Presentation on theme: "The Congress of Vienna The beginning of the 100 years peace."— Presentation transcript:
The Congress of Vienna The beginning of the 100 years peace.
The objectives for this slideshow are: Identify the circumstances that led to the defeat of Napoleon. You will assess the impact of the great Congress of Vienna Judge for yourselfwas Metternich right or wrong to suppress revolution? You will predict whether the Congress of Vienna would have a long term impact on European History.
Napoleon, as we remember faced defeat a year after he retreated from Russia (1813).
He was placed on the island of Elba…hopefully for good…and Europes leaders prepared to turn back the clock…
The Bourbons were restored to the various thrones of Europe…in France, the now old brother of the executed Louis XVI, Louis XVIII was king.
The leaders of Europe decided to meet in Vienna, for a Peace conference.
This international meeting was called a Congress and history now calls this the Congress of Vienna.
The Congress had many goals. The first was LEGITIMACY: Only rulers from families before the French Revolution should be put back on the throne. Napoleons brothers were removed from Holland and Spain In France, Louis XVIII accepted the throne, with a constitution that limited his powers and promised equality.
The second goal was redrawing the Map of Europe.
Frances borders were reduced to those of pre-revolutionary France (1789)
The Confederation of the Rhine, as set up by Napoleon, remained.
Prussias borders were set.
More of Poland was given to Russia Finland was also given to Russia.
Italy remained a mix of Kingdoms, Republics and the Papal States.
The Third Goal was to preserve the Status Quoa Latin word for the way things had always been.
This third goal would be the hardest to maintain….because the French Revolution and Napoleonic reforms had given people a taste of equality and freedom.
Vienna was filled with diplomats from all over---Castlereagh from England, Alexander I of Russia, but the most important was Clemens Von Metternich.
Metternich was by far the most important leader. He was the architect of the Congress.
Even France was representedby the Marquis de Talleyranda man who had survived the revolution of 1789, was Napoleons foreign minister, and now he represented Louis XVIIIquite a career!
Of course, there were hundreds of other minor princes, dukes, barons, and religious leaders all meeting in Vienna. They went to party after party. During the night they danced with great beautiesbut during the day, they negotiated for their separate countries.
In the middle of the Congress of Vienna just when everyone was enjoying themselves, Napoleon escapes from Elba!
The Congress continues…with the idea that Napoleon will eventually be defeated. They send the Duke of Wellington to assemble an army.
After a 100 day in power, Napoleon is defeated at Waterloo in Belgium.
Louis XVIII comes back again, and the policies of the Congress of Vienna are now in place.
France was punished for Napoleons brief takeover: it had to give up land and over 700,000,000 francs to help pay for the costly distraction of Waterloo.
Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia all signed a quadruple alliance.
Alexander of Russia also proposed that there should be a Holy Alliance among the Kings to keep the peace.
The Congress ended amidst promises to meet regularly to deal with any conflicts that arose in future congresses.
In the next few years, congresses were held in Aix la Chapelle in 1818, Troppau in 1820, and Verona in These meetings or congresses, as they were called, dealt with many issues. But they had one goal in mind:
Keep the Peaceno more wholesale European Warfare!
Of course, there will be wars during the 1800sbut they will not encompass all of Europe, so, the Hundred Years Peace is an appropriate title.
There will be the Crimean War….
There will be Italys Unification--
Germany will experience the: Danish-Prussian War Prussian Austrian War Franco Prussian War
But after their wars, Germany will become a united country.
And Britain will experience the Boer War in its South African regions.
History dovetailed nicely when we realize that widespread war does not break out again until 1914World War I.
That is why the years is called the Hundred Years Peace.
The Congress of Vienna, for that reason, might be termed a successful peace conference.
In the years to come, Metternich would suppress any sign of revolution…he used secret spies, censored papers, and suppressed students.
The Metternich system was adopted by other countries. Their leaders supported spying, informants, and suppression.
The novel and film Les Miserables which you are about to see takes place during this time.
During the Age of Metternich, Europe also underwent the beginning of a greater disruption than any political revolution….it moved into the might Industrial Revolution. Stay Tuned.
The objectives for this powerpoint were: Identify the circumstances that led to the defeat of Napoleon. You assessed the impact of the great Congress of Vienna Judge for yourselfwas Metternich right or wrong to suppress revolution? You predicted whether the Congress of Vienna would have a long term impact on European History.