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06/16/11.

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Presentation on theme: "06/16/11."— Presentation transcript:

1 06/16/11

2 Introduction We perceive scale in relation to our own size
06/16/11 Introduction We perceive scale in relation to our own size Art objects created on a monumental scale appear larger than they would be in normal life Art objects created on a human scale correspond to the size of things as they actually exist Small-scale objects appear smaller than our usual experience of them in the real world Usually, an artist ensures that all the parts of an object are in proportion to one another But discordant proportions can express specific meanings

3 06/16/11 Scale Artist and designers make conscious choices about the scale of their work when they consider the message they want to put across A small-scale work implies intimacy Large-scale works can be experienced by groups of viewers and usually communicate big ideas directed at a large audience Practical considerations can affect an artist's decision about scale too Cost, time it will take to execute the piece, and demands that a specific location may place on the work are all factors

4 06/16/11 Scale and Meaning Usually a monumental scale indicates heroism or other epic virtues War monuments, for example, often feature figures much larger than life-size in order to convey the bravery of the warriors

5 06/16/11 Scale and Meaning Click to start the Interactive Exercises

6 06/16/11 1.126 Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen, Mistos (Match Cover), Steel, aluminum, fiber-reinforced plastic, painted with polyurethane enamel, 68' x 33' x 43' 4”. Collection La Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain

7 Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen, Mistos (Match Cover)
06/16/11 Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen, Mistos (Match Cover) Uses monumental scale to poke fun while expressing admiration for the little things of everyday life Oldenburg transforms the essence of everyday things as he magnifies their sculptural form Oldenburg believes that the items of mass culture, no matter how insignificant they might seem, express a truth about modern life

8 06/16/11 1.127 Robert Lostutter, The Hummingbirds, Watercolor on paper, 1 ¾ x 5 5/8”. Collection of Anne and Warren Weisberg

9 Robert Lostutter, The Hummingbirds
06/16/11 Robert Lostutter, The Hummingbirds Lostutter uses small scale to enhance the character of his work He likes to create his works on the scale not of a human but of a bird The tiny scale of the work—only one person at a time can see it properly—forces us to come closer Viewing it becomes an intimate experience

10 06/16/11 Hierarchical Scale Hierarchical scale refers to the deliberate use of relative size in a work of art, in order to communicate differences in importance Almost always, larger means more important, and smaller means less important

11 06/16/11 Hierarchical Scale Click to start the Interactive Exercises

12 06/16/11 1.128 Relief from the northern wall of the hypostyle hall at the great temple of Amun, 19th Dynasty, c. 1295–1186 BCE. Karnak, Egypt

13 06/16/11 A C B Hierarchical scale

14 06/16/11 Hierarchical scale: Relief from the northern wall of the hypostyle hall at the great temple of Amun In the art of ancient Egypt, the king, or pharaoh, was usually the largest figure depicted because he had the highest status in the social order This scene depicts the military campaign of Pharoah Seti I (figure A) against the Hittites and Libyans

15 06/16/11 1.129 Jan van Eyck, Madonna in a Church, 1437–8. Oil on wood panel, 12 5/8 x 5 1/2”. Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen, Berlin, Germany

16 Jan van Eyck, Madonna in a Church
06/16/11 Jan van Eyck, Madonna in a Church Uses hierarchical scale to communicate spiritual importance In his effort to glorify the spiritual importance of Mary and the Christ child, van Eyck separates them from normal human existence Van Eyck has scaled them to symbolize their central importance in the Christian religion

17 06/16/11 Distorted Scale An artist may deliberately distort scale to create an abnormal or supernatural effect

18 06/16/11 Distorted Scale Click to start the Interactive Exercises

19 06/16/11 1.130 Dorothea Tanning, Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, Oil on canvas, 16 1/8 x 24”. Tate, London

20 Dorothea Tanning, Eine Kleine Nachtmusik
06/16/11 Dorothea Tanning, Eine Kleine Nachtmusik Dorothea Tanning was a Surrealist artist The sunflower seems huge in relation to the interior architecture and the two female figures standing on the left By contradicting our ordinary experience of scale, Tanning invites us into a world unlike the one we know Eine Kleine Nachtmusik (“A Little Night Music”), is borrowed from a lighthearted piece of music by the composer Mozart, but ironically Tanning’s scene exhibits a strange sense of dread

21 06/16/11 Proportion The relationships between the sizes of different parts of a work make up its proportions By controlling these size relationships an artist can enhance the expressive and descriptive characteristics of the work

22 06/16/11 Proportion Click to start the Interactive Exercises

23 Lip Hip Height Width A B C Foot
06/16/11 Lip Hip Height Width A B C Foot 1.131 Examples of how proportion changes on vertical and horizontal axes

24 06/16/11 Human Proportion Carefully chosen proportion can make an art object seem pleasing to the eye This goes for the human body, too The ancient Egyptians used the palm of the hand as a unit of measurement The ancient Greeks sought an ideal of beauty in the principle of proportion The models used by the Greeks for calculating human proportion were later adopted by artists of ancient Rome, and then by Renaissance artists

25 06/16/11 Human Proportion Click to start the Interactive Exercises

26 4 fingers = 1 palm 4 cubits = 1 man’s height 6 palms = 1 cubit
06/16/11 4 fingers = 1 palm 4 cubits = 1 man’s height [24 palms] 6 palms = 1 cubit 1.132 Ancient Egyptian system using the human hand as a standard unit of measurement

27 06/16/11 1.133 Nigerian Ife artist, Figure of Oni, early 14th–15th century. Brass with lead, 18 3/8” high. National Museum, Ife, Nigeria

28 Nigerian Ife artist, Figure of Oni
06/16/11 Nigerian Ife artist, Figure of Oni The Oni is the most powerful and important figure in this culture The head is large in proportion to the rest of the body; the Yoruba believe that the head is the seat of a divine power Many African sculptures exaggerate the head and face as a way to communicate status, destiny, and a connection to the spiritual

29 06/16/11 1.134 Raphael, The School of Athens, 1510–11. Fresco, 16’ 8” x 25’. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican City

30 06/16/11 Raphael, The School of Athens Scale and Proportion in a Renaissance Masterpiece Raphael’s sensitivity to proportion reflects his pursuit of perfection He indicated the importance of his masterpiece by creating it on a magnificent scale He composed the individual figures so that the parts of each figure are harmonious in relation to each other and portray an idealized form Double emphasis on the center brings our attention to the opposing gestures of two famous Greek philosophers, Plato and Aristotle

31 06/16/11 The Golden Section The Golden Section is a proportional ratio of 1:1.618, which occurs in many natural objects Real human bodies do not have exactly these proportions, but when the ratio 1:1.618 is applied to making statues, it gives naturalistic results The proportions of Ancient Greek sculptures are often very close to the Golden Section

32 Golden Section & Proportion
06/16/11 Golden Section & Proportion Click to start the Interactive Exercises

33 1.135 The Golden Section 5 8 √5 3 2 2 1.618… 1.618 13 1/2 Golden Mean
06/16/11 5 8 1 1 √5 3 2 2 1.618… 1.618 13 1/2 Golden Mean 1: Fibonacci Sequence 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, … 2.236… 1 Root 5 Rectangle 1: 1.135 The Golden Section

34 06/16/11 1.136 Poseidon (or Zeus), c. 460–450 BCE. Bronze, 6’ 10 1/2” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Greece

35 06/16/11 1.137 Diagram of proportional formulas used in the statue 1.618

36 Poseidon As a Greek god, Poseidon had to have perfect proportions
06/16/11 Poseidon As a Greek god, Poseidon had to have perfect proportions The sculptor applied a conveniently simple ratio, using the head as a standard measurement The body is three heads wide by seven heads high

37 06/16/11 Proportional Ratios “Golden Rectangles” is a technique based on nesting inside each other a succession of rectangles based on the 1: proportions of the Golden Section The shorter side of the outer rectangle becomes the longer side of the smaller rectangle inside it, and so on The result is an elegant spiral shape

38 06/16/11 1.138a Henry Peach Robinson, Fading Away, Combination albumen print. George Eastman House, Rochester, New York

39 06/16/11 1.138b Proportional analysis of Henry Peach Robinson’s Fading Away

40 Henry Peach Robinson, Fading Away
06/16/11 Henry Peach Robinson, Fading Away Henry Peach Robinson was a great photographic innovator This image shows Robinson’s attention to the coordinated ratios in artistic composition Notice how the right-hand drape divides the photograph into two Golden Rectangles, and how the spiral draws our eye to the dying young woman

41 06/16/11 1.139 Iktinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon, 447–432 BCE. Athens, Greece

42 Iktinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon
06/16/11 Iktinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon By applying the idealized rules of proportion for the human body to the design of the Parthenon, a temple of the goddess Athena, the Greeks created a harmonious design The proportions correspond quite closely to the Golden Section The vertical and horizontal measurements work together to create proportional harmony

43 06/16/11 Triglyphs Pediment 1.140 The use of the Golden Section in the design of the Parthenon

44 06/16/11 Conclusion When proportion conforms to scale, all the parts of the work look the way we expect them to Scale and proportion are basic to most works; size choices influence all the other elements and principles in the design

45 Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts
06/16/11 This concludes the PowerPoint Slide Set for Chapter 1.7 Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts By Debra J DeWitte, Ralph M Larmann, M Kathryn Shields Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson


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