2Topics You Need to Know Manifest Destiny James K. Polk John L. O’SullivanFlorida (1819)Adams-Onis TreatyTexas annexationOregon boundaryTexas (1845)War of IndependenceAlamoBattle of San JacintoAnnexation of TexasOregon Country (1846)James K. PolkMexican American WarZachary TaylorTreaty of Guadalupe HidalgoMexican Cession (1848)CaliforniaGold RushWilmot ProvisoGadsden Purchase (1853)
3Manifest Destiny The phrase was first employed by John L. O'Sullivan in 1845O'Sullivan claimed, "our manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions."
5Manifest DestinyIt expressed the belief that it was Anglo-Saxon Americans' providential mission to expand their civilization and institutions across the breadth of North America. This expansion would involve not merely territorial aggrandizement but the progress of liberty and individual economic opportunity as well.
6Mexico and American Relations “Pobre Mexico, tan lejos del dios y tan circa a el Estados Unidos”“Poor Mexico, so far from God and so close to the United States”Porfirio Diaz
7Texas Moses Austin- during Spanish period- is given a land grant Moses petitioned the Spanish government and was given permission to colonize/settle 300 Anglo families on 200,000 acres of land near San Antonio. Moses dies before Anglos settle in Texas.Mexican Revolution 1822 occurs- later- Stephan Austin fulfills father’s plans to settle Anglos in Texas.
8Anglos in Texas Anglo settlers wanted to come to Texas for cheap land. However settlers had to follow certain rules:Learn SpanishFollow Mexican LawConvert to Roman Catholic Religion
9Key Figures in Texas Independence, 1836 Sam Houston ( )Steven Austin ( )
11Mexican Government Reacts to Anglo Immigration Problems Develop:The colony gradually developed more Anglo than MexicanAnglo settlers outnumbered Mexican nationals in Texas.By 1830 there were between 20,000 and 30,000 Anglo settlers and 2000 slaves in Texas.Anglo settlers- were protestant, wanted to be part of the United States and some wanted slavery in order to profit from the cotton industry.The Mexican government outlawed slavery in 1824 and Austin was able to get approval for Texans to own slaves.
12Santa Anna1833 Santa Anna takes over- popular with some Mexican leaders and wants to reform and strengthen the Mexican Government’s control throughout Mexico.He wanted to reduce:Anglo immigrationAnglo TradeEnd slavery“Either the government occupy Texas now, or it is lost forever.”
13Texas War of Independence 1835 Texans revolt they want:To keep their autonomyKeep their Anglo way of lifeEventually join the United StatesSanta Anna refused to allow this and jailed Stephen Austin for some time.Texans decided to secede from the Mexican Republic and begin to form a militia.
14Alamo Texans and some Mexicans unite to fight Santa Anna. Sam Houston- appointed General of Texan Army1836- The Alamo-Battle of San Jacinto- Santa Anna Captured and forced to sign peace treaty-Texas is independent
17The “Lone Star Republic” October 1836 Texas is an independent country.Houston Elected PresidentSouthern Boundary of Texas claimed by Texans- the Rio Grande.Houston wanted US to Annex- but Jackson did not agree. (slavery issues)
18James K. Polk: “Young Hickory” Democrat/Fierce Expansionist- Embodiment of Manifest DestinyWon presidency over Whigs in 1844 Tyler saw it as a go ahead to acquire Texas (3 days before he left office)Arranged annexation by joint resolution because the needed 2/3 vote would never be secured in senate because of the slavery issueTexas become 28th state in 1845 after resolution passed
19The Oregon Dispute: 54’ 40º or Fight! By the mid-1840s, “Oregon Fever” was spurred on by the promise of free land.The joint British-U. S. occupation ended in 1846.
20Oregon Boundary dispute resolved Oregon country mostly wilderness- once claimed by Spain, Russia, GB, and USRussia retreats to 54 40’ line in treaties with US and GBBritish had a strong claim through the Hudson Bay co.Borders almost negotiated in Treaty of 1818 setting the line at 49th parallelTreaty approved in Senate 1846-
21Mexican American War Mexico Angry over Annexation of Texas Polk and Expansionists wanted California- Richard Henry DanaAmericans in California6000 Californios-Polk tried to buy California + New Mexico $30 Billion
23Mexican WarJuly 1845 Polk sent General Zachary Taylor and 1,500 troops to Texas, near the boarderDispute- Mexican did not recognize the Rio Grande as the boundary.April war began when Mexican troops entered Texas territory and American troops fired…Polk asked Senate for declaration of war May, 1846
24Polk’s War MessageThe United States has made “Every effort at reconciliation… Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States, has invaded our territory, and shed American blood upon the American soil.”Opponents said US had provoked the war- to satisfy slave interest (Whigs)Lincoln will be one Congressman who will complain
25Wilmot Proviso Causes Slavery issue to enter the Debate over expansion Many Northern democrats did not want slavery to expand into the territories.Known as “Free Soilers” Wilmot was one.They believed that whites should not compete with Slave laborThis amendment did not pass the SenateBut foreshadowed the debate and conflict new territory would cause.
26Representative David Wilmot (D-PA) Wilmot Proviso, 1846“Provided, territory from that, as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any the Republic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly convicted. (Not approved by Senate)Representative David Wilmot (D-PA)
27The Bear Flag RepublicThe Revolt June 14, 1845John C. Frémont
28Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 Nicholas Trist, American Negotiator
29Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande River.the U. S. California, New Mexico, Utah, Arizona, NevadaU. S. gave Mexico $15,000,000 and agreed to pay the claims of American citizens against Mexico (over $3,500,000).Mexico lost 1/3 of claimed territory
30Results of the Mexican War? The 17-month war cost $100,000,000 and 13,000+ American lives (mostly of disease).New territories were brought into the Union which forced the explosive issue of SLAVERY to the center of national politics * Brought in 1 million sq. mi. of land (incl.TX)These new territories would upset the balance of power between North and South.
31Results of Mexican WarCreated two popular Whig generals who ran for President.Zachary TaylorJohn C. FremontManifest Destiny realized.Many American officers gained experience in the war and will later fight each other in the Civil War.