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Server Virtualization with Windows Server Hyper-V and System Center Isaias Martinez General Manager CN Computer Centre

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1 Server Virtualization with Windows Server Hyper-V and System Center Isaias Martinez General Manager CN Computer Centre

2 What Is Server Virtualization? Server virtualization: You can create and run multiple computer operating systems on a single physical computer Host servers share resources with all the virtual machines Virtualization challenges: Limited number of compute resources Server virtualization features: Hyper-V server virtualization feature allow full utilization of physical resource and provide advanced technology to make a more robust, available and dynamic server computing environment.

3 What Is Server Virtualization? Type I Hypervisor Windows virtual machine Linux virtual machine Linux virtual machine Paravirtualization drivers and tools Hypervisor (VMware vSphere, Citrix XenServer, Microsoft Hyper-V Host – Physical hardware

4 What Is Server Virtualization? Type II Hypervisor Windows virtual machine Linux virtual machine Linux virtual machine Paravirtualization drivers and tools Host – Operating system Host – Physical hardware Hypervisor (Microsoft Virtual Server, VMware workstation)

5 What Is Network Virtualization? Blue virtual machine Physical server Red virtual machine virtualization Physical network Servers Switches Blue network Red network Network virtualization runs multiple virtual networks on a physical network Server virtualization runs multiple virtual servers on a physical server

6 Key Technologies Hypervisor VM Management Automation Service Mgmt. Monitoring Self-Service vSphere Hypervisor vCenter Server vCenter Orchestrator vCloud Automation Center vCenter Ops Mgmt. Suite vCloud Director Hyper-V Virtual Machine Manager Orchestrator Service Manager Operations Manager App Controller Protection vSphere Data Protection Data Protection Manager System Center 2012 R2 vCloud Suite & vCenter

7 Key Technologies - Licensing Hypervisor VM Management Automation Service Mgmt. Monitoring Self-Service vSphere Hypervisor vCenter Server vCenter Orchestrator vCloud Automation Center vCenter Ops Mgmt. Suite vCloud Director Windows Server 2012 R2 Inc. Hyper-V Hyper-V Server 2012 R2 = Free Download Virtual Machine Manager Orchestrator Service Manager Operations Manager App Controller Protection vSphere Data Protection Data Protection Manager System Center 2012 R2 Licensing StandardDatacenter # of Physical CPUs per License 22 # of Managed OSE’s per License 2 + HostUnlimited Includes all SC Mgmt. Components Yes Includes SQL Server for Mgmt. Server Use Yes Open No Level (NL) & Software Assurance (L&SA) 2 year Pricing $1,323$3,607 vCloud Suite Licensing Std.Adv.Ent. # of Physical CPUs per License 111 # of Managed OSE’s per License Unlimited VMs on Hosts Includes vSphere 5.1 Enterprise Plus Yes Includes vCenter 5.5 No Includes all required database licenses No Retail Pricing per CPU (No S&S) $4,995$7,495$11,495 vSphere 5.5 Standalone Per CPU Pricing (Excl. S&S): Standard = $995 Enterprise = $2,875 Enterprise Plus = $3,495

8 Using System Center to Manage a Data Center Data center Manage virtual environment (VMM, App Controller) Automation (Orchestrator, Service Manager) Manage physical and virtual components (VMM) Delegate administration and self service (App Controller, Data Protection Manager) Enable business Continuity (Data Protection Manager) Monitor and report (Operations Manager)

9 Overview of VMM VMM features include: Bare-metal deployment of hosts Host and cluster creation Host groups Cross-platform management Storage configuration/network configuration Intelligent placement/dynamic optimization Power optimization PRO P2V

10 Overview of App Controller App controller overview A browser-based console used for providing delegated access to manage private and public cloud services and virtual machines App Controller can connect to: Multiple VMM instances Multiple Windows Azure subscriptions Service Provider Foundation

11 Evaluation Factors When evaluating server virtualization, consider the following: Project Scope Hardware requirements Compatibility Applications and services Supportability Licensing Availability requirements

12 Overview of Virtualization Solution Accelerators Microsoft Assessment and Planning Toolkit (MAP) Third-party tools (import maps output) Infrastructure planning and design guides (IPD)

13 Assessment Features of the MAP Toolkit Discovery Inventory Hardware configuration Servers Infrastructure (Shared storage and network) Virtual Server Consolidation Wizard Private cloud fast track MAP will scan vSphere hosts, and VMs and produce spreadsheet & report on conversion candidates

14 What is Windows Azure? Windows Azure is the public cloud offering from Microsoft Windows Azure delivers the following service models: PaaS IaaS SaaS

15 Windows Azure Services Windows Azure Services: Compute Websites, virtual machines, mobile, and cloud services Data Services Data management, HDInsight, business analytics, backup, recovery manager. App Service Media services, messaging, BizTalk services, identity, caching Network Virtual network, Traffic manager

16 Virtual Machines in Windows Azure Virtual machines in Windows Azure are: Built from scratch Deployed from templates including Windows, Ubintu, CentOS Have preinstalled applications such as SQL, SharePoint, BizTalk, Visual Studio Can be customized and built from user templates Built on premises VHDs and then imported

17 Extending Your Data Center Extending your datacenter Windows Azure Virtual Network Windows Azure Pack

18 Installing and Configuring the Hyper-V Role

19 Server Platforms That Provide Hyper-V Windows Server 2012 and newer Windows Server operating systems: Include Hyper-V and other roles GUI and command-line management Licensed per processor, includes virtualization rights Standard edition: two virtual machines with each Windows Server operating system Enterprise edition: unlimited virtual machines with each Windows Server operating system Hyper-V Server 2012 and newer: Includes only the Hyper-V role Command-line management only (if managed locally) Free, virtual machines must be licensed separately Windows 8 and newer Windows client 64-bit operating systems: Client Hyper-V, does not include server-level features such as high availability or live migration

20 Hyper-V and Virtual Machine Scalability SystemResourceWindows Server 2012 R2 Server Logical processors320 Physical memory4 TB Virtual processors per server2,048 Virtual machine Virtual processors per virtual machine 64 Memory per virtual machine1 TB Running virtual machines per server1,024 Virtual disk size64 TB Failover cluster Nodes per failover cluster64 Running virtual machines per cluster8,000

21 Considerations for Disk and Storage Hyper-V hosts can use DAS SAN NAS (SMB 3.0) Network shared folders (SMB 3.0) Virtual Machines require storage for Virtual hard disk files Configuration Checkpoints Saved state

22 Considerations for Networking Hyper-V host should have multiple NICs Dedicated NIC for Hyper-V management At least one NIC for virtual machine networks Two NICs for shared storage Dedicated NIC for failover clustering (private network) At least one NIC for live migration Use fast NICs NIC teaming for redundancy and throughput Bandwidth management

23 Considerations for High Availability Hyper-V host-based failover clustering Virtual machines are highly available Virtual machine-based failover clustering Cluster roles in virtual machines are highly available Virtual machine-based NLB Highly available and scale out web-based applications Application-specific clustering Applications are highly available

24 Changes on the Host after Installing the Hyper- V Role Hyper-V is installed as A server role Server Manager, Install-WindowsFeature, dism.exe Restart required after installation Hypervisor is added and starts automatically Windows Server is moved into parent partition Hyper-V management tools Additional services Performance Monitor counters Applications and Services logs Hyper-V Administrators group Windows Firewall rules

25 Overview of the Hyper-V Manager Console Hyper-V servers Listing of virtual machines Hyper-V server actions Virtual machine actions

26 Adding the Hyper-V Manager Console Used for configuring Hyper-V Also on Hyper-V Server If adding the Hyper-V role by using Server Manager, Hyper-V Manager console is added automatically Hyper-V Management Tool is a feature that you must enable Windows Server - Add feature Windows 8 - Turn on Windows Feature Install RSAT and turn on Windows Feature (Windows 7) If Hyper-V Manager console cannot run on a device RDP

27 Using Windows PowerShell to Manage Hyper-V Hyper-V module installed with Hyper-V role Hyper-V can be managed entirely in Windows PowerShell Get-Command -Module Hyper-V Get-Help, Get-Command *part* Verb-Noun cmdlet name syntax Get-, Set-, Disable-, Enable-, New-, Add-, … Get-VMHost -ServerName LON-DC1, LON-SVR1 Get-VM -HostName LON-HOST1 | Save-VM Start-VM -Name *DC* -HostName LON-HOST1 Get-VMHost -HostName LON-HOST1 | ft Windows PowerShell ISE

28 Managing Hyper-V in a Workgroup Environment Hyper-V can be a workgroup member This has no effect on virtual machines running on the Hyper-V host Domain membership simplifies management To enable remote management in a workgroup Enable Hyper-V firewall rules (Server Core only) Create a local user with the same username and password Add a local user to Hyper-V Administrators group Grant administrative rights remotely to local users Connect to the Hyper-V host in Hyper-V console Use HVRemote to simplify configuration

29 Hyper-V Best Practices Analyzer Best Practices are guidelines for typical deployment Hyper-V BPA includes over 110 rules including: Hyper-V should be the only enabled role Server Core is recommended for Hyper-V servers Domain membership is recommended for Hyper-V BPA is available in Server Manager and Windows PowerShell Can scan one or multiple roles locally or remotely Can filter scan results Compliance scan returns one of three levels: Error, Warning, Information

30 Hyper-V Security Model Authorization Manager controls Hyper-V security Challenging to use, not suitable for complex security rules Depreciated, but still available in Windows Server 2012 R2 Many administrators use VMM Simple Authorization is used on Server 2012 R2 Hyper-V Administrators local and domain groups—are empty by default Members have full access to Hyper-V Hyper-V Administrators group is incorporated into Authorization Manager

31 Overview of Hyper-V Settings

32 What Is NUMA? NUMA Enables host to scale up CPUs and memory Partitions CPUs and memory into NUMA nodes Allocation and latency depends on relative CPU location Hyper-V presents NUMA topology to virtual machines Guest operating system can make decisions on how to use resources Can minimize cross-node memory access NUMA spanning enabled at host level Virtual NUMA topology can be configured at virtual machine level By default, virtual NUMA aligns with physical NUMA

33 What Is RemoteFX? Provides a remote desktop experience that may be equivalent to a physical desktop environment System Requirements GPU Second level address translation RD Virtualization Host role service RemoteFX 3D Video Adapter virtual machine hardware RemoteFX features: RemoteFX for WAN RemoteFX Adaptive Graphics RemoteFX Media Streaming RemoteFX Multi-Touch RemoteFX USB Redirection

34 What Is Enhanced Session Mode? Remote Desktop over VMBus Full Remote Desktop capabilities Shared clipboard Printers, smart cards, USB devices redirection Folder redirection Enabled at Hyper-V host Guest operating system support required Windows Server 2012 R2 Windows 8.1 Remote Desktop users

35 What Is Enhanced Session Mode? Hypervisor Applications Video / Keyboard / Mouse Driver VMBus Virtual Machine Management Service Virtual Machine Worker Process Applications Virtual machine connect Basic Experience Virtual machine connect Basic Experience

36 What Is Enhanced Session Mode? Hypervisor Applications VMBus Virtual Machine Management Service Virtual Machine Worker Process Applications Virtual machine connect Enhanced session mode Virtual machine connect Enhanced session mode Remote Desktop Services

37 What Are Resource Pools? Resource pools are logical containers Layer of abstraction between virtual machine and hardware Virtual machine configured to use the pool Virtual machine can use any resource from the configured pool Helpful when moving virtual machines Resource pools can be used for chargeback Different resource pool types Processor, Memory, Ethernet, VHD Resource pools configured by Windows PowerShell Get-VMResourcePool New-VMResourcePool -Name "Contoso Network" - ResourcePoolType Ethernet

38 DEMO Hyper-V Manager, PowerShell, Enhanced Session Mode

39 Creating and Managing Virtual Hard Disks, Virtual Machines, and Checkpoints

40 What Are the Storage Options for Virtual Machines? Virtual hard disk and directly attached disks Support two storage controller types: Fixed size, dynamically expanding or differencing disk files Directly attached disks—local, or on iSCSI or Fibre Channel SAN IDESCSI Only for Generation 1 virtual machines For Generation 1 and Generation 2 virtual machines Two controllers—Two devices per IDE controller Four controllers—64 devices per SCSI controller Virtual machine starts from IDE Only Generation 2 starts from SCSI Cannot modify devices while virtual machine is running Can modify devices when virtual machine is running

41 Overview of the Hyper-V Virtual Hard Disk Formats.vhd Up to 2,048 GB in size.vhdx Up to 64 TB in size Internal log for enhanced resiliency User defined metadata Large disk sector support Larger sector size (improved performance) Default format in Windows Server 2012 R2 Can convert between both formats.vhdx recommended, if not used on older versions of Hyper-V

42 Fixed Size and Dynamically Expanding Virtual Hard Disks Fixed sizeDynamically expanding Allocates all storage Larger initial size Creation takes time (without Windows Offloaded Data Transfers) Allocates space as needed Smaller initial size Created faster Minimize fragmentationCan cause fragmentation Cannot over-commitCan over-commit Better performance (older Hyper-V) Comparable performance (Windows Server 2012) Use in productionUse in testing and development

43 Differencing Virtual Hard Disks Stores changes from the parent disk Parent disk should not change Differencing disk isolate changes Multiple differencing disks can use same parent Increases overhead (lower performance) Can be used for standardized base images Should avoid in production File C x x x x File A File B File D Read Modify Delete Create Read-Only Grow

44 Directly Attached Storage Virtual machine directly accesses physical disk Internal or LUN attached to Hyper-V server Disk must be offline before it can be used LUN on iSCSI or Fibre Channel SAN Pass-through disk considerations Best performance Unlimited size, lowest CPU utilization No checkpoints or differencing virtual hard disks No portability and encapsulation Not included in Hyper-V backup

45 Virtual Hard Disk Sharing and Quality of Service Management Provides shared storage for virtual machines Used as shared SAS disk by virtual machines Virtual hard disk must be using VHDX format Must be connected to virtual SCSI controller Must be stored on failover cluster CSV Scale-out file server with SMB 3.0 Separation between infrastructure and virtual machines Storage QoS restrict disk throughput Configured per virtual hard disk Dynamically configurable while virtual machine is running

46 Hyper-V Considerations for Virtual Hard Disk Storage Virtual hard disks consume large amounts of space Can increase over time, implement monitoring Use multiple physical disks for better throughput Use redundant storage spaces SSD dramatically increases performance SMB 3.0 file share Use SAN for storing virtual hard disks Specialized, redundant, fast Shared storage for failover clustering Exclude VHDs from antivirus scanning

47 What Are the Components of a Generation 1 Virtual Machine? Virtual machine has virtual hardware devices Only devices that Hyper-V supports can be used Virtual hardware can be: Emulated – available during boot Synthetic – available in supported operating systems SR-IOV – available in supported operating systems Prior to Windows Server 2012 R2, only Generation 1 virtual machines were available

48 Overview of Generation 2 Virtual Machines Emulated devices are removed UEFI firmware instead of BIOS Secure boot Boots from SCSI controller PXE boot uses a standard network adapter Faster boot and operating system installation Can run side by side with Generation 1 Generation 1 must be used for legacy systems Supported guest operating systems Windows Server 2012 and Windows Server 2012 R2 64-bit versions of Windows 8 and Windows 8.1

49 Configuring Virtual Machine Settings Only limited options are available during creation Many more options are available after the virtual machine is created Configuration options depend on the generation of the virtual machine Most settings can be configured only if turned off Adding or removing hardware components Configuring memory, processor, disk settings Few settings are configurable while virtual machine is running Connecting a network adapter to a virtual switch Adding a virtual hard disk to a SCSI controller Enable or disable Integration Services Use Hyper-V Manager or Windows PowerShell Set-VM, Add-VMHardDiskDrive, Add-VMNetworkAdapter

50 What Is Dynamic Memory? More efficient use of available physical memory Shared resource that can be reallocated automatically Demand, available memory, and virtual machine memory settings Dynamic memory settings Startup RAM Operating system typically requires more memory when started Minimum RAM Can be decreased while virtual machine is running Maximum RAM Can be increased while virtual machine is running Memory buffer Percentage of extra memory to reserve for a virtual machine Memory weight Prioritizes memory allocation when physical memory is low

51 What Is Dynamic Memory? T = 0T = 15T = 30 2 GB 4 GB 6 GB 8 GB Virtual Machines Memory Settings Total System Memory Memory in Use by virtual machines 8 GB 3 GB Physical Memory Used37.5 % Finance virtual machine Sales virtual machine Engineering virtual machine

52 What Is Dynamic Memory? T = 0T = 15T = 30 2 GB 4 GB 6 GB 8 GB Finance virtual machine Sales virtual machine Engineering virtual machine Total System Memory Memory in Use by virtual machines 8 GB 6 GB Physical Memory Used75 % Virtual Machines Memory Settings

53 What Is Dynamic Memory? Engineering reaches max allocation T = 0T = 15T = 30 Finance virtual machine Sales virtual machine Engineering virtual machine Service virtual machine 2 GB 4 GB 6 GB 8 GB Total System Memory Memory in Use by virtual machines 8 GB 7,5 GB Physical Memory Used94 % Virtual Machines Memory Settings

54 What Is Smart Paging? Memory Management technique that uses physical disk resources as temporary memory Ensures that a virtual machine can always restart Used during virtual machine restart only If Hyper-V is low on memory, and The virtual machine has more startup than minimum RAM, and Memory cannot be reclaimed from other virtual machines Temporarily degrades virtual machine performance Used only for a limited time, and then removed Not used when a virtual machine started from the Off state Virtual machine operating system paging is always preferred

55 What Is Smart Paging? T = 0T = 15T = 30 Finance virtual machine Sales virtual machine Engineering virtual machine Service virtual machine 2 GB 4 GB 6 GB 8 GB Virtual Machines Memory Settings Total System Memory8 GB Sales virtual machine and Service virtual machine can be restarted only if Smart Paging is used

56 Overview of Integration Services Makes a guest operating system aware that it is running on a virtual machine Many operating systems include integration services Install the latest integration services VMBus and synthetic devices support Time synchronization, mouse release, VSS Managed as virtual machine settings

57 Overview of Integration Services Without Integration Services With Integration Services

58 Using a Virtual Fibre Channel Adapter Access to Fibre Channel SAN storage from virtual machine Hyper-V server has Fibre Channel HBA Use Virtual SAN Manager to configure a virtual SAN Virtual Fibre Channel adapter maps to the physical HBAs Virtual Fibre Channel adapter connects to the Virtual SAN Storage hardware must support N_Port ID virtualization Virtual machine can have four virtual Fibre Channel adapters SupportedNot supported Virtual machine live migrationBoot from Fibre Channel SAN Virtual machine failover clusterCheckpoints MPIO - multiple paths to SANHost-based backup Live migration of SAN data

59 Virtual Machine Installation Methods Install from a bootable CD/DVD-ROM Single virtual machine can only use physical media at one time Install from an.iso file Multiple virtual machines can use.iso file Install from a network-based installation server Generation 1 – legacy network adapter required Copy virtual hard disk file with operating system installed Similar to computer cloning Virtual hard disk should first be generalized Use differencing virtual hard disks Parent virtual hard disk should first be generalized Parent virtual hard disk must not change

60 Importing Virtual Machines You can import a virtual machine without first exporting it Only virtual machine data files are needed Over 40 different types of issues detected, such as: Missing parent virtual hard disk Virtual switch not available Virtual machine has more processors than available Import process: Creates a copy of the virtual machine configuration file Validates hardware configuration settings Compiles a list of incompatibilities Displays incompatibilities and asks for new settings Removes the configuration file copy Cannot start older saved states and checkpoints

61 Virtualizing a Physical Computer Converting a physical computer to a virtual machine Hyper-V does not include P2V functionality Hyper-V can copy content of data disks Configure disk in New Virtual Hard Disk Wizard Copy entire disk, not volume or partition Supported only for data, system disks are not supported Disk2vhd Creates virtual hard disks Uses VSS Captured system has same identity Add virtual hard disk to virtual machine

62 Virtualizing a Physical Computer

63 The Virtual Machine Connection Application Connects to virtual machines on local and remote Hyper-V Port 2179 used (can be modified in the registry) Connection allowed by Windows Firewall Installed as part of Hyper-V role or RSAT feature Single users can connect to virtual machines Remote Desktop in virtual machines is not used Hyper-V Administrators can connect to virtual machines You can restrict access to virtual machines Revoke-VMConnectAccess cmdlet

64 Overview of Enhanced Session Mode Remote Desktop connection to a virtual machine Virtual machine can be without network connectivity Devices can be redirected Printers, drives, smart cards, audio, other PnP devices Shared clipboard, enhanced copy Folder redirection RDS component is used User must sign in to virtual machine Remote Desktop Users group membership required Enabled at Hyper-V virtual machine connection and virtual machine level Guest operating system support required Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows 8.1 Available only when the virtual machine is running

65 DEMO Create VMs, Virtual Disks, Generation 2 VMs, Storage QoS

66 What Are Virtual Machine Checkpoints? Checkpoint is a point-in-time virtual machine state Can be taken if virtual machine is not in Paused state Contains virtual machine configuration, memory and disk state Does not affect the running state of a virtual machine Primarily used for testing and development Can cause issues in distributed production environment Create differencing disk – decrease performance Cannot be created for directly attached disks Used by Hyper-V Replica or in VDI deployments

67 Implementing Hyper-V Checkpoints When created, a checkpoint cannot be modified Only viewed, applied, exported, renamed, or deleted Checkpoint creation steps: 1. Pause virtual machine 2. Create differencing disk for each disk that virtual machine is using 3. Create a copy of virtual machine configuration 4. Resume virtual machine 5. Copy virtual machine memory to disk Checkpoint consists of Configuration file (*.xml) Saved state file (*.vsv) Memory content (*.bin) Differencing disks (*.avhd)

68 Overview of Checkpoints at File Level Snapshot Apply (= delete  Now) Delete (= merge) Apply (create branch) Delete (= delete).vhd.avhd

69 Exporting Virtual Machines and Checkpoints Exporting a virtual machine is not required You can copy virtual machine files Exporting virtual machine consolidate its files If differencing drives are used, the entire hierarchy is exported Exporting multiple virtual machines increases total size When exporting a virtual machine, all its checkpoints are exported Exporting a checkpoint exports only a single state Differencing disks in checkpoint hierarchy are merged Live export – you can export while a virtual machine is running Update integration services after import Discard memory content and saved state from different architecture or pre-Windows 2012 Hyper-V

70 Issues with Checkpoints in Distributed Environments Applying a checkpoint takes a virtual machine back to a previous state Can have serious implications and result in corruption Vector-clock synchronizations are impacted Distributed applications depending on increasing logical clock AD DS, DFS Replication, SQL Server replication Applying checkpoint rolls back the logical clock Members of replica set to not converge to the same state Cryptography - reducing entropy of the random data Distributed applications using vector clock algorithms have no awareness of running in a virtual environment Removes changes in virtual machine as if they never happened User data is lost, passwords are reverted Regardless of whether they were already synchronized or replicated

71 Issues with Checkpoints in Distributed Environments Time DC1 T1T1 Replication to DC2: USN >100 Replication to DC2: USNs >200 = 200 = 250 ID: A USN: 100 Create Checkpoint Create Checkpoint RID Pool: users ID: A USN: 200 RID Pool: ID: A USN: 100 Apply T1 Checkpoint RID Pool: ID: A USN: users RID Pool: T2T2 T3T3 T4T4 Only 50 users are replicated to both domain controllers. Others are either on first or second domain controller. 100 users (RID ) have duplicated SIDs. DC2

72 Checkpoints and Virtual Machine Generation ID Designed to address issues of reverting to a past state 64-bit integer, tied to a virtual machine configuration Generation ID passed to a virtual machine in the BIOS Application can compare current and previous values If values differ, then something happened to virtual machine Hypervisor must support virtual machine generation ID Operating system in virtual machine must be generation ID-aware Virtual machine generation ID changeDoes not change Virtual machine starts from checkpointVirtual machine is live-migrated Virtual machine restored from backupVirtual machine is paused or resumed Virtual machine is migratedVirtual machine is restarted Virtual machine is importedHyper-V server is restarted

73 Checkpoints and Virtual Machine Generation ID



76 Overview of Performance Monitoring Monitors operating system and applications using system resources Provides up-to-date information on performance Health of the IT infrastructure Compare current activity with the baseline Planning for future requirements Whether current performance is sufficient Identifying issues Detecting problems Proactive (real-time) and reactive (historical data) Windows Server 2012 R2 includes several tools Operations Manager centralizes monitoring, alerting, and reporting for the enterprise

77 Overview of Performance Monitoring Task Manager provides local, real-time performance data Helps to identify and resolve performance-related issues

78 Overview of Performance Monitoring Resource Monitor provides in-depth real-time performance data CPU, Memory, Disk, Network

79 Overview of Performance Monitoring Event Viewer shows events that relate to server activity Collected locally and remotely F iltering, custom views, attaching tasks to the events

80 Overview of Performance Monitoring Reliability Monitor provides an historical view of server reliability and associated events

81 Overview of Performance Monitoring Performance Monitor provides real-time monitoring and viewing of historical data gathered by data collector sets Additional performance objects added with server roles

82 Monitoring a Hyper-V Host Only Performance Monitor can monitor Hyper-V Many Hyper-V performance objects added Other tools monitor only their virtual environment Parent partition is also considered a virtual machine Memory, disk and network monitored the same \Logical Disk(*)\Avg. Disk sec/Read and /Write \Memory\Available Mbytes \Network Interface(*)\Bytes Total/sec Processor utilization based on available resources Hyper-V allocates resources to each virtual machine \Processor(*)\% Processor Time shows relative utilization \Hyper-V Hypervisor Logical Processor(_Total)\% Total Run Time should be used

83 Monitoring Virtual Machines Virtual machine tools monitor the virtual environment Heavy utilization in virtual machine does not mean that Hyper-V host is heavy utilized (and vice versa) Available resources adjusted based on server load Memory and disk counters are the same as on the server Hyper-V performance counters should be used Hyper-V Hypervisor\Virtual Processors Hyper-V Hypervisor Logical Processor \% Guest Run Time Hyper-V Virtual Network Adapter(*)\Bytes/sec Limit the processor resources that the virtual machine can use

84 Resource Metering in Hyper-V Track resources used by virtual machine or pool Processor, disk, memory, network Can be used for charge back Resource metering data follows a virtual machine Configure by using Windows PowerShell Enable-VMResourceMetering, Measure-VM Average CPU usage Average physical memory usage Minimum/maximum memory usage Maximum amount of disk space allocated to a virtual machine Total incoming/outgoing network traffic for a network adapter Graphical reporting is not included Basic reporting in Windows PowerShell

85 DEMO Checkpoints, Resource Metering

86 Storage Spaces

87 Clustered What’s in a storage appliance? x86/x64 Processors Memory Network Adapters Storage HBAs “Back” “Front” Multiple physical interfaces; Pools disks, presents LUNs, Simple, Mirrored, Parity etc. Presents interfaces: iSCSI, FC, FCoE, NFS, SMB Multiple physical interfaces; Pools disks, presents LUNs, Simple, Mirrored, Parity etc. Presents interfaces: iSCSI, FC, FCoE, NFS, SMB Deploy two or more for a Scale Out CA Solution Servers SAS Ethernet: 1Gb/10Gb FC: 1/2/4/8/16 Gb Demystifying Storage Appliances

88 Clustered Windows Server 2012 Spaces  Windows Server 2012 File Server  Multiple physical interfaces; Pools disks, presents LUNs, Simple, Mirrored, etc. Presents interfaces: iSCSI, NFS, SMB Multiple physical interfaces; Pools disks, presents LUNs, Simple, Mirrored, etc. Presents interfaces: iSCSI, NFS, SMB Deploy two or more for a Scale Out CA Solution Servers SAS SMB3/Ethernet: 1Gb/10Gb 40Gb/56 Gb RDMA Windows Server 2012 R2 File Server and Spaces

89 New Designs: Cluster in a Box Availability At least one node and storage always available, despite failure or replacement of any component Dual power domains Simplicity Pre-wired, internal interconnects between nodes, controllers, and storage Flexibility PCIe slots for flexible LAN options External SAS ports for JBOD expansion Office-level power, cooling, and acoustics to fit under a desk Server Enclosure Additional JBODs … B ports A ports x8 PCIe Server BServer A x8 PCIe x4 SAS External JBOD x8 PCIe x4 SAS x8 PCIe 1/10G E or Infiniband B ports A ports SAS Expander 23 … Network 23 … SAS Expander Storage Controller CPU SAS Expander Storage Controller CPU x4 SAS (through midplane) 1/10G Ethernet cluster connect (through midplane) DataOn – DNS 9220

90 Storage Tiering Data deduplication RAID resiliency groups Pooling of disks High availability Persistent write-back cache Copy offload Snapshots Storage Tiering (new with R2) Data deduplication (enhanced in R2) Flexible resiliency options (enhanced in R2) Pooling of disks High availability Persistent write-back cache (new with R2) SMB copy offload Snapshots Traditional Storage with FC/iSCSI Storage Array Windows File Server Cluster with Storage Spaces Familiar Enterprise-Grade Capabilities

91 Storage Tiering Hard Disk Drives Cold data

92 Overview of Storage Spaces Storage pools – collection of physical disks Storage Spaces – virtual disks on storage spaces Storage Spaces features Resiliency and integrity on standard disks Continuous availability and CSV integration Optimal storage use and storage tiering Multitenancy and isolation Windows virtualized storage Physical storage (Shared) SAS, SATA or USB Storage Pool Storage Spaces Storage Pool Storage Spaces Storage Pool Storage Spaces

93 Overview of Disk Deduplication Identifies and removes duplications within data Without compromising data integrity To store more data on less space After data is stored (post-process) Requires NTFS file system Failover clustering and shared storage supported CSV support added in R2 Can significantly decrease space for VHD library R2 adds support for live VHD deduplication for VDI VHDs must be accessed on an SMB 3.0 network share Deduplication of virtual machines that use local storage not supported

94 What Is Offloaded Data Transfer? Traditional data copy model Server issues read request to SAN Data is read and transferred into memory Data is transferred and written from memory to SAN Issues: CPU and memory utilization, increased traffic Offload-enabled data copy model Server issues read request and SAN returns token Server issues write request to SAN using token SAN completes data copy and confirms completion Benefits: Increased performance, reduced utilization SAN must support Offloaded Data Transfer

95 What Is Offloaded Data Transfer? Intelligent Storage Array Storage array Actual data transfer Offload read Token Offload write Token

96 What Is SMB 3.0? SMB is network file sharing protocol SMB protocol versions are backward compatible SMB 3.0 features in Windows Server 2012 (R2) SMB Transparent Failover SMB Scale Out SMB Multichannel SMB Direct (SMB over RDMA) SMB Encryption VSS for SMB file shares Managing SMB file shares by Windows PowerShell SMB 3.0 is used only if both sides support it

97 Hyper-V over SMB Hyper-V data files stored on network shares Virtual machine configuration, VHD files, checkpoints Hyper-V supports file shares over SMB 3.0 or newer File Server and Hyper-V must be separate servers They must be members of the same Active Directory Running virtual machine data files can be deduplicated (VDI) Reliability, availability, and performance as a SAN Uses SMB 3.0 features Benefits Easier provisioning and management Uses existing infrastructure

98 DEMO Storage Spaces, SMB 3.0


100 Creating and Configuring Virtual Machine Networks

101 Overview of the Hyper-V Virtual Switch Software implemented layer two switch Connects virtual machines to virtual and physical networks Parent partition is also A virtual machine Extensible, has advanced features, can be replaced Policy enforcement, isolation, traffic shaping, protection Managed by Hyper-V Manager and Windows PowerShell Get-VMSwitch Parent partition can have multiple virtual NICs Can be connected to different virtual switches Can have different bandwidth limitations

102 Overview of the Hyper-V Virtual Switch



105 Types of Virtual Switches Parent has physical network adapter(s) Each virtual machine (and parent) has virtual network adapter(s) Each virtual network adapter is connected to a virtual switch Type of virtual switch is: External – connects to a physical or wireless adapter Internal – parent and virtual machine connections only Private – virtual machine connections only Configuration Use Virtual Switch Manager to create virtual switches Use virtual machine settings to connect a virtual network adapter to a switch

106 Types of Virtual Switches - Physical network adapter - Virtual network adapter - Virtual switch Parent App Virtual machine App Virtual machine App Parent App Virtual machine App Virtual machine App Private Parent App Virtual machine App Virtual machine App Internal External Parent App Virtual machine App Virtual machine App No IP IP NAT

107 Types of Virtual Switches







114 What Is VLAN Tagging? Used to isolate network traffic for nodes that are connected to the same physical network VLANs are used by Hyper-V to Isolate Hyper-V server management networks Isolate virtual machines that are connected to external virtual switches Isolate virtual machines on a single Hyper-V server VLAN ID can be configured on Virtual machine network adapter External and Internal virtual switch VLAN is limited to a single physical subnet VLAN ID has 12 bits (up to 4,094 VLAN IDs)

115 Virtual Switch Expanded Functionality ARP/Neighbor Discovery Poisoning protection Protects against ARP and Neighbor Discovery spoofing DHCP Guard protection Protects against rogue DHCP server in virtual machine Port ACLs Enables isolation by allowing/denying traffic Trunk mode to a virtual machine Trunk mode forwards traffic from multiple VLANs Network traffic monitoring Bandwidth limit and burst support

116 Virtual Switch Extensibility Extensible NDIS filter drivers WFP callout drivers Extensions Ingress Forwarding Egress Monitoring Virtual switch can be replaced Parent partition Extension miniport Extension protocol Hyper-V virtual switch Physical NIC Virtual machine Host NIC Virtual machine NIC Virtual machine Virtual machine NIC Filtering extensions Forwarding extension WFP extensions Capture extensions

117 What Is SR-IOV? Requires support in network adapter Provides Direct Memory Access to virtual machines Increases network throughput Reduces network latency Reduces CPU overhead on the Hyper-V server Virtual machine bypasses virtual switch Supports Live Migration Network I/O with SR-IOV Network I/O without SR-IOV Physical NIC Parent partition Virtual switch Routing VLAN Filtering Routing VLAN Filtering Virtual machine Virtual NIC SR-IOV Physical NIC Virtual Function VMBUS Even when different SR- IOV adapters are used

118 What Is Dynamic Virtual Machine Queue? Network adapter uses receive queues to route traffic to the appropriate virtual machine Physical network adapter must support VMQ Dynamically use multiple CPUs when processing virtual machine network traffic DMA reduces CPU overhead on Hyper-V server Beneficial when virtual machines receive lot of network traffic VMQ is automatically configured and tuned Based on processor networking and CPU load VMQ is enabled by default on a virtual network adapter Used only if the physical network adapter supports VMQ

119 Network Adapter Advanced Features Same features available for all virtual network adapters Features are implemented in Hyper-V virtual switch

120 NIC Teaming in Virtual Machines Provides redundancy and aggregates bandwidth Can be used at the operating system and virtual machine level Multiple physical network adapters in an NIC team If a physical adapter fails, virtual switch has connectivity Multiple virtual network adapters in an NIC team If a virtual switch fails, virtual machine has connectivity Particularly important when SR-IOV is used SR-IOV traffic bypasses the virtual switch Intended and optimized to support teaming of SR-IOV May be used with any virtual network interface Virtual machine must have multiple network adapters Connected to different virtual switches MAC address spoofing must be enabled

121 Providing Multitenant Network Isolation Multiple isolated networks on the same infrastructure VLANs are often used Limited scalability (maximum of 4094 VLANs) VLANs cannot span multiple subnets Challenging to reconfigure when adding or moving virtual machine VLAN ID Switch Virtual machines Switch

122 Providing Multitenant Network Isolation Private VLANs Addresses some VLAN scalability issues Reduces number of IP subnets and VLANs Virtual switch can limit virtual machines to the same VLAN Port ACLs Challenging to manage and update ACLs Hyper-V virtual switch supports private VLANs and port ACLs The solution is Software Defined Networking Network virtualization is an implementation of Software Defined Networking Hyper-V enables network virtualization

123 What Is Network Virtualization? Server virtualization Multiple virtual machines on a same physical server Each virtual machine is isolated from others Physical server Blue virtual machine Red virtual machine Blue networkRed network Physical network Network virtualization Multiple virtual networks on a same physical network Each virtual network is isolated from others

124 Benefits of Network Virtualization Flexible virtual machine placement Multitenant network isolation without VLANs IP address reuse Live migration across subnets Is compatible with existing network infrastructure Transparent moving of virtual machines to shared IaaS cloud Can be configured using Windows PowerShell Can also use System Center 2012 R2 Virtual Machine Manager

125 What Is Network Virtualization Generic Routing Encapsulation?    GRE Key=5001 GRE Key=6001 MAC      (Provider address ) (Provider address) (Customer address) (Customer address) Customer address space based on virtual machine configuration Provider address space based on physical network Not visible to the virtual machines

126 What Are Network Virtualization Policies? SQL WEB SQL WEB Blue Yonder Airlines Customer Address Provider Address Woodgrove Bank Customer Address Provider Address Policy Settings Provider Address Space Data Center Network Hyper-V Host 1Hyper-V Host SQL WEB Customer Address Spaces Blue Yonder Airlines Woodgrove Bank Define customer address-provider address mappings Specify on which Hyper-V server virtual machines are running Hyper-V implements policies by translating incoming and outgoing packets If a virtual machine is moved, policies are modified Virtual machine configuration stays the same

127 DEMO Teaming, Virtual Switch, Network Virtualization

128 Virtual Machine Mobility and Hyper-V Replica

129 Why Is High Availability Important? Server downtime is unavoidable Servers are not always available Software or hardware maintenance or upgrade Application and operating system updates Component failure, power outages, natural disasters Critical services must be constantly available Running in virtual machines When fails or unavailable It must be serviced elsewhere Goal of high availability Make services available Even when failure occurs AvailabilityDowntime (per year) 99%3.7 days 99.9%8.8 hours 99.99%53 minutes %5.3 minutes

130 Redundancy in Windows Server 2012 R2 and Hyper-V Disaster recovery Hyper-V Replica for asynchronous replication CSV integration with storage arrays for synchronous replication Application / Service failover Non-cluster aware apps: Hyper-V app monitoring Virtual machine guest cluster: iSCSI, Fibre Channel,.vhdx sharing Virtual machine guest teaming of SR-IOV NICS I/O redundancy NLB and NIC Teaming Storage multi-path IO Multichannel SMB Physical server failure Live migration for planned downtime Failover clustering for unplanned downtime Hardware failure Windows hardware error architecture Reliability, availability, serviceability

131 Virtual Machine Moving Options Virtual machine and storage migration Includes from Windows Server 2012 to Windows Server 2012 R2 Quick migration – requires failover clustering Live migration requires only network connectivity Improved performance in Windows Server 2012 R2 Hyper-V Replica Asynchronously replicate virtual machines Configure replication frequency and extended replication Exporting and Importing of a virtual machine Exporting while virtual machine is running Can import virtual machine without prior export

132 How Storage Migration Works Hyper-V server Virtual machine Virtual hard disk stack Read/Write to source virtual hard disk 2.Virtual hard disk is copied to destination 3.Writes are mirrored to source and destination virtual hard disks 4.After virtual hard disk is synchronized, virtual machine switches to copied virtual hard disk 5.Source virtual hard disk is deleted Virtual machine is running uninterrupted during the migration process Virtual hard disk Compares with Storage vMotion

133 Overview of the Move Wizard Used for moving virtual machine or its storage While virtual machine is running Live migration or storage migration Alternatively, use Windows PowerShell cmdlets Move-VM or Move-VMStorage Storage migration is enabled by default (two at the same time) Live migration must be enabled before moving virtual machine All virtual machine data can be moved to same location Or you can specify location for each data item Or you can move only virtual hard disk Virtual machine data items Virtual hard disks, current configuration, checkpoints, smart paging You can move only the virtual machine or also include data items

134 Live Migration of Non-clustered Virtual Machines Referred as a “shared nothing” live migration Virtual machine data can be local or on an SMB share Local: storage migration to move to target Hyper-V host SMB: leave data on the SMB 3.0 share In both cases virtual machine is moved Storage migration and virtual machine move Storage is migrated Virtual machine memory is moved Source storage is deleted Live migration speed is affected by Virtual machine memory size and modifications Bandwidth between source and destination Hyper-V hosts Compares with vMotion

135 Live Migration of Non-clustered Virtual Machines Virtual machine memory is moved in iterations Source is active and can be modifying memory Modified memory pages are sent after initial copy Repeats over newly modified pages Final copy iteration takes less than TCP timeout New MAC address is send to network switches Source Hyper-V host Destination Hyper-V host ConfigurationConfiguration Virtual machine memory ConfigurationConfiguration StateStateStateState

136 Prerequisites for Hyper-V Replica Windows Server 2012 with Hyper-V role Hyper-V Replica is part of the Hyper-V role At least two servers, usually in different sites Sufficient storage to host virtual machines Local and replicated virtual machines Connectivity between primary and replica sites Windows firewall configured to allow replication Hyper-V Replica HTTP and Hyper-V Replica HTTPS X.509v3 certificate for mutual authentication If certificate authentication is used Otherwise, Hyper-V hosts must be in the same AD DS forest

137 Overview of Hyper-V Replica Hyper-V Replica has the following components: Replication engine Manages replication configuration and handles initial replication, delta replication, failover, and test-failover Change tracking module Keeps track of the write operations in the virtual machine Network module Provides a secure and efficient channel to transfer data Hyper-V Replica Broker server role Provides seamless replication while a virtual machine is running on different failover cluster nodes Management tools Hyper-V Manager, Windows PowerShell, Failover Cluster Manager

138 Overview of Hyper-V Replica

139 Enabling a Virtual Machine for Replication Replication is enabled per virtual machine Enable Replication Wizard Replica server Connection parameters Choose replication VHDs Chose replication frequency Configure additional recovery points Choose initial replication method Failover TCP/IP Settings Preconfigure IP address for replica virtual machine Requires integration services Should be configured on both the primary and replica server Primary Virtual machine Replica

140 Hyper-V Replication Health Normal Less than 20% replication cycles are missed Last synchronization point was less than an hour ago Average latency is less than the configured limit Warning Greater than 20% of replication cycles have been missed More than hour since the last send replica Initial replication has not been completed Failover initiated, but not ‘reverse replication’ Primary virtual machine replication is paused Critical Replica paused on the replica virtual machine Primary server unable to send the replica data

141 Test Failover, Planned Failover, and Failover Test failover Non-disruptive testing, with zero downtime New virtual machine created in recovery site From the replica checkpoint Turned off and not connected Stop Test Failover Planned failover Initiated at primary virtual machine which is turned off Sends data that has not been replicated Fail over to replica server Start the replica virtual machine Reverse the replication after primary site is restored

142 Test Failover, Planned Failover, and Failover Failover Initiated at replica virtual machine Primary virtual machine has failed (turned off or unavailable) Data loss can occur Reverse the replication after primary site is recovered Other replication-related actions Pause Replication and Resume Replication View Replication Health Extend Replication Remove Recovery Points Remove Replication

143 Hyper-V Replica Resynchronization When normal replication process is interrupted Change tracking issues on primary server Replication issues with tracking logs Problems linking virtual hard disk with parent Time travel – virtual machine restored from backup Reverse replication after failover process Processor, storage, and network intensive Configured on primary virtual machine Manual, automatic, or during scheduled time If more than 6 hours, perform full initial replication

144 DEMO Live Migration, Hyper-V Replica

145 Implementing Failover Clustering with Hyper-V

146 Storing A Virtual Machine on an SMB 3.0 Shared Folder Hyper-V supports SMB 3.0 or newer Hyper-V uses file share is used as cluster shared storage Continuously available shares are recommended All virtual machine storage can be on an SMB share Configuration, virtual hard disks, checkpoints SMB Share – Applications profile should be used No access-based enumeration or share caching Full permissions on NTFS folder and SMB share Hyper-V administrators Computer account of Hyper-V host Hyper-V cluster computer account, if Hyper-V clustered

147 Using Scale-Out File Server File server role cluster can work in two modes: Scale-out file server cluster File server cluster for general use Benefits of scale-out file server cluster: Active-Active file shares Increased bandwidth CHKDSK with zero downtime CSV cache Simple management Automatic scale-out rebalancing Clients redirected to the best node for access to a share Avoids unnecessary traffic redirection

148 What is iSCSI? Client-server SCSI transport protocol Sends SCSI commands over IP networks Any SCSI device can be accessed Windows Server supports only block storage Block storage device is presented Used as locally attached disk iSCSI target is Windows Server role service Can be added as failover cluster role Multipath I/O for redundancy iSCSI initiator is part of Windows client and Windows Server operating systems iSCSI client runs iSCSI initiator TCP/IP protocol iSCSI target storage array Compares with MPIO & VAMP

149 What is an iSCSI Target Server? Virtual disks use the.vhdx format Presented to iSCSI initiators as SCSI logical units Limit initiators that can access logical units Fixed size, dynamically expanding, or differencing Clear the virtual disk on allocation Size can be up to 64 TB Can extend and shrink virtual disks online Enables application-consistent snapshots Includes Storage Management Initiative – Specification provider Standards-based management Enables discovery and storage-based management

150 Using Virtual Hard Disk Sharing as Shared Storage A failover cluster runs inside virtual machines A shared virtual disk used as a shared storage Virtual machines do not need access to iSCSI or FC SAN Presented as virtual SAS disk Can be used only for data Requirements for shared virtual disk Virtual hard disk must be in.vhdx format Connected by using a virtual SCSI adapter Stored on a scale-out file server or CSV Supported operating systems in a virtual machine Windows Server 2012 or Windows Server 2012 R2

151 Overview of Failover Cluster Up to 64 physical servers and 6,000 VMs Built-n hardware and software validation Shared storage using SMB, iSCSI, Fibre Channel, Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) or Serial-Attached SCSI (SAS) Compares with VMware HA

152 Configuring Highly Available Virtual Machines High Availability Wizard Virtual machine storage is on shared storage CSV or SMB 3.0 continuously available share Virtual machine startup priority Higher priority is started before lower priority No auto start, must restart manually after failover Preferred owners Virtual machine will start on preferred Hyper-V host Start on possible owner only preferred owners are unavailable If preferred and possible owners are unavailable, virtual machine will move to other failover cluster node, but not start

153 Configuring Highly Available Virtual Machines AntiAffinityClassNames Clustered roles in same AntiAffinityClassNames avoid same cluster node Prevents virtual machines from running on the same node Configured in Windows PowerShell or System Center 2012 Virtual Machine Manager Options to modify failover and failback settings Number of times to restart a clustered role Prevent failback of the clustered role to preferred node Virtual machine Policies settings Virtual machine Heartbeat monitoring Requires integration services in virtual machine

154 Virtual Machine Monitoring Application health detection in virtual machine Monitor services through Service Control Manager Configure service recovery to take no action Monitor events in System, Application, or Security logs Windows Server 2012 or newer required Configurable recovery actions Restart service Restart virtual machine Fail over virtual machine Virtual machine network and storage protection Failure of virtual hard disk or lost network connectivity Virtual machine moved to different cluster node Compares with VMware App HA

155 What Is the Hyper-V Replica Broker Role? ServerA ServerB Server3 Server1 Server2 ServerC Failover cluster 1 Failover cluster 2 Replic a broke r

156 What is Live Migration? Utilizes available CPU resources on the host to perform compression Compressed memory sent across the network faster Operates on networks with less than 10 gigabit bandwidth available Enables a 2X improvement in Live Migration performance VM Target host iSCSI, FC or SMB Storage IP connection Configuration dataMemory content MEMORY Modified memory pages VM

157 DEMO Clustering, VM Monitoring, Shared VHDX


159 Installing and Configuring System Center 2012 R2 Virtual Machine Manager

160 Provisioning Server Virtualization with VMM VMM features include: Multihost support – Hyper-V, Citrix Xenserver, VMware Intelligent placement Dynamic optimization App-V support Live migration Delegated administration Cloud, infrastructure, and services management Enhanced in System Center 2012 R2 VMM: Networking, virtual machines in the cloud environment, storage, infrastructure, and support for Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows 8.1

161 Managing Server Virtualization by Using System Center App Controller App Controller: Replaces the now deprecated VMM self-service portal Provides delegated access to private and public cloud resources, such as: Virtual machines Services Templates, images Allows administrators to migrate between VMM, Windows Azure, and service provider data centers

162 Monitoring Server Virtualization by Using System Center Operations Manager Operations Manager provides: Application monitoring in both the private and public clouds Dashboards Health monitoring Alerts Agent and agentless monitoring Fabric monitoring By integrating Operations Manager and VMM, you can monitor an entire virtualized environment

163 Integrating System Center Service Manager With Service Manager, you can: Implement service management, as defined in the ITIL and the Microsoft Operations Framework Use the built-in process management packs to provide processes for: Defining templates and workflows Implementing change requests and change request templates Manually designing activity templates Enforcing compliance

164 Automating Tasks with System Center Orchestrator Orchestrator provides the ability to: Automate processes across systems, platforms, and cloud services Automate best practices Connect different systems from different vendors Implement built-in integration packs Implement end-to-end automation across multiple System Center products Enhancements in System Center 2012 R2: Increases multiple runbook workers that combine with Windows Azure Pack for Windows Server Use runbooks to automate tasks with Windows PowerShell

165 Using System Center Data Protection Manager to Protect a Server Virtualization Deployment DPM provides: Disk and tape-based data protection and recovery Recover bare-metal servers and desktops running Windows operating systems Central management from the DPM Administrator Console Role-based access permissions to distribute backup and restore management Enhancements in System Center 2012 R2: Windows Azure Backup SQL Server cluster support Virtualized deployment Linux virtual machine backup

166 Using the Windows Azure Pack for Self- Service Capabilities Provides the following capabilities: Management portal for tenants Management portal for administrators Service management API Windows Azure Web site and virtual machine access to private cloud Service bus communication between applications Automate and extend custom services

167 Introducing System Center 2012 R2 VMM Significant enhancements in the following areas: Enterprise-class performance Support for up to 1,000 host and 25,000 virtual machines Dynamic VHDX resize Automatic upgrade Hyper-V clusters with Live Migration Enhanced support for Citrix and VMware hosts Simplified provisioning and migration Storage improvements Bare-metal provisioning Multitenant cloud infrastructure Provisioning Windows Azure infrastructure

168 Fabric Management Fabric includes network and storage infrastructure, host computers and groups, and WDS and WSUS servers Aggregates and abstracts everything into resources that can be consumed and deployed Accessed by administrator and designated user roles in private cloud resource allocation 168 Network management Power management Storage management Hyper-V bare metal provisioning Dynamic Optimization Monitoring Integration Update management Hyper-V, Citrix, VMware Fabric Management

169 VMM Architecture


171 Determining Topology for a VMM Deployment VMM Server SQL database Server VMM Console Library Server WSUS Server WDS Server Hyper-V Host Citrix XenServer Host ESX Host VMware vCenter Server Windows Azure App Controller Branch Office VMM Servers

172 What Are Host Groups? Allows collective management of physical hosts Can nest host groups: Parent-Child inheritance applies Configurable properties include: Naming & moving group, allow unencrypted file transfers Placement rules: Virtual machine must, should, must not or should not match the host Host reserves: Can reserve various resources for host alone Includes CPU, Memory, Disk I/O and space, Network I/O Dynamic optimization – for determining vm load Resource default: CPU 30%, RAM 512MB, Disk I/O 0% Power optimization included Network: Can assign varied network resources: IP pools, load balancers, logical networks & MAC pools Storage: Can assign storage pools and logical units resources

173 Deploying Hyper-V Hosts to Bare-Metal Computers Physical computer without an operating system installed is installed AND deployed as physical host Requirements: Network adapter PXE-enabled; PXE server in domain BIOS set to PXE-boot first BMCs have proper credentials Host profile must already exist MAC address discovered for static IP assignment; VMM SP1 and R2 offer Deep Discovery – automates IP assignment Uses Fabric workspace, Add Resource Wizard, to launch deployment

174 Managing the Infrastructure with VMM

175 Working with Virtualization Infrastructure VMM infrastructure contains the components that make the virtualization environment, which are: VMM infrastructure servers (any with a VMM agent) Library servers, Hosts servers (and host groups), PXE servers, WSUS servers, vCenter servers and VMM servers Networking Logical networks, MAC address pools, load balancers, VIP templates, logical switches, port profiles port classifications, network service Storage Classifications and pools, providers, arrays, file servers, Fibre channel fabrics

176 What Is Networking Infrastructure? Top of rack switch management and integration Logical network: named networks that serve particular functions IP address pool management and integration with IPAM Host and VM network switch management Load balancer integration and automated deployment Network virtualization deployment and management

177 Configuring Ports and Logical Switches in Virtual Machine Manager Hyper-V host #1 Virtual switch Logical switch Switch settings Port profiles (uplink) Port profiles (virtual) Management Corporate Cluster Hyper-V host #2 Virtual switch Management

178 Using Virtual Machine Networks for Isolating Networking Virtual machine network features: Built on top of logical networks Allows you to use several virtualization networks on one logical network Without isolation there can only be one virtual machine network per logical network. This kind of virtual machine network uses the logical network to communicate. VLANs and PVLANS are configured at the logical network Virtual machine networks work well for many situations, not just for hosts

179 DEMO Network Management

180 Storage Options for Server Virtualization When you do storage planning for virtualization hosts, you should: Use high performance connectivity to storage Implement redundant storage Analyze the current storage usage, and determine the storage performance Plan for adequate space for existing virtualization needs, and plan future storage growth Ensure you include data protection, such as backups or offsite replication

181 Implementing Block Storage Implementing Fibre Storage Virtual Fibre Channel Adapters Implementing iSCSI Storage

182 Implementing File Storage SMB 3.0: Enables virtual machine storage on SMB 3.0 file shares Requires Windows Server 2012 file servers Requires fast network connectivity Provide redundancy and performance benefits NFS: Enables you can use NFS Shares to deploy VMware to virtual machines

183 Deploying Storage in Virtual Machine Manager After adding storage to VMM, you can deploy logical units using two SAN methods: Snapshots. With this method, the SAN creates a writable snapshot of an existing logical unit Cloning. With this method, the SAN creates an independent copy of an existent logical unit The method used must be supported by the SAN vendor After integration, you can deploy logical units and storage pools by using the VMM Console or Windows PowerShell cmdlets

184 What Are Infrastructure Updates? Infrastructure updates: You can integrate VMM and Windows Server Update Server (WSUS) to provide scanning and compliance of your virtualization infrastructure

185 Configuring a Fabric Update in Virtual Machine Manager Process for implementing update management in VMM: 1. Enable update management 2. Configure and manage update baselines 3. Start a scan to determine compliance status 4. Perform an update remediation 5. Specify update exemptions

186 Planning an Update Baseline An update baseline is a set of required updates assigned to a scope of infrastructure servers within the private cloud If you move a host or host cluster to a new host group, the object will inherit the baseline associated with the target host group If you assign a baseline specifically to a standalone host or host cluster, the baseline will stay with the object when it moves from one host group to another

187 Update Server Considerations When integrating WSUS and VMM: You must have WSUS 3.0 SP2 x64 or newer You should limit languages, products, and classifications in WSUS Integration with Configuration Manager is possible, if WSUS server is managed by Configuration Manager Also use reporting capabilities for compliance information

188 Overview of Failover Cluster Up to 64 physical servers and 6,000 VMs Built-n hardware and software validation Shared storage using SMB, iSCSI, Fibre Channel, Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) or Serial-Attached SCSI (SAS) Compares with VMware HA

189 Dynamic Optimization Compares with vSphere DRS

190 Power Optimization Compares with vSphere DPM

191 DEMO Storage Management, Resource Management

192 Configuring and Managing the VMM Library

193 What Is the Virtual Machine Manager Library? Hosted on Library servers Stores resources used to create virtual machines Catalog of stored resources Some resources stored in VMM database Contains templates and profiles Contains library shares Shared folders on the Library servers Can be organized into subfolders Indexed for quick retrieval Data deduplication Variable chunking Compression of primary data to other storage areas

194 Virtual Machine Manager Library Resources Library stored resources include: File-based resources – answer and driver files, virtual floppy and hard drives, ISO images, Windows PowerShell and SQL Server scripts, web deployment, and SQL DAC files Virtual machines templates and profiles Equivalent objects Cloud library Self-service user content Orphaned resources Updated catalogs and baselines Stored virtual machines and services

195 Library Server and Host Group Association Library servers can be associated with particular host groups Enhances ability to work on several libraries at a time Grouped according to bandwidth, location Library servers in each host group share resources within host group: Host group South HQ Host group Host group London A Library server

196 Considerations for Highly Available Library Servers VMM management servers cannot be on the same cluster as library servers When a cluster fails over, library shares on it go offline until the cluster comes back up The SQL Server running the VMM database should also be clustered As an alternative to failover clustering, you can add more library servers VMM library servers do not replicate files Manually copy files using robocopy or another similar utility

197 What Is a Hardware Profile? Contains specifications for: CPU Memory Network and Fibre Channel adapters Floppy, IDE, SCSI and DVD drives COM ports Memory weight Virtual NUMA CPU priority Ensures consistent hardware settings over virtual machines made with the profile Imported into VM templates

198 What Is a Guest OS Profile? Contains specifications for: Operating System Identity Information Admin Password Product key Time zones Roles Features Domain/Workgroup Answer file GUIRunOnce Commands

199 What is Server App-V Application B Application C Application A Data System Services Configurations App-V Server sequenced package in Library Server Virtual Machine Isolated Virtual Application Mode Application packages sequenced to derive from different sources; run on same virtual machine

200 What Is an Application Profile? Application profiles provide the instructions for installing applications to support a VNN-managed service Application profiles support the following application types: SQL Server DACs Server App-V applications Web applications Scripts

201 What Is an SQL Server Profile? A SQL Server profile is a building block for deploying a SQL Server instance onto a virtual machine. The process for installing and configuring a SQL Server Instance includes: 1. Prepare a SQL Server image using Sysprep 2. Create a SQL Server profile 3. Create a VM template 4. Create a service template 5. Deploy the service

202 Configuring Virtual Machine Templates A virtual machine template provides an efficient way to deploy new virtual machines and services Virtual machine templates provide: A means to configure hardware, operating systems, applications and SQL Server specifications and to create new templates A consistent method for self-service users to deploy new virtual machines and services

203 Service Templates and Service Deployment Configurations Service templates Encapsulate requirements to deploy and run an instance of an application Use machine tiers to specify settings of virtual machine types Service Deployment Configuration Configures deployment of service template settings Makes use of the deployment diagram and selects virtual machines to be deployed as part of the service

204 DEMO VM Templates, Service Templates

205 Creating and Managing VMs with VMM

206 What Is a Virtual Machine Checkpoint? A non-checkpointed.vhd/.vhdx Checkpoint creates.avhd/.avhdx file All subsequent changes are written to the.avhd/.avhdx file When reverted, the and.avhd/.avhdx file is deleted.vhd.avhd Checkpoint.vhd.avhd Checkpoint

207 Creating Virtual Machines in VMM Use the Create Virtual Machine Wizard Can use existing resources such as virtual machines, templates,.vhds Create a brand new virtual machine Configure Hardware page provides many options Intelligent placement on host

208 Configuring Virtual Machine Placement in VMM Virtual Machine Manager evaluates a host’s capacity and performance Automatically places a virtual machine on the most suitable host Makes star rating recommendations through intelligent placement

209 What Is Virtual Machine Cloning? Rapid way to deploy a virtual machine Makes copy of the.vhd/.vhdx, configuration files, and memory contents Original can be online if using System Center 2012 R2 Virtual Machine Manager Cloned virtual machine is an exact copy with the same identity Virtual Machine 1

210 Considerations for Virtual Machine Cloning The cloned virtual machine has the same name and domain SID of the original virtual machine After cloning, run Sysprep, or manually change to unique settings and values Ensure sufficient disk space exists on host

211 Converting a Virtual Machine Convert Citrix XenServer virtual machines to Hyper-V via a P2V conversion Virtual-to-virtual machine conversion supports converting: In System Center 2012 VMM ESX/ESXi 3.5 Update 5 ESX/ESXi 4.0 ESX/ESXi 4.1 ESXi 5.1 In System Center 2012 SP1 VMM and System Center 2012 R2 VMM ESX/ESXi 4.1 ESXi 5.1

212 Managing Clouds with VMM

213 What Is a Cloud? Is also known as cloud computing Enables sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale Uses the Internet, Internet standards, and protocols Can provide various resources such as virtual machines, storage, apps, services including databases, programs, and systems

214 What Are Public, Private, and Hybrid Clouds? Public On-demand computing delivered through the Internet with Internet standards and protocols Makes resources available to users anywhere Users do not need their own infrastructure Users run apps, services, or virtual machines remotely, running on the cloud vendor’s infrastructure Private Organizations use their own infrastructure but integrate with certain resources of the cloud vendor Hybrid On-demand computing delivered through the Internet with Internet standards and protocols Makes resources available to only its users Users run apps, services, or virtual machines remotely, running on the organization’s infrastructure

215 Virtualization and the Cloud Private cloud is more than just virtualization Critical components of virtualization: Server consolidation Easy deployment Elasticity and scalability Multiple tenets High availability and mobility Private cloud requires more: Automated management Pools of compute resources Self-service provisioning Usage-based chargeback

216 Clouds in System Center 2012 R2 VMM Details of fabric are hidden Easy to define quota limits New Tenant Administrator role On-premises can be within the organization or somewhere else

217 Example of a Cloud Enhanced storage Automate SAN iSCSI or Fibre Enhanced networking Switch zoning IPAM Site-to-site network connections using private IP address RBA Live cloning AdatumCloud DevGroup ResearchGroup

218 Configuring Cloud Resources Hardware Storage: SAN, Fibre, disk, libraries,.iso files Networking, Logical LANs, load balancers, vIP Memory CPUs Software Databases, apps, large applications Physical hosts Virtual machines

219 Configuring Cloud Capacity Uses quotas Specifies maximum usage allowed by default Can be throttled back by a lesser amount Applies to: Virtual CPUs Memory Storage Custom quota points Virtual machines Can add more capacity

220 Configuring Cloud Capability Capability built on capacity profiles Provides built-in fabric capability Assignment based on the hypervisor platform Can use one, any, or all three Can also make custom capacity profiles VMware ESX Server Microsoft Hyper-V XenServer, Citrix Xen Hosts

221 Managing a Cloud Chargeback and governance of resource usage Private cloud application performance monitoring GSM ensures applications are always up and always on SLA-based

222 What Are User Roles in Virtual Machine Manager? User roles contain: Profiles Members Scope Network Cloud quotas Resources Permissions Run-As accounts Depending on profile selected

223 Objects and Actions that Can Be Delegated The resources (objects) available in a private cloud are: Virtual CPUs Memory Storage Custom Quota (Points) Virtual Machines Data paths The actions you can allow for these resources are: Author Checkpoint (snapshots) Checkpoint (Restore Only) Deploy Deploy (From Template only) Local Administrator Pause and Resume Receive Remote Connection Remove Save Share Shut down Start Stop Store

224 User Role Profiles Preexisting Administrator role Fabric administrator: Formerly, Delegated Administrator May still show up in technical references Read-only administrator Tenant administrator: New user role in VMM 2012 SP1 Application administrator: Formerly known as Self-Service User May still show up in technical references

225 DEMO Clouds & User Roles


227 VMWare to Hyper-V Migration

228 VMware to Hyper-V vSphere vSphere Hypervisor System Center Hyper-V Server

229 Microsoft Migration Solutions Microsoft Virtual Machine Converter Solution Accelerator System Center Virtual Machine Manager Migration Automation Toolkit (MAT)

230 MVMC Solution Accelerator Small but Powerful 4 MB

231 MVMC Solution Accelerator Advantages Small but Powerful Wizard-based GUI Supports vSphere 4.1 and 5.0 Support for Windows Server 2003 Uninstalls VMware Tools Scriptable CLI Disadvantages Need Guest VM Access Ignores Network Adapter Guest VM Domain joined








239 System Center Virtual Machine Manager Part of System Center Managing VMs Managing Fabric

240 System Center Virtual Machine Manager Advantages V2V Migration P2V Migration (SP1) Windows PowerShell Wizard-based GUI Logical Networks Managing vSphere and Citrix Xen Disadvantages Does not uninstall VMware Tools

241 Migration Automation Toolkit (MAT) PowerShell Based on MVMC Automation

242 MAT (powered by Project Shift) The Migration Automation Toolkit (MAT) is a collection of PowerShell scripts that will automate VM conversions. This version of MAT is powered by NetApp's Project Shift (which are powershell cmdlets found in NetApp's Data ONTAP PowerShell Toolkit version 3.0.

243 MAT (powered by Project Shift)


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