and crucian carp
These fishes synthesize LDH à lactic acid formation Muscles can convert lactic acid to ethanol + CO2 Consequences?

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