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1Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, 16.9.2007 1970’sYear 1998 Geological heritage in Finland as an example of sustainable use of geosites Keijo.

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Presentation on theme: "1Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, 16.9.2007 1970’sYear 1998 Geological heritage in Finland as an example of sustainable use of geosites Keijo."— Presentation transcript:

1 1Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, ’sYear 1998 Geological heritage in Finland as an example of sustainable use of geosites Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin Geological Survey of Finland

2 2Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Carta Marina 1539 Bishop Olaus Magnus

3 3Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Zacharius Topelius 1873 "Most noticeable are the effects of this, partly still unexplained, phenomenon. The land rises from the sea, the sea flees, shores are exposed, and the slope is moving forward. Where in days of old ships were sailing, now hardly a ship can travel; where once the fisherman cast his net, now his cows go grazing on the coastal meadow. Banks and rocks appear out of the water, of which no sea chart has had knowledge before; banks expand into islets, these grow together and connect with the mainland. Beaches expand; harbours dry up, seaports must move after the fleeing sea. Every generation of men, new arable land rises from the sea, every century grants Finland a kingdom“.

4 4Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Kvarken Archipelago / High coast Sweden Finland /High Coast /Kvarken Archipelago Kvarken Archipelago (Finland), nominated 2006, is a extension for the High Coast (Sweden) World Heritage property that was nominated year 2000 and is thus transboundary serial property of both Finland and Sweden with name Kvarken Archipelago / High Coast.

5 5Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Criteria (i) (2002 i  2005 viii) to be outstanding examples representing major stages of earth's history, including the record of life, significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms, or significant geomorphic or physiographic features;

6 6Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Highest shore line at Sweden after deglaciation (285 m mpy) Justification for Inscription for High Coast: The site is one of the places in the world that is experiencing isostatic uplift as a result of deglaciation. Isostatic rebound is well- illustrated and the distinctiveness of the site is the extent of the total isostatic uplift which, at 294m, exceeds others. The site is the “type area” for research on isostacy, the phenomenon having been first recognised and studied there.

7 7Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Justification for Inscription for Kvarken Archipelago: The Kvarken Archipelago, with its 5600 islands and surrounding sea, is of exceptional geological value for two main reasons. 1)It is an area of rapid glacio isostatic uplift with rates that are among the highest in the world. The uplift has been ongoing for thousands of years and is associated with major changes in the water bodies in post glacial times. The Kvarken, along with the existing High Coast, its Swedish equivalent on the west coast of the Gulf of Bothnia, are key areas for the understanding of the processes of crustal response to the melting of the continental ice sheet. 2)The Kvarken area possesses a distinctive array of glacial depositional landforms, such as De Greer moraines, which add to the variety of glacial landscapes features in the region and reinforce the previous validity of the High Coast inscription. IUCN considers that thenominated property meets this criterion

8 8Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Kvarken Archipelago with numbers Area ha, 85 % sea area Coast line 2416 km Number of islands and islets 5600 Inhabitants 2500 Water depth 10 – 15 m, deepest course 25 metres near Holmö Island (Sweden) Brackish water, salt content 4-5 ‰ Ice covered days per year Water flow m 3 per second (from NE to SW) The total size of the KA/HC transboundary serial property is 336,900 hectares.

9 9Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Ahtisaari avasi portin Merenkurkun maailman luonnonperintöalueelle Merenkurkun maailman luonnonperintöalue vihittiin lauantaina Björkön Svedjehamnissa. Kultareunuksen tilaisuuteen loi presidentti Martti Ahtisaari. Ympäristöministeri Paula Lehtomäki lupasi, että ainokaisesta pidetään hyvä huoli: lisäbudjetissa tulee rahaa 1,7 miljoonaa euroa. Pohjalainen

10 10Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Ministeri lupasi pitää ainokaisestaan huolta Ympäristöministeri Paula Lehtomäki lupasi, että Suomen ainokaisesta pidetään hyvää huolta. Tuskin Suomeen kovin pian saadaan toista maailman luonnonperintöaluetta Merenkurkun saariston lisäksi. Pohjalainen

11 11Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Future trans boundary WH initiative: Saimaa- Pielinen- Ladoga lake area owing outstanding universal nature values, both biological and geological??

12 12Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Baltic Ice Lake (late) Litorina SeaAncylus Lake Yoldia SeaBaltic Ice Lake (early) M. Saarnisto (2003), drawings O. Sallasmaa Deglaciation - The history of the Baltic Sea

13 13Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Glacial isostatic land uplift Isobase mm/year Processing Markku Poutanen Finnish Geodetic Institute High coast Kvarken Archipelago Botnian Bay Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Year 4000 High Caost Kvarken Archipelago ”The main ongoing geological process – changes the shoreline and scenery in a span of human life time.” Botnian Sea Picture Hanna Virkki (GTK)

14 14Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Land is arising from the sea, Gåsgrund 1978 ja 2006 © Metsähallitus, Photo Seppo Lammi 2006

15 15Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Geodiversity on glaciated terrain Geologic formations and features created by continental ice sheet Drumlins Flutings Ribbed - moraines De Geer - moraines Hummocky moraine Boulder field Deep water sediments, clay/silt Continental ice sheet Drawings Harri Kutvonen (GTK)

16 16Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Geology of central area of the Kvarken Archiplago Based on 1: mapping of Quaternary deposits and formations Deep water sediments, silt and clay Glaciofluvial formations, sand and gravel (esker) Littoral deposits, sand and gravel Bedrock outcrops Glacial formations, Ribbed-moraines Glacial till Glacial formations, De Geer-moraines 10 km N

17 17Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, A) Ice push and squeeze of diamicton B) Deepwater sedimentationC) Land uplift and isolation of water bodies Schematic drawings of formation of the De Geer – moraines in the Kvarken Archipelago Keijo Nenonen, drawings Harri Kutvonen (GTK)

18 18Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Svedjehamn De Geer moraine field - Interpretation of the De Geer moraines at shallow sea area (digital airphotos) Interpretation Riikka Koskinen (GTK) Svedjehamn Aerial photo © Maanmittauslaitos ICE FLOW DIRECTION

19 19Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, De Geer moraines on the sea floor, Replot Interpretation Anu Reijonen 2004 A) Echo sounding B) Aquistic reflektion sounding Glacial landforms

20 20Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, De Geer moraine – field, Svedjehamn, Björkö © Metsähallitus, Photo Seppo Lammi 2006

21 21Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, De Geer moraine – field, Svedjehamn, Björkö © Metsähallitus, Photo Seppo Lammi 2006

22 22Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, De Geer moraine – field, Svedjehamn, Björkö © Metsähallitus, Photo Seppo Lammi 2006

23 23Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, De Geer – moraine, Svedjehamn Photo © Jukka-Pekka Palmu, GTK 2002

24 24Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Narrow and stony water way, Svedjehamn, Björkö Photo © Olli Breilin, GTK 2006

25 25Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Flada-klu – lagoon-lake series, Lappören © Metsähallitus, Photo Seppo Lammi 2006

26 26Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Ribbed - moraines, Björkögrunden-islands Rogen like moraines at Björkögrunden. © Maanmittauslaitos 13/MYY/06 ICE FLOW DIRECTION Picture Jukka Ojalainen

27 27Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Picture © Metsähallitus Ribbed – moraines, Valassaaret-islands

28 28Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Land uplift phenomena has many exiciting attracts for tourists. Uplifted rockbridge at Valsörarna from 19 th century. Photo Olli Breilin (GTK)

29 29Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, IUCN inspection in primitive forest of Mickelsörarna - islands Photo Olli Breilin (GTK)

30 30Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Photo Jukka Ojalainen, GTK Boulder field, Bergö Gaddarna - islands

31 31Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Geological mapping on recently uplifted outcrop of peneplated crystalline bedrock surface Photo Olli Breilin (GTK)

32 32Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Age Relation of the Striations Undefined age relation The Youngest Local Direction Older Local Direction The Oldest Local Direction Picture Jukka Ojalainen Complex flow pattern of the continental ice sheet

33 33Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Complex flow pattern of the continental ice sheet Hundreds observations of striations –Normally 2, often 3 and even 5 different directions N 310º 355º 45º Picture and interpretation Jukka Ojalainen, GTK

34 34Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Raised beaches and on going littoral processes. Littoral deposits Norrskär Märäskäret Photos Olli Breilin (upper) ja Jukka Ojalainen (lower), Drawings Harri Kutvonen

35 35Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Field-labyrinth. A shelter for seal hunters and fishermans Old remains of human activity on ancient shingle fields Photos Jukka Ojalainen Editing Harri Kutvonen

36 36Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Nordic cooperation – Geonat-project geoexcursion at Umeå area Photo Olli Breilin (GTK)

37 37Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, Nomination and research partners INTERREG IIIA Kvarken- MittSkandia – program Ympäristöministeriö Länsi-Suomen ympäristökeskus

38 38Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin, MAEGS-15, “Sampling” at Norra Djupörbådan © Photo Hannu Kujala;GTK 2004 Thank you for your attention


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