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A2 Sport Psychology Revision Guide. Sport Psychology Individual Aspects of Sport Performance Group Dynamics Mental Preparation for Sport Performance Competition.

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Presentation on theme: "A2 Sport Psychology Revision Guide. Sport Psychology Individual Aspects of Sport Performance Group Dynamics Mental Preparation for Sport Performance Competition."— Presentation transcript:

1 A2 Sport Psychology Revision Guide

2 Sport Psychology Individual Aspects of Sport Performance Group Dynamics Mental Preparation for Sport Performance Competition Effects Consequences of Sport Performance

3 Individual Aspects of Sport Performance Personality Personality Attitude Attitude Motivation Motivation

4 Personality Trait Theories Social Learning Theories. Interactionist Theories Inherited Stable Enduring e.g Eyensenk Learned Unstable Environment e.g Bandura Personality is the sum total of an individual s characteristics which make him or her unique (Hollander)

5 Cattells 16PF (Trait Theory) 16 Personality Factors Questionnaire. Answering a series of questions on a scale of 1-5 on how much you agree with a statement.

6 Eysenck (Trait Theory) Eysenck proposed that only two factors were necessary to explain individual differences in personality. He argued that Cattell's model contained too many factors which were similar to each other, and that a simple two factor model could encompass the 16 traits proposed by Cattell. This model had the following dimensions: Extrovert – Lively, outgoing, sociable, expressive. Introvert – Quiet, independent, private. Stable – Calm, controlled. Unstable (Neurotic) – Anxious, worried.

7 Personality Types (Trait Theory) TYPE A characterised by : impatience works at a rapid pace higher levels of stress easily aroused strong desire to succeed anxiety in stressful situations has a need to be in control TYPE B characterised by : relaxed and patient allow time for tasks to be completed tolerance of others mistakes delegates easily low personal stress calm and unflappable in most situations less competitive Leading on from Eysenck, two distinct personality types were identified.

8 PSYCHOLOGICAL CORE beliefs and values that remain more or less permanent beliefs and values that remain more or less permanent example : a sportsmans belief that fair play underlies his attitude on the field of play example : a sportsmans belief that fair play underlies his attitude on the field of play ROLE RELATED BEHAVIOUR in other situations we may behave differently in other situations we may behave differently example : Getting frustrated during a game and arguing with the ref. example : Getting frustrated during a game and arguing with the ref. SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT how the behaviour and expectations of others affect our role how the behaviour and expectations of others affect our role example : a player argues with the referee because others have done so and got away with it before example : a player argues with the referee because others have done so and got away with it before Concentric Ring Theory TYPICAL RESPONSES the way in which an individual responds in certain situations the way in which an individual responds in certain situations example : Not arguing with the ref.

9 Psychodynamic Theory The ID The EGO The SUPER- EGO Fullfill the ID (Steal Food/ Fight) The moral Arm Stealing and Fighting Are Wrong. The Basic Instinct (Hunger/Anger)

10 Social Learning Theory SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY explains behaviour in terms of the reaction to specific situations explains behaviour in terms of the reaction to specific situations we learn to dea with situations by observing others we learn to dea with situations by observing others or by observing the results of our own behaviour on others or by observing the results of our own behaviour on others and by modelling our own behaviour on what we have seen and by modelling our own behaviour on what we have seen athletes learn behaviour by watching others athletes learn behaviour by watching others BANDURA behaviour is determined by the situation behaviour is determined by the situation social comparison social comparison behaving the same way as the peer group behaving the same way as the peer group social approval or disapproval determines our responses social approval or disapproval determines our responses behaviour is reinforced or penalised behaviour is reinforced or penalised VICARIOUS CONDITIONING the learning of emotional responses through observational learning the learning of emotional responses through observational learning learning to become angry after a valid referee decision has gone against him / her by watching other players do the same learning to become angry after a valid referee decision has gone against him / her by watching other players do the same SOCIALISATION sport has a socialising effect sport has a socialising effect participation in sport establishes norms and values of our society participation in sport establishes norms and values of our society

11 Personality is a combination of both genetically inheritted traits and learned behaviour. Somebody who is born with outgoing, aggressive and hot-headed personality characteristics may learn to control and modify them to be more controlled and less aggressive in their personality. – Parental discipline when a child misbehaves, negative reinforcement from peers. Somebody who is born with more introverted and quiet personality traits may develop a more open and extroverted personality through the environment that they are brought up in. – Lots of interaction with other people, opportunity to play sports and join teams. Interactionist Theory

12 MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY INTERVIEWS before or after the event before or after the event not directly related to performance not directly related to performance open ended and flexible open ended and flexible difficult to quantify accurately difficult to quantify accurately may be influenced by the interviewer may be influenced by the interviewer demand characteristics demand characteristicsQUESTIONNAIRES before or after the event before or after the event not directly related to performance not directly related to performance rigidly and systematically set out rigidly and systematically set out able to quantify accurately able to quantify accurately would not be influenced by another would not be influenced by another can be used to assess specific traits can be used to assess specific traits demand characteristics demand characteristics OBSERVATION made during an actual event made during an actual event directly related to performance directly related to performance varies according to the competitive nature of the event varies according to the competitive nature of the event difficult to quantify accurately difficult to quantify accurately may be influenced by the observers views and attitudes may be influenced by the observers views and attitudes Demand characteristics refers to an experiment where participants form an interpretation of the experiment's purpose and unconsciously change their behavior accordingly

13 Limitations of Personality Profiling Not always an accurate predictor of type of activity undertaken. Extroverts – will enjoy individual sports, Introverts will play team games. Not always an accurate predictor of levels of success in sport. Damn it!

14 Attitudes ATTITUDES a combination of beliefs and feelings about : objects people situations (called attitude objects) this predisposes us to behave in a certain way towards them learned or organised through experience evaluative they lead us to think and behave positively or negatively about an attitude object tend to be deep seated and enduring but can change or be changed

15 FORMATION OF ATTITUDES Where do our attitudes come from? Family Peers Teachers/Coaches Media Past Experiences

16 COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE - THE TRIADIC MODEL Affective (feelings/emotions) Cognitive (Knowledge/Beliefs) Behavioural (Intended behavior) Going to the gym will get you fit. I go to the gym twice a week. I enjoy going to the gym

17 PREJUDICE AND SPORT STEREOTYPES NEGATIVE STEREOTYPES women in strength, endurance and contact sports women in strength, endurance and contact sports participation of particular ethnic groups in specific sports or positions within teams participation of particular ethnic groups in specific sports or positions within teams participation of the disabled in physical activity participation of the disabled in physical activity older age groups interest and ability at sport older age groups interest and ability at sport PREJUDICE a prejudgement of a person, group, or situation a prejudgement of a person, group, or situation usually based on inadequate information usually based on inadequate information or inaccurate or biased information or inaccurate or biased information which reinforces stereotypes which reinforces stereotypes example : example : women are often excluded from male dominated sports clubs or events women are often excluded from male dominated sports clubs or events Positive Prejudice = my opponent will be quick at running because he is black. Negative Prejudice = She cant play football because she is a girl.

18 POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ATTITUDES TO SPORT POSITIVE ATTITUDE has a positive physical self- concept has a positive physical self- concept satisfaction from participation in sport satisfaction from participation in sport believe sport promotes health believe sport promotes health success at sport success at sport willing to try new activities willing to try new activities encouraged by significant others encouraged by significant others participates regularly participates regularly opportunity to participate opportunity to participate NEGATIVE ATTITUDES had negative experiences at sport had negative experiences at sport have lifestyle which makes regular sport difficult have lifestyle which makes regular sport difficult find sport frustrating find sport frustrating lack encouragement lack encouragement unlikely to participate in sport unlikely to participate in sport have a negative self concept have a negative self concept find sport boring find sport boring

19 Changing Attitudes Persuasive Communication: Changing attitudes through the process of persuasion. The persuader needs to be significant & have high status. The message needs to be presented in a way that makes the recipient want to change attitude. The recipients needs to want to change their attitude The situation has to be right – attitudes are easier to change if others are present. Cognitive Dissonance: If a person holds 2 ideas that oppose & conflict with each other an element of discomfort arises. This emotional discomfort is called dissonance. e.g. You want to join the gym but dont think you have enough time Changing one aspect of the triadic model can change your attitude. e.g. – You get a better understanding of the health benefits of joining the gym and make time in your life to attend twice a week.

20 Motivation Intrinsic Competence Mastery Feeling good. Extrinsic Praise/Critisism Fame Trophies/Medals Money Pace Points Motivation Drive to succeed

21 Achievement Motivation ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION the drive to achieve success for its own sake the drive to achieve success for its own sake related to related to Competitiveness (sport specific) Competitiveness (sport specific) persistence persistence striving for perfection striving for perfection influenced by influenced by personality factors personality factors need to achieve need to achieve need to avoid failure need to avoid failure situational factors situational factors probability of success probability of success incentive value of success incentive value of success NEED TO ACHIEVE (NACH) Tendency to approach success (TAS) this personality type likes a challenge (approach behaviour) this personality type likes a challenge (approach behaviour) is not afraid of failure is not afraid of failure has high task persistence has high task persistence Attribute success to internal factors Attribute success to internal factors NEED TO AVOID FAILURE (NAF) Tendency to avoid failure (TAF) this personality type avoids challenges (avoidance behaviour) this personality type avoids challenges (avoidance behaviour) does not take risks does not take risks often gives up often gives up Attribute success to external factors. Attribute success to external factors.

22 Achievement Motivation A = TAS someone with a high need to achieve someone with a high need to achieve will probably have a low need to avoid failure will probably have a low need to avoid failure will choose difficult or demanding tasks which are more risky will choose difficult or demanding tasks which are more risky the hard route up a rock face the hard route up a rock face B = TAF someone with a high ne to avoid failure someone with a high ne to avoid failure will probably have a low need to achieve will probably have a low need to achieve will choose tasks which are less risky and more easily achieved will choose tasks which are less risky and more easily achieved the easy route up the rock face the easy route up the rock face

23 Incentive Value (Achievement Motivation) A = probability of success low probability of success low (competing against the world champion) (competing against the world champion) therefore strive very hard to win therefore strive very hard to win (incentive high) (incentive high) (will be highly chuffed if win) (will be highly chuffed if win) B = probability of sucess high probability of sucess high (competing in local club match) (competing in local club match) therefore dont need to try as hard to win therefore dont need to try as hard to win (incentive low) (incentive low) (and expect to win easily) (and expect to win easily) (not so pleasing) (not so pleasing)

24 Group Dynamics Groups and Teams Groups and Teams Leadership Leadership

25 What is A Group? 2 or more people 2 or more people Mutual awareness Mutual awareness Interacting with each other Interacting with each other Common goal or purpose. Common goal or purpose.

26 Cohesion ENVIRONMENTAL factors binding members to a team factors binding members to a team contracts, location, age, eligibility contracts, location, age, eligibility avoid star system, provide opportunities for socialising avoid star system, provide opportunities for socialising PERSONAL factors which members believe are important factors which members believe are important motives for taking part motives for taking part give opportunities for motives to be realised give opportunities for motives to be realised develop ownership feelings and social groupings within the team develop ownership feelings and social groupings within the team LEADERSHIP the behaviour of leaders and coaches the behaviour of leaders and coaches coaches should use all leadership behaviours to influence different individuals coaches should use all leadership behaviours to influence different individualsTEAM factors relating to the group factors relating to the group team identity, targets, member ability and role team identity, targets, member ability and role creation of team short and long-term goals creation of team short and long-term goals rewarding of individual and team efforts rewarding of individual and team efforts

27 Steiners Model of Group Performance Actual productivity = Potential productivity - Losses due to faulty processes. Potential productivity is primarily decided by the individual skill levels of team members, Faulty Processes are either Motivational Loses or Co-ordination Loses.

28 Motivational Loses (Social Loafing) Motivational Problems People seem to work less hard in a group than they do on their own People seem to work less hard in a group than they do on their own Example : in rowing, times of winning double sculls are often only slightly faster than single sculls Example : in rowing, times of winning double sculls are often only slightly faster than single sculls This is social loafing the Ringlemann Effect This is social loafing the Ringlemann EffectWhy? Individuals may not share the same motives, this leads to loss of group cohesion Individuals may not share the same motives, this leads to loss of group cohesion can hide their lack of effort amongst the effort of other group members can hide their lack of effort amongst the effort of other group members Performers are not recognised for their contribution to the team. Performers are not recognised for their contribution to the team. Example : some players may play a game for social reasons, others in order to win/or Example : some players may play a game for social reasons, others in order to win/or What can a coach do? Loafing can be eliminated if the contribution of an individual can be identified Loafing can be eliminated if the contribution of an individual can be identified Setting specific and measurable goals Setting specific and measurable goals Recording individual data/statitics – passes/shots etc Recording individual data/statitics – passes/shots etc

29 Co-Ordination Losses Co-ordination losses is depended on how players on the pitch co-ordinate their movement and decision making with each other. Factors that affect it include; The number or players on the pitch. if one player is being selfish or aggressive if a defence is not working together The greater the task cohesion and understanding of each others roles there is between players, the less the losses dues to co-ordination. Practice makes Perfect!

30 Leadership Leaders can influence the behaviour of others towards required goals can influence the behaviour of others towards required goals will influence effective team cohesion will influence effective team cohesion will help fulfil expectations of a team will help fulfil expectations of a team develops an environment in which a group is motivated rewarded and helped towards its common goals develops an environment in which a group is motivated rewarded and helped towards its common goals Where do leaders come from? emergent leaders come from within a emergent leaders come from within a group group because of their skill and abilities or through nomination / election prescribed leaders are appointed by an prescribed leaders are appointed by an agency outside the agency outside the group group Characteristics of a good leader Empathetic Experienced Committed Communication Skills

31 Leadership Theories The great man theory (trait) NATURE NATURE leaders are born not made leaders are born not made leaders have relevant innate personality qualities leaders have relevant innate personality qualities Social learning theory NURTURE NURTURE leaders learn their skills through watching and imitating models leaders learn their skills through watching and imitating models leaders are formed throughout life leaders are formed throughout life by social or environmental influences by social or environmental influences observation of a model observation of a model high status of a model high status of a model imitation or copying of behaviour imitation or copying of behaviour Was Martin Johnson born to be a great leader or did he learn the necessary qualities? Or was it a combination of the two? (Interactionist)

32 Leadership Styles Three different types of leadership styles have been identified. Autocratic (Task) Orientated – makes all the decisions. Democratic (Social) Orientated – shares the decisions with members of the group, seeks advice and is prepared to change his/her mind. Laissez Faire – lets others make decisions. Each type of leader can be effective in different situations.

33 Fiedlers Contingency Model Fiedler's model assumes that group performance depends on: Leadership style and Situational favourableness determined by three factors: 1. Leader-member relations - Degree to which a leader is accepted and supported by the group members. 2. Task structure - Extent to which the task is structured and defined, with clear goals and procedures. (facilities/equipment/weather/support) 3. Position power - The ability of a leader to control subordinates through reward and punishment. High levels of these three factors give the most favourable situation, low levels, the least favourable. Democratic (Relationship-motivated) leaders are most effective in moderately favourable situations. Autocratic (Task-motivated) leaders are most effective at either end of the scale. Fiedler suggests that it may be easier for leaders to change their situation to achieve effectiveness, rather than change their leadership style.

34 Member Characteristics Leader Characteristics Situational Characteristics Actual (Leader) Behaviour Satisfaction/Performance Preferred (Leader) Behaviour Required (Leader) Behaviour Chellandurais Mutli-Dimensional Model of Leadership

35 Mental Preparation for Sports Performance Commitment Commitment (Self) Confidence (Self) Confidence Concentration Concentration (Emotional) Control (Emotional) Control

36 Goal Setting Specific Specific Measurable Measurable Accepted Accepted Realistic Realistic Time Phased Time Phased Exciting Exciting Recorded Recorded Effective goal setting is a useful tool that can be used to manage anxiety (control), raise motivation and therefore commitment levels and develop self confidence of the performer. Goals should be progressive from short to long term. Short Term Medium Term Long Term Goals can be either Process – Technique Performance – Time Product – Position And… Mastery/Task – Self improvement Ego/Ability – comparison with others Socially approved. – Seeking social reinforcement.

37 Self Confidence Self-Confidence Self-Efficacy A generic belief that one can succeed. An attitude The perception of an ability to perform a particular sporting task A situational specific form of self-confidence.

38 Bandura Previous Accomplishments Vicarious Experiences Verbal Persuasion Emotional Arousal Efficacy Expectation Performance if arousal is too high state anxiety - A- state this could lead to low self-efficacy mental rehearsal / physical relaxation could lead to greater confidence and a calmer approach encouragement can lead to greater self- efficacy if the person giving encouragement is of high status compared with the performer consist of past experiences example : previously performed skill at dribbling a soccer ball if this is successful then this leads to greater self-efficacy at this particular task in the future consist of what has been observed in others performing a similar skill example : observing another player in your team dribbling a soccer ball, if the model is of similar age / ability and is successful then this may lead to greater self-efficacy

39 SELF-CONFIDENCE Confidence arouses positive emotions arouses positive emotions allows the athlete to allows the athlete to remain calm under pressure remain calm under pressure facilitates concentration facilitates concentration enables focus on the important aspects of a task enables focus on the important aspects of a task enables the setting of challenging but realistic goals enables the setting of challenging but realistic goals increases effort increases effort affects game strategies affects game strategies a confident player plays to win even if it means taking risks a confident player plays to win even if it means taking risks affects psychological momentum affects psychological momentum a confident athlete take each point or play at a time a confident athlete take each point or play at a time and never gives up and never gives up even when defeat is imminent even when defeat is imminent

40 VEALEYs MODEL OF SPORT CONFIDENCE trait sport confidence the usual level of self- confidence the usual level of self- confidence example :a footballer is confident in his shooting ability. example :a footballer is confident in his shooting ability. competitive orientation the perceived opportunity to achieve a sport performance the perceived opportunity to achieve a sport performance Type of goals you set. Type of goals you set. example : the footballer is motivated to play well in the cup final. example : the footballer is motivated to play well in the cup final. state sport confidence the level of self confidence related to a specific situation the level of self confidence related to a specific situation example :a footballer has low state confidence in taking a penalty in the cup final. example :a footballer has low state confidence in taking a penalty in the cup final. Sports Confidence

41 Concentration Involves focusing attention onto the relevant environmental cues maintaining attention focus until the skill has been completed. Involves focusing attention onto the relevant environmental cues maintaining attention focus until the skill has been completed. Arousal is linked to concentration. When arousal is low, the perceptual field widens taking in too much information for information processing system to deal with. Arousal is linked to concentration. When arousal is low, the perceptual field widens taking in too much information for information processing system to deal with. Selective attention is not in operation & concentration on relevant information is difficult. Selective attention is not in operation & concentration on relevant information is difficult. Information overload occurs & decision-making is impeded causing mistakes in performance. Information overload occurs & decision-making is impeded causing mistakes in performance. As arousal increases, the perceptual field adjusts to the ideal width enabling the performer to focus on the most relevant information. Selective attention is fully operational allowing selective attention to occur. As arousal increases, the perceptual field adjusts to the ideal width enabling the performer to focus on the most relevant information. Selective attention is fully operational allowing selective attention to occur.

42 Awareness Cue Utilisation Easterbrook states that an increase of arousal leads to a decrease in number of cues that can be utilised. Cues can be used by the sportsperson to direct attention to trigger appropriate arousal responses to enable attentional focus at a relevant moment sometimes, narrowing of attentional focus by an aroused player will cause lack of awareness of broader play issues

43 ATTENTIONAL STYLES (Nideffer) INTERNAL/NARROW - A the player decides to concentrate on his own technique the player decides to concentrate on his own technique INTERNAL/BROAD - B the player focuses on the team tactics given by the coach before a game. the player focuses on the team tactics given by the coach before a game. EXTERNAL/BROAD - C a player concentrates on the whole game a player concentrates on the whole game all players positions and movements all players positions and movements open skills open skills EXTERNAL/NARROW - D the player concentrates on one aspect of the game the player concentrates on one aspect of the game the goalkeeper the goalkeeper closed skills closed skills

44 Emotional Control Activation – a state of readiness to perform. Arousal - a state of mental and physical preparedness for action this is the level of inner drives which forces the sportsperson to strive to achieve it needs to be under control and at the right level depending on the task and facilitates the ability to focus (concentrate) Extroverts, Skilful performers and simple tasks require higher levels of arousal. Anxiety – an emotional state similar to fear associated with; physiological (somatic) arousal psychological (cognitive) arousal Can be both State and Trait

45 AROUSAL AND DRIVE THEORY WITH INCREASED AROUSAL the dominant habit / most usual behaviour will be reproduced the dominant habit / most usual behaviour will be reproduced a poorly-learned skill will give a performance full of mistakes a poorly-learned skill will give a performance full of mistakes a well-learned skill will give a skilled performance a well-learned skill will give a skilled performance DRIVE THEORY the higher the arousal level the higher the arousal level the higher the achievement / performance level the higher the achievement / performance level the more likely that a well- learned skill (a dominant response) will be produced the more likely that a well- learned skill (a dominant response) will be produced Expert Novice Increased Arousal Increased in Performance Decrease in Performance

46 INVERTED U THEORY THE POSITION OF OPTIMUM AROUSAL DEPENDS ON type of activity / task complexity gross skills (weight lifting) require high arousal gross skills (weight lifting) require high arousal fine skills (snooker) require low arousal fine skills (snooker) require low arousal skill level of the performer the more skilful the performer the more skilful the performer the higher the optimum arousal could be the higher the optimum arousal could be personality of the performer the more extrovert the performer the more extrovert the performer the higher the arousal likely for optimum performance the higher the arousal likely for optimum performance whereas introverts would optimise performance at lower arousal levels whereas introverts would optimise performance at lower arousal levels there is an optimum arousal level there is an optimum arousal level if aroused more than this if aroused more than this performance will decline performance will decline

47 EFFECT OF STRESS ON PERFORMANCE INHIBITION inhibition of performance inhibition of performance PERFORMANCE OF SKILLS stress may act directly on the information processing of skill stress may act directly on the information processing of skill motor elements of skill are performed less well motor elements of skill are performed less well muscles tense muscles tense muscular control is reduced muscular control is reducedCONCENTRATION concentration is difficult concentration is difficult span of attention is narrowed span of attention is narrowedSTRESS awareness of being under stress itself acts as a stressor awareness of being under stress itself acts as a stressor

48 Peak Flow Experience ExcitementAnger Peak Flow HappinessAnxiety RelaxedBored DrowsinessFatigue High Somatic Arousal Low Somatic Arousal High Cognitive Arousal Low Cognitive Arousal When this happens the athlete assumes control over all internal & environmental variables & a time of great happiness & self-fulfilment is experienced. Flow state is attained when the performer has a balanced perception of the demands of the situation & his/her ability to cope.

49 Individual Zone of Optimal Fuctioning (Hanin) Top athletes have different ZOF. Optimal level of arousal does not always occur at the mid point of the arousal continuum. Optimal level of arousal is not a single point but a band width. Teachers and coaches need to be aware of their performers ZOF and work towards this. 0 Characteristics of being in the zone: Performance appears effortless & automatic with athlete feeling in full control; attention & concentration is focused; the execution of the skill brings enjoyment & satisfaction.

50 Anxiety Anxiety occurs when there is a substantial inbalance between the individuals perception of their ability & their perception of the demands & importance of the situation. Speilberger identified both trait and state anxiety. He measured them using simple aquestionaire. Called the State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory (STAI) A similar test Sports Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT)was later devised to specifically look at the affect competition has on anxiety Not At AllSomewhatModerately SoVery Much So A.I feel at ease1234 B.I feel upset Almost NeverSometimesOftenAlmost Always A.I am a steady person1234 B.I lack self-confidence1234 Questions are asked about current feelings (state) and general feelings (trait) a score out of 80 is given.

51 Anxiety Management Different methods can be used to reduce anxiety (and arousal levels) these include both somatic and cognitive techniques. These can be used to improve performance, improve focus (selective attention), increase self confidence and reduce the risk of aggression. Cognitive Mental Rehersal Imagery Positive Self Talk Thought Stopping Rational Thinking Somatic Progressive Muscular Relaxation Biofeedback

52 Competition Effects Social Facilitation Aggression

53 Social Facilitation Social Facilitation – the positive effect an audience has on performance Immediate effect of an audience is to: Increase the arousal level of a performer Increases speed of performance Releases energy Arouses competitive drive Social Inhibition – the negative effects an audience has on performance Social facilitation looks at the effect a crowd (other people watching) has on a players performance. When a player knows they are being watched it can have either positive or negative results.

54 Zajonc believed that the mere presence of others is sufficient to increase arousal. He used drive theory to link the relationship between arousal and performance. However, the quality of the performance depends on how well the skill has been learned. Our learned behaviours tend to be our dominant responses. A dominant response is the behaviour most likely to occur when we are pressured to respond. As arousal increases we are more likely to see our dominant responses. If youre at the autonomous stage of learning, your dominant response is most likely to be the correct action but if youre at the associative phase of learning you are more likely to show incorrect response. Dominant Response (Social Facilitation) Arousal Dominant Response

55 Evaluation Apprehension The Evaluation Apprehension Theory was proposed by Cottrell. He argued that we quickly learn that social rewards and punishments that we receive from other people are based on their evaluations of us. When we find ourselves with a social presence, we will experience an acquired arousal based on evaluation apprehension. In other words, performance will be enhanced or impaired only in the presence of persons who can approve or disapprove the performance.

56 Audience Effects Homefield advantage - Large supportive crowds are said to help the home team. Most evident in indoor sports. Proximity Effect - Crowds that are close to the action eg. basketball/ice hockey are said to increase audience influence. Distraction Effect – The above can cause players to lose focus and become distracted from their performance. As a result Information Processing is inhibited. Wrong decisions can be made. Reaction time may be slowed down. Important cues will be missed.

57 Strategies to Combat Social Inhibition Practice selective attention to cut out awareness of others Practice selective attention to cut out awareness of others Cognitive visualisation such as; Cognitive visualisation such as; imagery imagery mental rehearsal mental rehearsal Ensure essential skills are over-learned & grooved to ensure dominant response is successful Ensure essential skills are over-learned & grooved to ensure dominant response is successful Simulated crowd noises Simulated crowd noises Raise athletes awareness of ZOF Raise athletes awareness of ZOF Incorporate stress management into training Incorporate stress management into training Appropriate use of attribution to raise confidence Appropriate use of attribution to raise confidence

58 Aggression Any behaviour that is intended to harm another individual by physical or verbal means. Differences between aggression & assertion. Aggression – intent to harm Assertion – within the rules 3 types of aggression: Hostile (or reactive) Aggression: P P P Prime motive is the intent to harm or injury. Outside the rules of the game. Involves anger. Instrumental (or channelled) Aggression: Within the rules and although prime motive is successful execution of skill, there is still intent to harm. Anger is not evident. Assertive behaviour: Does not attempt to harm & is within rules & spirit of the game. Described as non-hostile self-protective mastery behaviour.

59 Causes of Aggression Nature of the game (contact/non-contact) Nature of the game (contact/non-contact) Wide division between scores Wide division between scores Previous experiences could cause grudges or scores to settle Previous experiences could cause grudges or scores to settle Frustration caused by poor form, opposition & referees decisions Frustration caused by poor form, opposition & referees decisions Hostile crowds Hostile crowds Venue – home or away Venue – home or away Excessively high arousal levels Excessively high arousal levels Extrinsic rewards Extrinsic rewards

60 Theories of Aggression Instinct Theory – Trait Perspective: Aggression is genetically inherit. Social Learning Theory – Social Learning Perspective: Aggression is nurtured through environmental forces. It is learned by watching & copying role models & becomes more acceptable if reinforced. Frustration Aggression Hypothesis - Interactionist Approach: Frustration develops when goal-directed behaviour is blocked. If aggressive act is successful, frustration is released & aggressor feels good & learns that violent strategies are successful. If aggression fails & results in punishment, further frustration is generated. Aggressive Cue Hypothesis (Berkowitz) – Interactionist Approach: Frustration leads to an increase in arousal which sometimes will result in aggression. Aggressive cues such as bats or sticks will trigger aggression if arousal is high. The best players have the ability to control frustration and arousal.

61 Methods to Combat Aggressive Tendancies Positively reinforce non-aggressive behaviour & negatively reinforce aggressive behaviour Punish aggressive players Violent players should be withdrawn from aggressive situations Stress performance rather than outcome goals Emphasise non-aggressive role-models Attribute successful performance to skilfulness Use cognitive strategies such as rational thinking, self-talk & imagery Lower arousal levels

62 Consequences of Sport Performance Attribution Theory

63 Attribution Thoery Attribution theory (Weiner) explains how individuals interpret events and how this relates to their thinking, motivation and behavior. Ability EffortLuck Task Difficulty Un-Stable Stable Internal External Locus of Causality Stability Internal – factors within control of the individual External – factors out of performers control Stable – permanent Unstable – temporary & changeable Concentration Commitment Control of arousal Confidence Attitude Mental/physical preparation

64 AttributionAccording to attribution theory, high achievers (TAS) will invite rather than avoid tasks that could lead them to success because they believe success results from high ability and effort, and they are confident of their ability and effort. However, they believe failure is caused by bad luck or things that are beyond their range of control. Failure doesn't affect their self- esteem but success builds pride and confidence. On the other hand, low achievers (TAF) avoid success-related actions because they tend to doubt their ability and/or assume success is related to luck or influence or to other factors beyond their control. Even when successful, it isn't as rewarding to the low achiever because he/she doesn't feel responsible. Success does not increase his/her pride and confidence. Mastery Orientation Learned Helplessness

65 Attribution Retraining Attribution retraining is when low achievers (usually TAF personalities) are taught to alter their perception of why something went wrong or well. By giving feedback to the performer and analysing why something happened. The Athlete needs to have control over the situation. The coach needs to get the performer to attribute a lack of success to internal unstable factors so the athlete has control over the situation & provided the possibility of working through success. This will help to prevent learned helplessness

66 The End


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