2Sport Psychology Individual Aspects of Sport Performance Group DynamicsMental Preparation for Sport PerformanceCompetition EffectsConsequences of Sport Performance
3Individual Aspects of Sport Performance PersonalityAttitudeMotivation
4Personality Interactionist Theories Social Learning Theories. Trait TheoriesInheritedStableEnduringe.g EyensenkLearnedUnstableEnvironmente.g Bandura‘Personality is the sum total of an individual’s characteristics which make him or her unique’ (Hollander)
5Cattells 16PF (Trait Theory) 16 Personality Factors Questionnaire.Answering a series of questions on a scale of 1-5 on how much you agree with a statement.
6Eysenck (Trait Theory) Eysenck proposed that only two factors were necessary to explain individual differences in personality. He argued that Cattell's model contained too many factors which were similar to each other, and that a simple two factor model could encompass the 16 traits proposed by Cattell. This model had the following dimensions:Extrovert – Lively, outgoing, sociable, expressive.Introvert – Quiet, independent, private.Stable – Calm, controlled.Unstable (Neurotic) – Anxious, worried.
7Personality Types (Trait Theory) Leading on from Eysenck, two distinct personality types were identified.TYPE Bcharacterised by :relaxed and patientallow time for tasks to be completedtolerance of others’ mistakesdelegates easilylow personal stresscalm and unflappable in most situationsless competitiveTYPE Acharacterised by :impatienceworks at a rapid pacehigher levels of stresseasily arousedstrong desire to succeedanxiety in stressful situationshas a need to be in control
8Concentric Ring Theory PSYCHOLOGICAL COREbeliefs and values that remain more or less permanentexample : a sportsman’s belief that fair play underlies his attitude on the field of playROLE RELATED BEHAVIOURin other situations we may behave differentlyexample : Getting frustrated during a game and arguing with the ref.SOCIAL ENVIRONMENThow the behaviour and expectations of others affect our roleexample : a player argues with the referee because others have done so and got away with it beforeTYPICAL RESPONSESthe way in which an individual responds in certain situationsexample : Not arguing with the ref.
9Psychodynamic Theory The SUPER-EGO The EGO The ID The moral Arm Fullfill the ID(Steal Food/Fight)The moral ArmStealing andFightingAre Wrong.The SUPER-EGOThe EGOThe IDThe Basic Instinct(Hunger/Anger)
10Social Learning Theory SOCIALISATIONsport has a socialising effectparticipation in sport establishes norms and values of our societyBANDURAbehaviour is determined by the situationsocial comparisonbehaving the same way as the peer groupsocial approval or disapproval determines our responsesbehaviour is reinforced or penalisedVICARIOUS CONDITIONINGthe learning of emotional responses through observational learninglearning to become angry after a valid referee decision has gone against him / her by watching other players do the sameSOCIAL LEARNING THEORYexplains behaviour in terms of the reaction to specific situationswe learn to dea with situations by observing othersor by observing the results of our own behaviour on othersand by modelling our own behaviour on what we have seenathletes learn behaviour by watching others
11Interactionist Theory Personality is a combination of both genetically inheritted traits and learned behaviour.Somebody who is born with outgoing, aggressive and hot-headed personality characteristics may learn to control and modify them to be more controlled and less aggressive in their personality. – Parental discipline when a child misbehaves, negative reinforcement from peers.Somebody who is born with more introverted and quiet personality traits may develop a more open and extroverted personality through the environment that they are brought up in. – Lots of interaction with other people, opportunity to play sports and join teams.
12MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY INTERVIEWSbefore or after the eventnot directly related to performanceopen ended and flexibledifficult to quantify accuratelymay be influenced by the interviewerdemand characteristicsQUESTIONNAIRESbefore or after the eventnot directly related to performancerigidly and systematically set outable to quantify accuratelywould not be influenced by anothercan be used to assess specific traitsdemand characteristicsOBSERVATIONmade during an actual eventdirectly related to performancevaries according to the competitive nature of the eventdifficult to quantify accuratelymay be influenced by the observer’s views and attitudesDemand characteristics refers to an experiment where participants form an interpretation of the experiment's purpose and unconsciously change their behavior accordingly
13Limitations of Personality Profiling Not always an accurate predictor of type of activity undertaken.Extroverts – will enjoy individual sports,Introverts will play team games.Not always an accurate predictor of levels of success in sport.Damn it!
14Attitudes ATTITUDES a combination of beliefs and feelings about : objectspeoplesituations(called attitude objects)this predisposes us to behave in a certain way towards themlearned or organised through experienceevaluativethey lead us to think and behave positively or negativelyabout an attitude objecttend to be deep seatedand enduringbut can change or be changed
15FORMATION OF ATTITUDES Past ExperiencesFamilyWhere do our attitudes come from?PeersMediaTeachers/Coaches
16COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE - THE TRIADIC MODEL Affective (feelings/emotions)Cognitive (Knowledge/Beliefs)Behavioural (Intended behavior)Going to the gym will get you fit.I enjoy going to the gymI go to the gym twice a week.
17PREJUDICE AND SPORT STEREOTYPES a prejudgement of a person, group, or situationusually based on inadequate informationor inaccurate or biased informationwhich reinforces stereotypesexample :women are often excluded from male dominated sports clubs or eventsNEGATIVE STEREOTYPESwomen in strength, endurance and contact sportsparticipation of particular ethnic groups in specific sports or positions within teamsparticipation of the disabled in physical activityolder age groups interest and ability at sportPositive Prejudice = my opponent will be quick at running because he is black.Negative Prejudice = She can’t play football because she is a girl.
18POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ATTITUDES TO SPORT POSITIVE ATTITUDEhas a positive physical self-conceptsatisfaction from participation in sportbelieve sport promotes healthsuccess at sportwilling to try new activitiesencouraged by significant othersparticipates regularlyopportunity to participateNEGATIVE ATTITUDEShad negative experiences at sporthave lifestyle which makes regular sport difficultfind sport frustratinglack encouragementunlikely to participate in sporthave a negative self conceptfind sport boring
19Changing Attitudes Persuasive Communication: Cognitive Dissonance: Changing attitudes through the process of persuasion.The persuader needs to be significant & have high status.The message needs to be presented in a way that makes the recipient want to change attitude.The recipients needs to want to change their attitude The situation has to be right – attitudes are easier to change if others are present.Cognitive Dissonance:If a person holds 2 ideas that oppose & conflict with each other an element of discomfort arises.This emotional discomfort is called dissonance.e.g. You want to join the gym but don’t think you have enough timeChanging one aspect of the triadic model can change your attitude.e.g. – You get a better understanding of the health benefits of joining the gym and make time in your life to attend twice a week.
21Achievement Motivation the drive to achieve success for its own sakerelated toCompetitiveness (sport specific)persistencestriving for perfectioninfluenced bypersonality factorsneed to achieveneed to avoid failuresituational factorsprobability of successincentive value of successNEED TO ACHIEVE (NACH)Tendency to approach success (TAS)this personality type likes a challenge (approach behaviour)is not afraid of failurehas high task persistenceAttribute success to internal factorsNEED TO AVOID FAILURE (NAF)Tendency to avoid failure (TAF)this personality type avoids challenges (avoidance behaviour)does not take risksoften gives upAttribute success to external factors.
22Achievement Motivation A = TASsomeone with a high need to achievewill probably have a low need to avoid failurewill choose difficult or demanding tasks which are more riskythe hard route up a rock faceB = TAFsomeone with a high ne to avoid failurewill probably have a low need to achievewill choose tasks which are less risky and more easily achievedthe easy route up the rock face
23Incentive Value (Achievement Motivation) probability of success low(competing against the world champion)therefore strive very hard to win(incentive high)(will be highly chuffed if win)B =probability of sucess high(competing in local club match)therefore don’t need to try as hard to win(incentive low)(and expect to win easily)(not so pleasing)
25What is A Group? 2 or more people Mutual awareness Interacting with each otherCommon goal or purpose.
26Cohesion PERSONAL factors which members believe are important motives for taking partgive opportunities for motives to be realiseddevelop ownership feelings and social groupings within the teamENVIRONMENTALfactors binding members to a teamcontracts, location, age, eligibilityavoid star system, provide opportunities for socialisingCohesionLEADERSHIPthe behaviour of leaders and coachescoaches should use all leadership behaviours to influence different individualsTEAMfactors relating to the groupteam identity, targets, member ability and rolecreation of team short and long-term goalsrewarding of individual and team efforts
27Steiner’s Model of Group Performance Actual productivity = Potential productivity - Losses due to faulty processes.Potential productivity is primarily decided by the individual skill levels of team members,Faulty Processes are either Motivational Loses or Co-ordination Loses.
28Motivational Loses (Social Loafing) Motivational ProblemsPeople seem to work less hard in a group than they do on their ownExample : in rowing, times of winning double sculls are often only slightly faster than single scullsThis is social loafing ‘the Ringlemann Effect’Why?Individuals may not share the same motives, this leads to loss of group cohesioncan hide their lack of effort amongst the effort of other group membersPerformers are not recognised for their contribution to the team.Example : some players may play a game for social reasons, others in order to win/orWhat can a coach do?Loafing can be eliminated if the contribution of an individual can be identifiedSetting specific and measurable goalsRecording individual data/statitics – passes/shots etc
29Co-Ordination LossesCo-ordination losses is depended on how players on the pitch co-ordinate their movement and decision making with each other. Factors that affect it include;The number or players on the pitch.if one player is being selfish or aggressiveif a defence is not working togetherThe greater the task cohesion and understanding of each others roles there is between players, the less the losses dues to co-ordination. Practice makes Perfect!
30LeadershipLeaderscan influence the behaviour of others towards required goalswill influence effective team cohesionwill help fulfil expectations of a teamdevelops an environment in which a group is motivated rewarded and helped towards its common goalsWhere do leaders come from?emergent leaders come from within agroupbecause of their skill and abilitiesor through nomination / electionprescribed leaders are appointed by anagency outside theCharacteristics of a good leaderEmpatheticExperiencedCommittedCommunication Skills
31Or was it a combination of the two? (Interactionist) Leadership TheoriesWas Martin Johnson born to be a great leader or did he learn the necessary qualities?Or was it a combination of the two? (Interactionist)The ‘great man’ theory (trait)NATUREleaders are born not madeleaders have relevant innate personality qualitiesSocial learning theoryNURTUREleaders learn their skills through watching and imitating modelsleaders are formed throughout lifeby social or environmental influencesobservation of a modelhigh status of a modelimitation or copying of behaviourWill he/does he make a good leader when in the role of a coach?
32Leadership StylesThree different types of leadership styles have been identified.Autocratic (Task) Orientated – makes all the decisions.Democratic (Social) Orientated – shares the decisions with members of the group, seeks advice and is prepared to change his/her mind.Laissez Faire – lets others make decisions.Each type of leader can be effective in different situations.Mugabe/Hitler/Amin were dictators and ran their countries the way they wanted to they were dictators.
33Fiedler’s Contingency Model Fiedler's model assumes that group performance depends on:Leadership style and Situational favourableness determined by three factors:1. Leader-member relations - Degree to which a leader is accepted and supported by the group members.2. Task structure - Extent to which the task is structured and defined, with clear goals and procedures. (facilities/equipment/weather/support)3. Position power - The ability of a leader to control subordinates through reward and punishment.High levels of these three factors give the most favourable situation, low levels, the least favourable.Democratic (Relationship-motivated) leaders are most effective in moderately favourable situations.Autocratic (Task-motivated) leaders are most effective at either end of the scale.Fiedler suggests that it may be easier for leaders to change their situation to achieve effectiveness, rather than change their leadership style.
34Chellandurai’s Mutli-Dimensional Model of Leadership Member CharacteristicsPreferred (Leader) BehaviourSatisfaction/PerformanceLeader CharacteristicsActual (Leader) BehaviourSituational CharacteristicsRequired (Leader) Behaviour
35Mental Preparation for Sports Performance Commitment(Self) ConfidenceConcentration(Emotional) Control
36Goal Setting Specific Measurable Accepted Realistic Time Phased Effective goal setting is a useful tool that can be used to manage anxiety (control), raise motivation and therefore commitment levels and develop self confidence of the performer.Goals can be eitherProcess – TechniquePerformance – TimeProduct – PositionAnd…Mastery/Task – Self improvementEgo/Ability – comparison with othersSocially approved. – Seeking social reinforcement.SpecificMeasurableAcceptedRealisticTime PhasedExcitingRecordedGoals should be progressive from short to long term.Short TermMedium TermLong Term
37Self Confidence Self-Confidence A generic belief that one can succeed. An attitudeSelf-EfficacyA situational specific form of self-confidence.The perception of an ability to perform a particular sporting task
38Bandura Performance Efficacy Expectation Emotional Arousal Vicarious ExperiencesVerbalPersuasionPreviousAccomplishmentsif arousal is too highstate anxiety - A-statethis could lead to low self-efficacymental rehearsal / physical relaxation could lead to greater confidence and a calmer approachconsist of what has been observed in othersperforming a similar skillexample : observing another player in your team dribbling a soccer ball, if the model is of similar age / abilityand is successfulthen this may lead to greater self-efficacyencouragement can lead to greater self-efficacyif the person giving encouragement is of high statuscompared with the performerconsist of past experiencesexample : previously performed skill at dribbling a soccer ballif this is successfulthen this leads to greater self-efficacyat this particular taskin the future
39SELF-CONFIDENCE Confidence arouses positive emotions allows the athlete toremain calm under pressureaffects game strategiesa confident player plays to win even if it means taking risksaffects psychological momentuma confident athlete take each point or play at a timeand never gives upeven when defeat is imminentfacilitates concentrationenables focus on the important aspects of a taskenables the setting of challenging but realistic goalsincreases effort
40VEALEY’s MODEL OF SPORT CONFIDENCE trait sport confidencethe usual level of self-confidenceexample :a footballer is confident in his shooting ability.Sports Confidencecompetitive orientationthe perceived opportunity to achieve a sport performanceType of goals you set.example : the footballer is motivated to play well in the cup final.state sport confidencethe level of self confidence related to a specific situationexample :a footballer has low state confidence in taking a penalty in the cup final.
41ConcentrationInvolves focusing attention onto the relevant environmental cues maintaining attention focus until the skill has been completed.Arousal is linked to concentration. When arousal is low, the perceptual field widens taking in too much information for information processing system to deal with.Selective attention is not in operation & concentration on relevant information is difficult.Information overload occurs & decision-making is impeded causing mistakes in performance.As arousal increases, the perceptual field adjusts to the ideal width enabling the performer to focus on the most relevant information. Selective attention is fully operational allowing selective attention to occur.
42Awareness Cue Utilisation Easterbrook states that an increase of arousal leads to a decrease in number of cues that can be utilised.Cues can be used by the sportspersonto direct attentionto trigger appropriate arousal responsesto enable attentional focus at a relevant momentsometimes, narrowing of attentional focus by an aroused player will cause lack of awareness of broader play issues
43ATTENTIONAL STYLES (Nideffer) INTERNAL/NARROW - Athe player decides to concentrate on his own techniqueINTERNAL/BROAD - Bthe player focuses on the team tactics given by the coach before a game.EXTERNAL/BROAD - Ca player concentrates on the whole gameall players’ positions and movementsopen skillsEXTERNAL/NARROW - Dthe player concentrates on one aspect of the gamethe goalkeeperclosed skills
44Emotional Control Activation – a state of readiness to perform. Arousal - a state of mental and physical preparedness for actionthis is the level of inner drives which forces the sportsperson to strive to achieveit needs to be under control and at the right level depending on the task and facilitates the ability to focus (concentrate)Extroverts, Skilful performers and simple tasks require higher levels of arousal.Anxiety – an emotional state similar to fear associated with;physiological (somatic) arousalpsychological (cognitive) arousalCan be both State and Trait
45AROUSAL AND DRIVE THEORY the higher the arousal levelthe higher the achievement / performance levelthe more likely that a well-learned skill (a dominant response) will be producedIncreased ArousalExpertWITH INCREASED AROUSALthe dominant habit / most usual behaviour will be reproduceda poorly-learned skill will give a performance full of mistakesa well-learned skill will give a skilled performanceNoviceIncreased in PerformanceDecrease in Performance
46INVERTED U THEORY INVERTED U THEORY THE POSITION OF OPTIMUM AROUSAL DEPENDS ONtype of activity / task complexitygross skills (weight lifting) require high arousalfine skills (snooker) require low arousalskill level of the performerthe more skilful the performerthe higher the optimum arousal could bepersonality of the performerthe more extrovert the performerthe higher the arousal likely for optimum performancewhereas introverts would optimise performance at lower arousal levelsthere is an optimum arousal levelif aroused more than thisperformance will decline
47EFFECT OF STRESS ON PERFORMANCE INHIBITIONinhibition of performancePERFORMANCE OF SKILLSstress may act directly on the information processing of skillmotor elements of skill are performed less wellmuscles tensemuscular control is reducedCONCENTRATIONconcentration is difficultspan of attention is narrowedSTRESSawareness of being under stress itself acts as a stressor
48Peak Flow Experience High Somatic Arousal Excitement Anger Peak Flow Flow state is attained when the performer has a balanced perception of the demands of the situation & his/her ability to cope.High Somatic ArousalExcitement AngerPeak FlowHappiness AnxietyRelaxed BoredDrowsiness FatigueLow Cognitive ArousalHigh Cognitive ArousalMulti-dimensional model!When this happens the athlete assumes control over all internal & environmental variables & a time of great happiness & self-fulfilment is experienced.Low Somatic Arousal
49Individual Zone of Optimal Fuctioning (Hanin) Top athletes have different ZOF. Optimal level of arousal does not always occur at the mid point of the arousal continuum.Optimal level of arousal is not a single point but a band width. Teachers and coaches need to be aware of their performer’s ZOF and work towards this.Characteristics of being in the zone:Performance appears effortless & automatic with athlete feeling in full control; attention & concentration is focused; the execution of the skill brings enjoyment & satisfaction.
50Anxiety‘Anxiety occurs when there is a substantial inbalance between the individual’s perception of their ability & their perception of the demands & importance of the situation.’Speilberger identified both trait and state anxiety.He measured them using simple aquestionaire.Called the State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory (STAI)A similar test Sports Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT)was later devised to specifically look at the affect competition has on anxiety.1234Not At AllSomewhatModerately SoVery Much SoQuestions are asked about current feelings (state) and general feelings (trait) a score out of 80 is given.A.I feel at ease1234B.I feel upset1234Almost NeverSometimesOftenAlmost AlwaysA.I am a steady person1234B.I lack self-confidence
51Anxiety Management Somatic Cognitive Progressive Muscular Relaxation Different methods can be used to reduce anxiety (and arousal levels) these include both somatic and cognitive techniques. These can be used to improve performance, improve focus (selective attention), increase self confidence and reduce the risk of aggression.SomaticProgressive Muscular RelaxationBiofeedbackCognitiveMental RehersalImageryPositive Self TalkThought StoppingRational Thinking
53Social FacilitationSocial facilitation looks at the effect a crowd (other people watching) has on a players performance. When a player knows they are being watched it can have either positive or negative results.Social Inhibition – the negative effects an audience has on performanceSocial Facilitation – the positive effect an audience has on performanceImmediate effect of an audience is to:Increase the arousal level of a performerIncreases speed of performanceReleases energyArouses competitive drive
54Dominant Response (Social Facilitation) Zajonc believed that the ‘mere presence’ of others is sufficient to increase arousal. He used drive theory to link the relationship between arousal and performance.However, the quality of the performance depends on how well the skill has been learned.Our ‘learned behaviours’ tend to be our dominant responses.A dominant response is the behaviour most likely to occur when we are pressured to respond.As arousal increases we are more likely to see our dominant responses.If you’re at the autonomous stage of learning, your dominant response is most likely to be the correct action but if you’re at the associative phase of learning you are more likely to show incorrect response.Dominant ResponseArousal
55Evaluation Apprehension The Evaluation Apprehension Theory was proposed by Cottrell. He argued that we quickly learn that social rewards and punishments that we receive from other people are based on their evaluations of us.When we find ourselves with a social presence, we will experience an acquired arousal based on evaluation apprehension. In other words, performance will be enhanced or impaired only in the presence of persons who can approve or disapprove the performance.
56Audience EffectsHomefield advantage - Large supportive crowds are said to help the home team. Most evident in indoor sports.Proximity Effect - Crowds that are close to the action eg. basketball/ice hockey are said to increase audience influence.Distraction Effect – The above can cause players to lose focus and become distracted from their performance.As a resultInformation Processing is inhibited.Wrong decisions can be made.Reaction time may be slowed down.Important cues will be missed.
57Strategies to Combat Social Inhibition Practice selective attention to cut out awareness of othersCognitive visualisation such as;imagerymental rehearsalEnsure essential skills are over-learned & grooved to ensure dominant response is successfulSimulated crowd noisesRaise athlete’s awareness of ZOFIncorporate stress management into trainingAppropriate use of attribution to raise confidence
58Aggression‘Any behaviour that is intended to harm another individual by physical or verbal means.’Differences between aggression & assertion.Aggression – intent to harmAssertion – within the rules3 types of aggression:Hostile (or reactive) Aggression: Prime motive is the intent to harm or injury. Outside the rules of the game. Involves anger.Instrumental (or channelled) Aggression: Within the rules and although prime motive is successful execution of skill, there is still intent to harm. Anger is not evident.Assertive behaviour: Does not attempt to harm & is within rules & spirit of the game. Described as ‘non-hostile self-protective mastery behaviour.
59Causes of Aggression Nature of the game (contact/non-contact) Wide division between scoresPrevious experiences could cause grudges or scores to settleFrustration caused by poor form, opposition & referee’s decisionsHostile crowdsVenue – home or awayExcessively high arousal levelsExtrinsic rewards
60Theories of Aggression Instinct Theory – Trait Perspective: Aggression is genetically inherit.Social Learning Theory – Social Learning Perspective: Aggression is nurtured through environmental forces. It is learned by watching & copying role models & becomes more acceptable if reinforced.Frustration Aggression Hypothesis - Interactionist Approach: Frustration develops when goal-directed behaviour is blocked. If aggressive act is successful, frustration is released & aggressor feels good & learns that violent strategies are successful. If aggression fails & results in punishment, further frustration is generated.Aggressive Cue Hypothesis (Berkowitz) – Interactionist Approach: Frustration leads to an increase in arousal which sometimes will result in aggression. Aggressive cues such as bats or sticks will trigger aggression if arousal is high. The best players have the ability to control frustration and arousal.
61Methods to Combat Aggressive Tendancies Positively reinforce non-aggressive behaviour & negatively reinforce aggressive behaviourPunish aggressive playersViolent players should be withdrawn from aggressive situationsStress performance rather than outcome goalsEmphasise non-aggressive role-modelsAttribute successful performance to skilfulnessUse cognitive strategies such as rational thinking, self-talk & imageryLower arousal levels
62Consequences of Sport Performance Attribution Theory
63Attribution Thoery Ability Task Difficulty Effort Luck Attribution theory (Weiner) explains how individuals interpret events and how this relates to their thinking, motivation and behavior.ConcentrationCommitmentControl of arousal ConfidenceAttitudeMental/physical preparationInternalExternalLocus of CausalityAbilityTask DifficultyInternal – factors within control of the individualExternal – factors out of performer’s controlStable – permanentUnstable – temporary & changeableStableStabilityEffortLuckUn-Stable
64Attribution Mastery Orientation Learned Helplessness According to attribution theory, high achievers (TAS) will invite rather than avoid tasks that could lead them to success because they believe success results from high ability and effort, and they are confident of their ability and effort.However, they believe failure is caused by bad luck or things that are beyond their range of control.Failure doesn't affect their self-esteem but success builds pride and confidence.On the other hand, low achievers (TAF) avoid success-related actions because they tend to doubt their ability and/or assume success is related to luck or influence or to other factors beyond their control.Even when successful, it isn't as rewarding to the low achiever because he/she doesn't feel responsible. Success does not increase his/her pride and confidence.Mastery OrientationLearned Helplessness
65Attribution Retraining Attribution retraining is when low achievers (usually TAF personalities) are taught to alter their perception of why something went wrong or well.By giving feedback to the performer and analysing why something happened.The Athlete needs to have control over the situation.The coach needs to get the performer to attribute a lack of success to internal unstable factors so the athlete has control over the situation & provided the possibility of working through success.This will help to prevent learned helplessness