Presentation on theme: "The History of the English Language and Medieval Literature"— Presentation transcript:
1The History of the English Language and Medieval Literature Because we’re studying British Literature so we need to understand its language!
2How are the vast majority of languages constructed? (Looking at language structure is called Linguistics)Most languages are governed by one set of rules. These rules don’t have a lot of exceptions, and they make sense.English is not governed by one set of rules.
3Why is English not governed by one set of rules? English is not governed by one set of rules because of its history. A lot of people liked to beat the out of the little Britons.
5All the years up to 43 AD (Anno Domini) It all started on the island of Great Britain. Great Britain was inhabited by the Britons. They spoke Brythonic. Brythonic was a lot like Celtic.
643AD-410ADThe Roman Empire was spreading throughout Europe. This is why most of the languages inWestern Europe are called “Romance” languages.As the Roman Empire spread, they spread their language. They spoke which language?As a consequence many of the languages were based in their language and took on many of the rules their language followed.
7However: English is NOT a Romance language. English is NOT based in Latin.This is because, although the Romans invaded Britain and the Empire spread into their country, the Romans did NOT consider the little Britons civilized people and so they did not inculcate (spread their culture) them.As a result: English only adopted some random Latin rules and words.
8410AD-1100ADThis time period is known as the Middle Ages or the Dark Ages.Here is when we first see Old English.Old English is developed when a bunch of Germanic Tribes (The Angles, the Saxons, and the Jutes) decide to burn and pillage England.Not only did they burn and pillage, but they stayed.
9The Angles and the Saxons The two tribes win over the country are the Angles (Engles=English) and the Saxons.Their language gets smooshed together creating Anglo-Saxon or “Old English”
10A Sample of Old EnglishFæder ure þu þe eart on heofonum Si þin nama gehalgod to becume þin rice gewurþe ðin willa on eorðan swa swa on heofonum. urne gedæghwamlican hlaf syle us todæg and forgyf us ure gyltas swa swa we forgyfað urum gyltendum and ne gelæd þu us on costnunge ac alys us of yfele soþlice
11Their WritingsEvery major literary period is dominated by a theme or philosophy: “Unabashed Christianity” dominates Medieval Literature because of Constantine the Great- a Roman Emperor who converted
12An Oral Tradition?Most historians agree the Anglo-Saxons had literature but it wasn’t written down. They had an oral tradition.-Their works rhymed and had meter, because it was easier to memorize works this way.-They were Pagan (non-Christian) but their works had Christian flavors because when they were finally recorded they were recorded by Christian Monks or Scribes who influenced the works as they wrote them down.-While some people think this was bad because it ruined the original intent of the work, others think is was good because at least it gave those who were preserving the works a reason to preserve it, and it gave them greater appeal. A purely pagan work would have been disregarded.
13“Beowulf” “Beowulf” is the oldest surviving work. It survived because someone wrote it down –they think a Christian scribe.It is 3182 lines in length making it an epic poem. Epic just means long.The story is about a warrior from Sweeden from the Geat tribe named Beowulf, which means “Bee-Wolf.”He goes to Denmark to help Hrothgar (a king) whose people are being tormented by a monster named Grendel.
14Beowulf has been translated from Old English to Modern English Translators can do one of two things:They can either preserve the rhyme and sacrifice the meaning of the storyThey can preserve the story and forget about preserving the rhyme*Our translator decided to preserve the story*Which is better in your opinion?
151100AD-1500AD Middle EnglishIn 1066 William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy (part of modern France), invaded and conquered England. The new conquerors (called the Normans) brought with them a kind of French, which became the language of the Royal Court and the ruling and business classes.For a period there was a kind of linguistic class division where the lower classes spoke English and the upper classes spoke French.In the 14th century English became dominant in Britain again but with many French words added.
16The Theme of Middle English Literature: Still “Unabashed Christianity”This is the time they were off fighting the Crusades so there are also themes of Courtly Love and Chivalry (an Arthurian code of behavior)The Crusades were fought by the catholic Church ( )
18Examples of French Words in our Language: BeefPoultryVealPorkMuttonCowChickenCalfPigSheep
19The Literature of Middle English There is very little literature from Middle English for several reasons:Most things were written in Latin/Anglo-NormanFew people could read so there was little reason to writePaper to write on was very scarce
20“ Sir Gawain and the Green Knight” 14th Century Middle English Poem; oldest of Arthurian Literature (King Arthur)The plot is Sir Gawain, a knight of the round table, is challenged by a mysterious knight who is green from head to toe to chop his head off. (Beheading stories are from Celtic Folklore)It is a journey in struggle between courtly love and knightly chivalry
21Unabashed Christianity Through Symbolism Parallels to the Adam and Eve storyThe Green Knight is said by some critics to symbolize Christ since he overcomes deathSir Gawain is said by some critics to symbolize the flaws in all of us since the Green Knight’s tests express the flaws Gawain had in him all alongGreen is said by some critics to symbolize faith while others say cowardice and shame
22Feminist Interpretation There are some scholars who believe the poem’s purpose is to communicate women’s ultimate power over man
23Postcolonial Interpretations Some scholars believe the poem was written as a parallel of England’s colonization of Wales. Sir Gawain would symbolize the Welsh and the Green Knight would symbolize England.
24Other Interpretations There is not an aspect of this poem that hasn’t been analyzed and over analyzed and then analyzed again.Because it is SO WIDELY referenced I wanted to read it in class so you would have exposure to it.
25Little Things of Great Importance: ColorsNumbersSeasonsWord choice (game vs. covenant)
261500AD-1800AD Early Modern English Towards the end of Middle English, a sudden and distinct change in pronunciation (the Great Vowel Shift) started, with vowels being pronounced shorter and shorter.This was because in the 16th century the British had contact with many peoples from around the world. This, and the Renaissance of Classical learning, meant many new words and phrases entered the language.The invention of printing also meant there was now a common language in print. Books became cheaper and more people learned to read.Printing also brought standardization to English. Spelling and grammar became fixed, and the dialect of London, where most publishing houses were, became the standard.In 1604 the first English dictionary was published. By Samuel Johnson
291800AD-Present Modern English The Industrial Revolution added a lot of new words.The British Empire spread throughout many countries adopting their words into the English language.More people could read and write.Education, paper, and printing was very wide spread.
30Different Types of Languages PrescriptiveDescriptiveThe rules are already decided and structured and the language has to fit within the confines of the rules.Most governments have a branch dedicated to maintaining those rules called “The Academy of Language”The language changes and evolves and the rules are not rules they are conventions and they just describe what is happening.No body of government overlooks the language.It will change and evolve quickly because it can.
31The English Language The English language is a descriptive language It has absorbed rules and conventions from countless other languagesIt has absorbed words and phrases from countless other languagesIt continues to grow and changeThe rules, dictionary, and conventions are subject to change
32How does the fact English is a descriptive language influence the grammar of English? We cannot assign parts of speech to our words but, rather, we must describe how the word is being used through the parts of speech.