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1. Shraih is the moral code and religious law of Islam. Sharia deals with many topics addressed by secular law, including crime, politics and economics,

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Presentation on theme: "1. Shraih is the moral code and religious law of Islam. Sharia deals with many topics addressed by secular law, including crime, politics and economics,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Shraih is the moral code and religious law of Islam. Sharia deals with many topics addressed by secular law, including crime, politics and economics, as well as personal matters such as Marriage, Foods, prayer, and fasting The sharia is characterized as a discussion on the duties of Muslims based on both the opinion of the Muslim community and extensive literature 2

3 Primary sources of Islamic law: The principles set forth in the Quran, The example set by the Holy prophet Muhammad in the Sunnah. Secondary Sources Islamic jurisprudence interprets and extends the application of sharia to questions not directly addressed in the primary sources by including secondary sources. These secondary sources usually include the consensus of the religious scholars embodied in ijma, and analogy from the Quran and Sunnah through Qiyas. Shaitee jurists prefer to apply reasoning ('aql) rather than 3

4 Major schools of Sunni fiqh, which include the Hanafi, Shafi'i, Maliki and Hanbali The Salafi movement also looks to the actions and sayings of the first three generations of Muslims for guidance, in addition to the Quran and Sunnah, 4

5 In Imami-Shi'i law, the sources of law (usul al-fiqh) The Quran, anecdotes of Holy prophet Muhammad's practices and those of The Twelve Imams, and the intellect ('aql). Most Shia Muslims follow the Ja'fari school of thought 5

6 Secular Muslim states: Kazakhstan and Turkey Religious interference in state affairs, law and politics is prohibited The role of sharia is limited to personal and family matters. 6

7 Pakistan, Indonesia, Egypt, Sudan, Morocco and Malaysia legal systems strongly influenced by sharia ultimate authority to their constitutions and the rule of law In these countries, politicians and jurists make law, rather than religious scholars Significant differences is noted when compared to classical sharia 7

8 Saudi Arabia and some Gulf states do not have constitutions or legislatures Rulers have limited authority to change laws Law is based on sharia as it is interpreted by their religious scholars Iran shares some of these characteristics, but also has a parliament that legislates in a manner consistent with sharia 8

9 Consensus = Ijma Analogical deduction = Qiyas Preference = Istehsan al-maslaha al-mursalah, which means social benefit Common practice=urf Taqlid= as was said before 9

10 Concept – Literal – In Fiqah From Quran,Caliphat and Fiqah Needs and limitations Practice of Ijtehad – By Individual – By Institutions Epilogue_Doors open or closed ? 10

11 Sharia can be divided into five main branches: Ibadah (ritual worship) Mu'amalat (transactions and contracts) Adab (morals and manners), I'tiqadat (beliefs) Uqubat (punishments) 11

12 Legal Rulings The Shariah regulates all human actions and puts them into five categories: Obligatory Recommended Permitted Disliked Forbidden Obligatory actions must be performed and when performed with good intentions are rewarded. Its opposite is the forbidden. Recommended action is that which should be done. Its opposite is the disliked. Permitted action is that which is neither encouraged nor discouraged. Most human actions fall in this last category 12

13 fard (obligatory), Actions in the fard category are those required of all Muslims. They include the five daily prayers, fasting, articles of faith, obligatory charity, and the hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. mustahabb (recommended), The recommended, permissible and discouraged categories are drawn largely from accounts of the life of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. the mustahabb category includes proper behavior in matters such as marriage, funeral rites and family life, as civil law in the West. behavior is not mustahabb can be ruled against by the judge. 13

14 MUBAH (neutral), All behavior which is neither discouraged nor recommended, neither forbidden nor required is of the Mubah; it is permissible. MAKRUH (discouraged), Makruh behavior, while it is not sinful of itself, is considered undesirable among Muslims. It may also make a Muslim liable to criminal penalties under certain circumstances. HARAAM (forbidden) Haraam behavior is explicitly forbidden. It is both sinful and criminal. It includes all actions expressly forbidden in the Qur'an. Certain Muslim dietary and clothing restrictions also fall into this category. 14

15 Primary – Quran – Sunnah Secondary – Ijma – Qyais – Ijtehad – Istidlal – Istehsan – Taqleed 15

16 Need Wisdom Social Welfare 16

17 The doors of Ijtihad are closed Individual ijtehad Possible ? The scope includes definitive matters such as the prohibition of Riba (usury) It is the reasoning of an individual and therefore cannot be a shariah rule Ijtehad possible where Islamic evidences have not discussed directly i.e. upon new issues Ijtehad is an individual obligation and therefore Taqleed is prohibited 17

18 In the fourth century of Hijrah a person called al- Qaffal issued a Fatwa closing the door of Ijtihad, thus he was called al-Qaffal which means the one who closes something Imam Ghazali_ freezing Islamic thinking in time During the Mogul invasion. Rulers feared that under pressure of occupation by non-Muslim forces that Ijtihad may lead to misinterpretations Only with security can one tolerate differences. If the self is threatened it clutches to certainties, wants to keep them and builds on them. In times of crises multiplicity of opinion is not encouraged and Ijtihad is endangered. 18

19 "Ijtihad" constitutes and effort to opt for one of two or more possible solutions in a given situation and to provide legal justification for that solution with legal justification Ijtihad is subjective, it starts with your belief and conscience. Science is objective, it starts with a tabula raza. You start with no basic values 19

20 In Quran Ijtehad literally means to exert. In the Islamic terminology it means to exert with a view to form an independent judgement on a legal question. It has its origin in the well- known verse of the Quran And to those who exert we show our path. Ijtehad + consensus = IJMA 20

21 Hazrat Ali, when consulted by Caliph Uthman on the punishment which should be meted out to those who drank wine, he advised; We apply the punishment for calumny, namely eighty lashes of the whip, because if a person becomes intoxicated, he knows not what he says, and in such a condition he commits calumny. Thus, through this analogy, drinking of wine was linked to calumny. Other examples of Ijtehad by orthodox Caliphs are as follows; Punishment as prescribed by the Quran for the thief, male or female, is to cut off their hands, but the Caliph Umar suspended it in the year of famine because of necessity and in order that people might keep alive. 21

22 Caliph Umar, observed the principle of sound analogy (Tawil) in the interpretation of the Quranic verse: Alms are only for the poor and the needy, and those who collect them and for those whose hearts are to be reconciled, and to free the captives and the debtors, and for the cause of Allah and the wayfarer, a duty imposed by God. (9:60) The words, those whose hearts are to be reconciled, refer to a group of weavers who were included among the recipients of the alms. The verse is silent as to the cause why this group was included among the recipients of alms. The sole object was to win them over to the side of Islam on account of their influence and the high esteem in which they were held in their tribe. Caliph Umar refused to give them alms when Islam had gained in strength saying: These were payments from the Prophet (Pbuh) to you in order to win you over for Islam 22

23 Imam Abu Hanifa and Abu Yusuf are reported by Ibn Qyyaim al-Jawziah to have said, It is not legitimate for anyone to follow our view until he has learned the source where from we derived those views Imam Mohammad, and Imam Yusuf both students of Imam Hanifa, rejected eighty percent of Ijtehad of their teacher Abu Hanifa in the light of new sources and changed conditions The Fiqh Hanafi as it exists today is based on the Ijtehad of both these students, that is, Imam Yusuf and Imam Mohammad 23

24 Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, reputed the most meticulous adherent to the traditions said, Do not imitate me, Malik, AlShafii or al- Thawri but learn from the source from which they learned. 24

25 Interpretation is incumbent upon every man of learning. They also prove that the interpreter is liable to err. Ibn Qayyim writes, The sharia is all justice, kindness, common good and wisdom. Any rule that departs from justice to injustice... or departs from common good (Maslaha) to harm (Mafsada)... is not part of Sharia, even if it is arrived at by literal interpretation 25

26 Limitations Cant be invoke in : Creation of universe Oneness of Allah Faiths 5 Pillars of Islam 26

27 Iqbal_ worldly matters (muamalaat) relate to the rights of the people and are subject to change and modification King Hussein _(Jordan), "When Ijtihad-the possibility of reconciling faith and present-day life-stopped a long time ago, We need to do whatever we can to repair that mistake." 27

28 FIQFORMATION OF IJMA'RATIONALE Hanafi through public agreement of Islamic jurists the jurists are experts on legal matters Shafi'i through agreement of the entire community and public at large the people cannot agree on anything erroneous Maliki through agreement amongst the residents of Medina, the first Islamic capital Islamic tradition says "Medina expels bad people like the furnace expels impurities from iron" Hanbali through agreement and practice of Muhammad's Companions they were the most knowledgeable on religious matters and rightly guided Usuli only the consensus of the ulama of the same period as the Prophet or Shia Imams is binding. consensus is not genuinely binding in its own right, rather it is binding in as much as it is a means of discovering the Sunnah. 28

29 Two basic elements of Law – Dignity – Flexible according to need Gap b/w message and meaning Issues of Language Rapidly Changing Culture and ideas Revival of Religion A return to traditional views of Sharia The Islamist movement-neo-Sharism, Political Islam The Fundamentalist movement-Hadood Laws Extremism-justifying terrorism Law is there but cause is developing Law itself is developing Law is there but situation is new Law and cause both are developing 29

30 Cloning Organ transplantation Blood Transformation RFB Lewis Brown Share Trade Concept of Islamic State Globalization and its challenges – Jet Lag – Geographical lag 30

31 Individual_Mujtahid. Concept of Shah Wali Ullah_Ulema Muslim Sane Intelligent Expert in Arabic language Uloomul quran Uloomul hadeeth Ilmul ijtihaad wal taqleed Practitioner Muslim Punctual in Shraih Any Possibility ??????? Sir syed Ahmed Khan_ Intellectuals 31

32 Institutional Parliament _Iqbal Cabinet_ Molana Azad Courts_ Justice Javid National Institutions _ Courts, Council of Islamic Ideology, Federal Shariat Court, Research Institutions – International Ijtehad Organization of Islamic Cooperation Jamaiya Azhar Bait ulqum Islamic Research Foundation Dar ul Uloom Deoband 32

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