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1 Visit Introduce yourself.
Take a selfie to include as well. Reflection

2 @PabloMuirhead
Building Global Competence: Proficiency in Communication, Cultures, and Comparisons @PabloMuirhead Intro Martha is the (TITLE) of the Milwaukee YMCA She is …. She heads… This will be a very interactive and sensitive honest discussion. A trained facilitator has been placed at each table to ensure participation. PRE-WORK- (1)Who took the Harvard Test on Bias-raise hands? Were you surprised at the results? (2)Did you read Peggy McIntosh’s “ White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack”” which encourages and White students to investigate their experiences with racism. (3)Responses from question-”How would your life be different if you were another race”? “ Have you experienced oppression or were denied an opportunity or experience based on gender”? – READ examples they handed in

3 FROM the PERSONAL Connection between CULTURE & LANGUAGE Conceptualization of culture to the PROFESSIONAL Global Competence

4 Morning Schedule Break Reflection & Action Lunch ACTFL Standards
Concept of Culture Break Reflection & Action Lunch

5 Create atmoshpere + more activities
Afternoon Schedule Create atmoshpere + more activities Break Develop activities

6 MOTIVATION What do you want your students to gain?
Why do you teach? How do you teach? What do you want your students to gain? Text 761703 and your message to 37607


8 The United States must educate students who are equipped linguistically and culturally to communicate successfully in a pluralistic American society and abroad. National Standards Project

9 To study another language and culture gives one the powerful
COMMUNICATION To study another language and culture gives one the powerful key to successful communication: knowing how, when,and why to say what to whom.

10 Communication Communities Cultures THE FIVE Cs Comparisons Connections






16 Revisiting the concept of

17 The Iceberg Metaphor What do you see? and now?


19 Activity based on the iceberg model
Place the following aspects of culture either above or below the water Clothing Views on equality Religious beliefs Personal distance Works of art Rules of politeness Relationship with nature Degree of eye contact Time management Methods of worship Tipping customs Gestures Attitudes towards sexuality Concept of beauty Food Content prepared by Wendy W. Allen

20 Culture is… … tantamount to perspective … products and practices
… intertwined with issues of power

21 In other words… “Culture is a fluctuating embodiment of a group’s products, practices and perspectives. Inseparable from language, culture is also impacted by issues of power as it can be used to marginalize or privilege.” Muirhead, P. (2009). Rethinking culture: Toward a pedagogy of possibility in world language education. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 6(4), Pablo Muirhead

22 How is culture integrated into the teaching of languages?
THEN NOW IDEAL Pure focus on language “Culture” limited to upper-level coursework (through literature) Recognition of importance of culture Struggle to make it natural part at all levels Moving toward deeper understanding of culture Subconsciously infusing culture in lessons Inextricable link between culture and language visible in classrooms Students gain multiple perspectives that help them challenge societal injustices

23 Having a single cultural perspective.
AVOID BEING CULTURE BOUND Having a single cultural perspective. Not being able to adopt different points of view.

24 Developer of Intercultural Communicative Competence
Recognizes this as a gradual process Moves beyond viewing “other” cultures from the outside in, but rather the inside out

25 Seeks Cultural & Linguistic Legitimacy
Decenters dominant ways of viewing the world Legitimizes traditionally dominated cultures and nonstandard language varieties Presents cultural perspectives from traditionally marginalized groups

26 Conscienticized Reflective Being
Recognizes political nature of schooling Creates an environment where discrimination is challenged

27 Having a single cultural perspective.
AVOID BEING CULTURE BOUND Having a single cultural perspective. Not being able to adopt different points of view.

28 CULTURE POWER Perspectives Products Practices


30 Extended conversation at table during and after a meal
Share your thoughts about what PERSPECTIVES can be gained and PRODUCTS might exist from the PRACTICE below. PRACTICE: Extended conversation at table during and after a meal PRODUCTS: What products would you associate with this practice? PERSPECTIVES: What perspectives would you associate with this practice?

31 What products do you associate with this? PERSPECTIVES:
PRACTICE: Gemütlichkeit PRODUCTS: What products do you associate with this? PERSPECTIVES: What perspectives do you associate with this?

32 PRACTICE: Use of two last names PERSPECTIVES: What cultural PRODUCTS:
Share your thoughts about what PERSPECTIVES can be gained from the PRODUCT and PRACTICE below. PRACTICE: Use of two last names PERSPECTIVES: What cultural perspectives can we gain from this? PRODUCTS: Last names

Working in small teams, identify a product or practice that you teach. Then consider the perspectives that can be gained from these products and practices. PRACTICE PRODUCTS PERSPECTIVES

34 Teaching Foreign Language Video Library Workshops
Workshop on Culture featuring Professor Alvino Fantini

35 Unit Plan Inventory “If you lead with culture, language will follow. -Donna Clementi Pair up with a colleague who teaches a similar course as you. Begin developing the cultural framework for an upcoming unit.


37 Learner Acquires Knowledge
High-Challenge Content Learner Leaves Learner Acquires Knowledge High-Challenge Process Low-Challenge Process Learner Develops Skills Learner Rests Low-Challenge Content The Bennett Model (as cited by Lange, 1999, p. 76)

38 Support / Challenge Framework PROCESSES
Consider the risk of disclosure / preparation time Low challenge processes High challenge processes = Individual learners are on the spot – Lecture – Films (in the dark) – Working together, group or paired activities – Songs, games, or TPR – Cloze activities, X choice – Research projects – Routine activities – Matching or sorting exercises – Reading [silently] – Performance on the stage – Simulations – Role plays – Oral presentations – Open-ended – Debates – Voicing an opinion Content prepared by Wendy W. Allen

39 Support/challenge framework CONTENT
Consider the risk of disclosure / preparation time Low challenge High challenge – Weather – Leisure activities – Food – Calendar – Numbers – Big C "products" – Courses of study – Travel – Colors – Family – Politics – Religion – Sexuality – Diversity – Social class – Justice / fairness / inequalities – Xenophobia

40 EXAMPLE Cultural comparisons/Interpretive
Antes de leer. Select four words from the list below that you might use in describing the concept of “family” in your native culture. As a class, tally the most cited descriptions by native culture. ___ unidos ___ ayuda financiera ___ reuniones frecuentes ___ ayuda moral ___ celebraciones religiosas ___ familias grandes ___ fiestas familiares ___ familias extendidas ___ familias nucleares ___ ayuda médica ___ respetar la autoridad ___ inculcar buenos modales

41 Communication (interpretive) / Culture (perspectives)
EXAMPLE Communication (interpretive) / Culture (perspectives) La típica familia hispana no sólo incluye a los padres y sus hijos sino que también incluye a la familia extendida, los tíos, primos, abuelos y compadres. Los individuos de una familia tienen una responsabilidad de ayudar a otros miembros de la familia con problemas financieros,… (fragmento de una lectura)

42 Example: Communication (interpretive)
Reading Comprehension. With a classmate, indicate whether the following statements are true or false, based on the reading above. Then, underline the sentence in the reading that supports your answers. Confirm your answers with two other classmates. La familia es la unidad social más importante en la cultura hispana. La familia hispana se limita a la familia nuclear. Una persona tiene la responsabilidad moral de ayudar a los miembros de su familia. Las familias hispanas no se reúnen frecuentemente. El honor es un valor importante en las familias hispanas. Los niños hispanos no aprenden a respetar la autoridad.

Experiencia personal. Each of the stressors that made the “Top 7 list” in the Contextos reading selection received an average score of from on a scale of 1-5, indicating highly perceived stress on the part of the students. Which, if any, of the situations below cause stress for you? Rate each from 1-5 (1 = least stress; 5 = most stress). Compare your answers with those of a couple of classmates. How do your experiences of these situations compare to the experiences of Spanish students? Tomar un examen Presentar trabajos en clase Estar en los salones de 200+ personas Excesivo número de créditos, trabajos obligatorios, etc. Ir a la oficina del profesor en horas de tutorías Tiempo insuficiente para hacer los trabajos académicos Competitividad entre compañeros Trabajar en grupo

44 EXAMPLE: Comparisons (cultural)
What situations produce the most stress in your native culture? If similar to the Spanish students, can you offer reasons for the similarities? If different, investigate why. For example, in many university level classes in Spain, many professors expect students to take one sole exam at the end of the semester and their performance on that exam determines their grade.

45 EXAMPLE: Culture (interpretive mode)
Resumir la idea principal. Read the following short excerpt from another article titled «Trabajar para vivir». Then, select the statement below that best summarizes the main idea of this paragraph? Compare your response with a classmate and then with the class. Attitudes about work in Spain are different from those in the U.S., Japan, and China. People in Spain are becoming as “workaholic” as people in the U.S., Japan, and China. People in Spain are struggling to find a balance between work and other aspects of their lives, just like people in the U.S., Japan, and China. [AIE: Remind students of some of the reading strategies they have practiced thus far (e.g. skimming, contextual clues, prior knowledge, titles). Answer: A]

46 Trabajar para vivir por Eneko Vivir para trabajar o trabajar para vivir. Esa pregunta nos la hemos hecho casi todos, y todos decimos sin pensar la misma respuesta: trabajar para vivir. En eso, por norma general, los españoles van delante de otros países del mundo, como Japón, China o Estados Unidos donde la gente está mucho más dedicada a su trabajo; es decir, su trabajo se convierte en la parte fundamental de su vida.

47 ¿Tú vives para trabajar. o ¿trabajas para vivir
¿Tú vives para trabajar? o ¿trabajas para vivir? Is the main idea of the reading above true for you and your classmates? Ask the questions to a classmate and based on his/her responses, determine if your partner lives to work or works to live. Your instructor will poll the class to see how many students in class live to work and how many work to live. Record the findings in your Profile of my Spanish Class. ¿Con qué frecuencia comes comida rápida? ¿cocinas? ¿Comes sólo/a o con otra(s) persona(s)? ¿Con quién(es)? ¿Comes en la mesa o en otro lugar; por ejemplo en tu coche, en tu oficina, enfrente del televisor? Aunque estés ocupado/a, ¿tomas tiempo para comer tranquilamente? ¿Pasas mucho o poco tiempo preparándote por la mañana? ¿Vas de compras sólo por necesidad o también para relajarte?

at a NOVICE LEVEL Situations Formal vs Familiar Proximity activities Closer vs further Greetings Compare & contrast

49 Unspoken Rules Read the unspoken rules of behavior associated with your culture. Take on the role of someone from this culture when speaking to others but DO NOT share this information with others. THEN, get to know several people by… Introducing yourselves. Talking about your roles as language educators. Sharing the impact of your intercultural immersion experiences.

50 First Impressions Our subconscious acts on its own and we often make assumptions as a result. These can often be completely innocuous but sometimes they can be very detrimental. You are about to view a series of images. Share your first impression with a neighbor.

51 First impressions Our subconscious acts on its own and we often make assumptions as a result. These can often be completely innocuous but sometimes they can be very detrimental. You are about to view a series of images. Share your first impression with a neighbor.

52 Young or old woman?

53 Man Playing Horn... or Woman's Silhouette?
Hint: woman's right eye is the black speck in front of horn handle

54 Woman in vanity... or Skull?
Hint: move farther a bit from screen and blink to see the skull or the woman (looking at the mirror)

55 Two Faces... or One? Hint: two faces side profile or one face front view

56 A Rabbit... or a Duck? Hint: the duck is looking left, the rabbit is looking right

57 Reflections… Chances are… …you and your partner didn’t see the same thing at first. …you may have struggled to see both representations all the time. Fact is… …impressions and decisions are made very quickly. …we will gain a bigger picture of issues if we can first suspend judgment.

58 Bennett Model Experience of Difference Development of Intercultural Sensitivity
Denial Defense Minimization Acceptance Adaptation Integration ETHNOCENTRIC STAGES ETHNORELATIVE STAGES Lange, D. L. (1999). Planning for and using the new national culture standards. In J. K. Phillips & R. K. Terry (Eds.), Foreign language standards: Linking research, theories, and practices (pp. 57 135). Lincolnwood, Illinois: National Textbook Company.

59 I haven’t left my little bubble yet…
DENIAL Individual does not perceive cultural differences, or avoids them. Focus on PRODUCTS ETHNOCENTRIC STAGES

60 DEFENSE Individual demonstrates intolerance toward differences.
There “they” go speaking Spanish again. DEFENSE Reflect on own cultures Individual demonstrates intolerance toward differences. ETHNOCENTRIC STAGES

61 MINIMIZATION Individual downplays
I like to think of myself as color blind. I don’t see a person’s race. MINIMIZATION Individual downplays differences and takes on belief that everyone is the same. ETHNOCENTRIC STAGES increase contact with cultures studied

62 I don’t understand but I’m okay with that and am open to learning.
comparisons & contrasts ACCEPTANCE Individual begins to value the richness that cultures offer. ETHNORELATIVE STAGES

63 tolerate greater ambiguity
I see things differently now and can better understand why others feel the way they do. ADAPTATION Individual begins to develop other perspectives and skills to get along better with “others”. tolerate greater ambiguity ETHNORELATIVE STAGES

64 I have acquired various lenses through which to understand the world.
INTEGRATION \ Individual is able to view the world from multiple perspectives. challenge societal injustices ETHNORELATIVE STAGES

65 Reflecting on these stages, prepare to answer some questions.
Denial Defense Minimization Acceptance Adaptation Integration ETHNOCENTRIC STAGES ETHNORELATIVE STAGES Pull out your phones and text your responses to...

66 Reflecting on these stages, prepare to answer some questions.
Denial Defense Minimization Acceptance Adaptation Integration ETHNOCENTRIC STAGES ETHNORELATIVE STAGES And now respond to…

67 Harvard Hidden-Bias Tests
Excellent resource for self- reflection. Multiple tests are available to measure your subconscious. Find at

68 Riqueza Lingüística

69 Inviting Atmosphere Take advantage of technology
Music in background (e.g. Pandora, Spotify) Slideshow – Have it go on after a few minutes of the computer not being used (pictures from target cultures) Seating arrangement Student- or teacher-centered? Pedagogical Themes Documental – EDUCACION PROHIBIDA

70 Language Exchange Objective: Create an opportunity for Spanish- dominant English-language learners and Spanish learners to interact on an even playing field. Suggestions: Create the least structure possible so that the exchange flows organically from students. Suggest they bring pictures, scrapbooks, etc. to share with one another. Divide time evenly between English and Spanish. Results: Students are motivated to practice because of the realness factor and perspectives can be gained from one another.

71 Useful Strategies Write from a different perspective.
Weather from different parts. Interview community members. Activities in the community. Listen to and work with music. Reenact an event. Noticias del mundo hispanohablante. Thematic Units: Immigration, Chicano Civil Rights, U.S. in Latin America, Identity

72 Throw the ball at the target
Throw the ball at the target. Based on where it hits, you will receive a grade.

73 B+ C+ ? F A C- B- A- C B D D+

74 Rubrics Help We often inherently know the difference between an A and a B-. Do our students? Clear rubrics help students target their progress, and provide a roadmap to success.


76 Build it into your RUBRICS
Write a letter to the host family with whom you are about to go stay. Include the following: introduce yourself, tell them about your interests, where you’re from (describe city, weather, etc.), your family/friends, what you’d like to do while you’re abroad, and make sure to ask them a question, or two, as well. (24 puntos)

77 Maria’s Take on the role of María and write an home to your mother and sister in Colombia. Help them understand what you are experiencing by comparing and contrasting both your U.S. and your Colombian experiences. Include the following information: What the weather in December is like, What the people are like, What the food is like, Whether they should come live with you in the U.S., and What your hopes are for your immediate future (Espero que…).


79 Intercultural Communicative Competence

80 Your Texts Look for examples of products, practices and perspectives in your text(s). What do you see more of?

81 “Use the text, don’t be used by it.” And…
Textbooks treated as sacred book and not as a resource. Teachers that successfully integrated culture and language did so by following this advice: “Use the text, don’t be used by it.”

82 FROM THE PERSONAL “Connection between culture & language” “Conceptualization of culture” TO THE PROFESSIONAL “Global Competence”

83 Putting it into Practice
Now that we’ve had the day to reflect on the integration of culture, chat with your neighbor about something that you would like to implement in your class or an idea that you would like to further develop..

84 The work you do as language teachers is vitally important
The work you do as language teachers is vitally important. I wish you tremendous success making a more seamless connection between language and culture. Stay in touch. Pablo

85 Scan for survey EVALUATIONS
Thank you for participating in the ACTFL workshop with Pablo Muirhead today. Please go to the link below and provide your feedback and reflection from the workshop within the next week. Your responses will help ACTFL continue to provide high quality professional development that meets the needs of world language teachers like you. Scan for survey

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