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Four Elements of Rhetoric. Rhetoric Pathos Logos Ethos Four Elements of Rhetoric.

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Presentation on theme: "Four Elements of Rhetoric. Rhetoric Pathos Logos Ethos Four Elements of Rhetoric."— Presentation transcript:

1 Four Elements of Rhetoric

2 Rhetoric Pathos Logos Ethos Four Elements of Rhetoric

3 Rhetoric Is the art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing Is sounding sincere Has the function not to persuade but to see the available means of persuasion in each case -- Aristotle Is the amalgam of techniques that situates writing in a specific time and place Is the understanding of the basic division between what is communication and how it is communicated

4 Rhetoric In academia, rhetoric is NOT sounding pretentious insincere In academia, rhetoric means that you understand the means and modes of persuasion within your own discipline.

5 Pathos Appeals to the emotions and feelings of the audience Arouses feelings of pity, compassionate sympathy, tenderness, or sorrow Is the ability to evoke compassion in an audience

6 Logos Appeals to logic, reasoning, and evidence Is the structure or organization of a writing sample or style Implies numbers, polls, and other mathematical or scientific data Makes the assumption that the audience and the writer hold a foundation of shared beliefs

7 Ethos Appeals based on the trustworthiness of the speaker or writer Establishes credibility through the character or values peculiar to a specific person, culture, or movement Is a component of argument that establishes a persons expertise or knowledge by what that person says and not by what people know about that person – Aristotle

8 Four Elements of Rhetoric RhetoricIts communication. PathosIts the audience. LogosIts the writing. Ethos Its the writer.

9 Persuasion Through Rhetoric Words, Phrases, and Simple Assertions

10 A psychological point about rhetoric and suggestion... Its a fact that even fleeting impressions may have measurable influence on behavior.

11 A psychological point about rhetoric and suggestion... Its a fact that even fleeting impressions may have measurable influence on behavior. The operation of such influences may occur below the threshold of consciousness.

12 A psychological point about rhetoric and suggestion... Its a fact that even fleeting impressions may have measurable influence on behavior. The operation of such influences may occur below the threshold of consciousness. The positive and negative impressions made by use of rhetorical devices, while they may sometimes seem trivial, can have powerful and long-lasting effects.

13 A psychological point about rhetoric and suggestion... Its a fact that even fleeting impressions may have measurable influence on behavior. The operation of such influences may occur below the threshold of consciousness. The positive and negative impressions made by use of rhetorical devices, while they may sometimes seem trivial, can have powerful and long-lasting effects. Critical thinking addresses influence of rhetoric in two ways: (1) helps identify attempts at non-argumentative persuasion (2) helps check spontaneous beliefs and impulses

14 Euphemisms and Dysphemisms Words or phrases that are substituted for other words or phrases to put what is being discussed in a more positive or negative light

15 Euphemisms and Dysphemisms Words or phrases that are substituted for other words or phrases to put what is being discussed in a more positive or negative light Euphemism: Used cars become pre-owned vehicles. Dysphemism: Music becomes noise.

16 Euphemisms and Dysphemisms Words or phrases that are substituted for other words or phrases to put what is being discussed in a more positive or negative light Euphemism: Used cars become pre-owned vehicles. Dysphemism: Music becomes noise. Note: Reports and descriptions may convey pleasant or unpleasant information without being euphemistic or dysphemistic. Its the quality of the language that matters.

17 Rhetorical Comparisons, Definitions, and Explanations Ways of speaking that depart positively or negatively from a fair or neutral position Problems of content, not of form

18 Rhetorical Comparisons, Definitions, and Explanations Ways of speaking that depart positively or negatively from a fair or neutral position Problems of content, not of form Comparison: The American revolutionaries used tactics similar to those employed by the Viet Cong.

19 Rhetorical Comparisons, Definitions, and Explanations Ways of speaking that depart positively or negatively from a fair or neutral position Problems of content, not of form Comparison: The American revolutionaries used tactics similar to those employed by the Viet Cong. Definition: religion - the opiate of the people

20 Rhetorical Comparisons, Definitions, and Explanations Ways of speaking that depart positively or negatively from a fair or neutral position Problems of content, not of form Comparison: The American revolutionaries used tactics similar to those employed by the Viet Cong. Definition: religion - the opiate of the people Explanation: Franklin stayed in France throughout the revolution because he was a celebrity there.

21 Stereotype May function as an unexamined assumption behind a premise (easily results in fallacy of begging the question) or explanatory claim (especially, as circular reasoning)

22 Stereotype May function as an unexamined assumption behind a premise (easily results in fallacy of begging the question) or explanatory claim (especially, as circular reasoning) When directly expressed, takes the form of a generalization

23 Stereotype May function as an unexamined assumption behind a premise (easily results in fallacy of begging the question) or explanatory claim (especially, as circular reasoning) When directly expressed, takes the form of a generalization As expectation, may cause an observer to ignore conflicting phenomena or supply consistent details that never occurred

24 Innuendo A suggestion that is made indirectly Creates a negative impression (using indirect language to create a positive impression is usually better classed as understatement) May be constructed by association with something negative or by faint praise Example: Prof. X? Is he the one who admitted that his emotions influence his grading? (When speaker knows Prof. X didnt.) Example: Student Y? Yes, I remember her. She satisfied the minimum requirements of the course.

25 Loaded Question Often a yes-no question or a false dilemma, but could occur with any question form Answering directly requires accepting or presuming a questionable, hostile, or unjustified assumption May function similarly to innuendo

26 Loaded Question Often a yes-no question or a false dilemma, but could occur with any question form Answering directly requires accepting or presuming a questionable, hostile, or unjustified assumption May function similarly to innuendo Example: Are you still abusing illegal drugs? Example: Should we vote for the Democrat or the Republican in this election? Example: What were you thinking when you attempted to steal that CD?

27 Weaseler A word or phrase that deceptively weakens a claim

28 Weaseler A word or phrase that deceptively weakens a claim Not to be confused with careful qualification

29 Weaseler A word or phrase that deceptively weakens a claim Not to be confused with careful qualification Example: Save up to 40% (when typical savings will be less) Example: Its easy to go all the way...on the phone. (real ad!)

30 Downplayer A word, phrase, or punctuation that subtly diminishes a concept or weakens a claim May overlap with weaseler

31 Downplayer A word, phrase, or punctuation that subtly diminishes a concept or weakens a claim May overlap with weaseler Example: Todays patriots are just looking for a way to make a quick buck in Iraq.

32 Downplayer A word, phrase, or punctuation that subtly diminishes a concept or weakens a claim May overlap with weaseler Example: Todays patriots are just looking for a way to make a quick buck in Iraq. Example: I understand your wages are low, but its normal for some full-time workers in any modern society to be below the poverty line. (Notice how the individuals particular situation is effectively submerged.)

33 Downplayer A word, phrase, or punctuation that subtly diminishes a concept or weakens a claim May overlap with weaseler Example: Todays patriots are just looking for a way to make a quick buck in Iraq. Example: I understand your wages are low, but its normal for some full-time workers in any modern society to be below the poverty line. (Notice how the individuals particular situation is effectively submerged.) Example: Interest rates are at their the lowest point in years, though only customers with excellent credit will qualify.

34 Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm An attempt to weaken a claim or undermine credibility by making an idea or person appear ridiculous

35 Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm An attempt to weaken a claim or undermine credibility by making an idea or person appear ridiculous May make use of other devices, e.g., hyperbole, slippery slope

36 Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm An attempt to weaken a claim or undermine credibility by making an idea or person appear ridiculous May make use of other devices, e.g., hyperbole, slippery slope Example: One thing I can say for Schwarzenegger, I bet hes not a complainer. So now we wont have to listen to a lot of complaining from the governors office while Bushs friends are looting California.

37 Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm An attempt to weaken a claim or undermine credibility by making an idea or person appear ridiculous May make use of other devices, e.g., hyperbole, slippery slope Example: One thing I can say for Schwarzenegger, I bet hes not a complainer. So now we wont have to listen to a lot of complaining from the governors office while Bushs friends are looting California. Example: You dont like how the PATRIOT Act expands police powers? How about the next time you need help, try calling a hippie.

38 Hyperbole Use of exaggeration to make an impression of greater importance or deviation from expectations

39 Hyperbole Use of exaggeration to make an impression of greater importance or deviation from expectations May show up in other devices, e.g., ridicule, slippery slope, straw man, poisoning the well

40 Hyperbole Use of exaggeration to make an impression of greater importance or deviation from expectations May show up in other devices, e.g., ridicule, slippery slope, straw man, poisoning the well Example: What I need is a vehicle that can go anywhere.

41 Hyperbole Use of exaggeration to make an impression of greater importance or deviation from expectations May show up in other devices, e.g., ridicule, slippery slope, straw man, poisoning the well Example: What I need is a vehicle that can go anywhere. Example: While this framework does a good job of catering to environmental extremists, it falls alarmingly short of addressing the rising threat of wildfires facing our forests. (Rep. Wally Herger, on the Sierra Nevada Framework, 11/03)

42 Proof Surrogate An assertion or strong suggestion that good evidence exists somewhere out of reach to support a claim

43 Proof Surrogate An assertion or strong suggestion that good evidence exists somewhere out of reach to support a claim May make use of listed, but unchecked or unverifiable references

44 Proof Surrogate An assertion or strong suggestion that good evidence exists somewhere out of reach to support a claim May make use of listed, but unchecked or unverifiable references Example: Unnamed sources report that... Example: Experts agree that... Example: I read on the Internet that... (if used as evidence)


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