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Changing Teaching, Transforming Learning

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1 Changing Teaching, Transforming Learning
Brazil Science, Technology, Humanities, Engineering and Mathematics (STHEM) Consortium 1ST WORKSHOP: LORENA, BRAZIL, MAY 26‐30, 2014 Changing Teaching, Transforming Learning Session I: Design Principles & Learning Outcomes Gregory Light

2 "What I cannot create, I do not understand." — Richard Feynman
Nobel Prize winning Physicist

3 Learning Outcomes Participants will develop:
Analyze & evaluate their courses in terms of key conceptual frameworks of teaching and learning Apply principles of design for learning in their teaching Generate a repertoire of strategies and practices for: constructing learning outcomes designing active learning methods and assessing student learning Design/redesign of a course or part of a course

4 Overview Session I: Design Principles & Learning Outcomes
Global & National Challenges (Interactive Presentation) Teaching for Learning: a Framework (Interactive Presentation) Constructing Learning Outcomes (Activity) Session II: Assessing Learning Assessing Student Learning (Discussion) Dimensions of Assessment (Interactive Presentation/Activity) Aligning Assessment (Activity)

5 Overview Session I: Design Principles & Learning Outcomes
Global & National Challenges (Interactive Presentation) Teaching for Learning: a Framework (Interactive Presentation) Constructing Learning Outcomes (Activity) Session II: Assessing Learning Assessing Student Learning (Discussion) Dimensions of Assessment (Interactive Presentation/Activity) Aligning Assessment (Activity)

6 Introductions Introduce yourselves to each other at tables (name, discipline) ICE- BREAKER Share Worst Teaching & Learning Moment (as a student) Share Identify Construct

7 In the Global & National Context
Changing Teaching In the Global & National Context

8 Why Transform Learning?
Why Change Teaching? Why Transform Learning? At Tables Share

9 Why transform learning?

10 Why transform learning? (2)
E=MC2 Television Books Radio Magazines Journals Internet Facebook MySpace Wikipedia Blogs Mobile Apps Augmented Reality Journals Explosion of Information Twitter Simulations You Tube

11 The Changing Nature of Education
Why transform learning? (3) Finding Relevant Information Analyzing, Evaluating, Critiquing & Creating Information Employing Information Remembering Information The Changing Nature of Education

12 Employment Why transform learning? (4)
Only 4% of employers surveyed believed 2- year college graduates entered the workforce with excellent critical- thinking skills; only 27% rated 4-year grads as excellent. Northwestern Business Review, 11/2/2011 The Conference Board, Partnership for 21st Century Skills (2006)

13 Teaching for Learning: a Research-Based Conceptual Framework

14 Reflective Practice or Best Practice?

15 Course Design: Teaching & Learning Framework
Aligning Teaching with Learning Faculty Approaches to Teaching Student Approaches to Learning Threshold Concepts Learning in Academic Environments Expert – Professional-Research-Scholarship – Student  Light G., Cox, R. & Calkins S.(2009)

16 Approaches to Teaching Approaches to Learning
Aligning Teaching and Learning Faculty Approaches to Teaching Student Approaches to Learning Threshold Concepts Learning in Academic Environments Expert – Professional-Research-Scholarship – Student  Light G., Cox, R. & Calkins S.(2009)

17 Learning in Academic Environments
Faculty Practice Goal/Aim Research: Research/ Scholarship, Professional The advancement of learning and knowledge of faculty and peers at cutting edge (Institution/Nation/World) The advancement of learning and knowledge of students and peers at cutting edge (Student) Teaching: Undergraduate  (Light G. 2008, Light G., Cox R. & Calkins S. 2009)

18 Design Implications For Teaching
Academic Context Rivalry of Learning Power (and Ethics) in Learning Teaching Teacher as Master Learner in the Discipline Learning Environment Deep (‘cutting edge’) learning Problem-focused Peer connected Mentoring rich Community situated Research (“inquiry”) directed Light, Cox & Calkins 2009; Light & Micari (2013)

19 Question In what ways is your own learning – how you learn – reflected in your course? Do your students have a chance to see how a master learner learns – not just what they know but how they know it? At Tables Share

20 Approaches to Teaching Approaches to Learning
Aligning Teaching and Learning Faculty Approaches to Teaching Student Approaches to Learning Threshold Concepts Learning in Academic Environments Expert – Professional-Research-Scholarship – Student  Light G., Cox, R. & Calkins S. (2009)

21 “Threshold” concepts Transformative Integrative Troublesome
Irreversible Transformative: bringing about a significant shift in perception of a subject Integrative: Exposing previously hidden interrelatedness of something Troublesome: knowledge that seems ‘alien” or counterintuitive Irreversible: unlikely to be forgotten; or unlearned at considerable effort Discursive: As we gain new knowledge, we are changed by it, and these shifts are manifested in change use of language Meyer, J.H.F., Land, R. and Davies, P. (2006)

22 Examples of Threshold Concepts
Geologic or Deep Time The Nature of Teaching Author as omniscient and neutral Narrator Nature/Nurture in human behavior Surface area to volume ratio in nanoscience

23 Share an example of a Threshold (or major) Concept in one of your courses?
At Tables Share

24 Approaches to Teaching Approaches to Learning
Aligning Teaching and Learning Faculty Approaches to Teaching Student Approaches to Learning Threshold Concepts Learning in Academic Environments Expert – Professional-Research-Scholarship – Student  Light G., Cox, R. & Calkins S. (2009)

25 Faculty Approaches to Teaching
Transmission Acquisition Constructive Focus Content-teacher Content-student Content-learning Teaching intention T o transfer or transmit the course content To get it out (& hopefully in) to students To Get course content out & ‘in’ to students To Help students acquire content of course (tools, knowledge, skills) To Share course content with students To get students to reconstruct knowledge for themselves Implicit assumption Teaching as monologue One dimensional, limited Teaching as instruction (or explanation One-way, linear Teaching as dialogue 2-way conceptual exchange & change Relationship to learning Teaching is separate from learning Teaching causes learning Teaching is by-product of learning  (Light G., Cox R. & Calkins S. 2009; Prosser M. & Trigwell K 1999)

26 How faculty understand it Constructive: Improving
Improving Teaching: How faculty understand it Model Focus of Improvement Improve quality/quantity of content Improve structure/organization of content Acquire/increase experience of teaching Expand practical teaching strategies/tips Transmission: Improving Teaching Develop teaching strategies which students perceive as working Acquisition (Transitional) Develop ways to improve students learning outcomes Transform personal understanding of the nature of teaching to engaging students in deep learning Constructive: Improving Learning  (Calkins & Light, 2008)

27 Student Approaches to Learning
Surface Strategic Deep Intention Cope with course requirements Achieve high grades Understand for oneself Process Memorizing facts Studying with little reflection Treating course as unrelated bits of knowledge Feeling undue pressure/worry Putting consistent effort into studying Managing time Gearing work to perceived teacher preference Relating ideas to previous knowledge Looking for patterns/underlying principles Employing critical & creative thinking Becoming actively engaged Surface Surface Strategic Cope with course requirements Achieve high grades “Cutting Edge” Learning Memorizing facts Studying with little reflection Treating course as unrelated bits of knowledge Feeling undue pressure/worry Putting consistent effort into studying Managing time Gearing work to perceived teacher preference Entwistle, N. (2005)

28 Student Conceptions of Learning
A Increasing ones Knowledge   B Memorising REPRODUCING   C Applying Facts & Procedures D Understanding   E Seeing something in a Different Way TRANSFORMING   F Changing as a Person (Marton, F. (1993)

29 What are the greatest barriers/challenges
to pursuing teaching approaches which promote deep learning in your course? At Tables Share

30 Approaches to Teaching Approaches to Learning
Aligning Teaching and Learning (Course Design) Faculty Approaches to Teaching Student Approaches to Learning Threshold Concepts Learning in Academic Environments Expert – Professional-Research-Scholarship – Student  Light G., Cox, R. & Calkins S. (2009)

31 Aligning Teaching Around Learning The Four Basic Teaching Questions
1. What learning outcomes do you want your students to achieve, (intellectual, social, practical, and personal) as a result of taking your course? 2. How will your course help your students achieve these learning outcomes? 3. How will you know if the students on your course have achieved these learning outcomes? 4. How will you know if and how your teaching has contributed to your students’ learning outcomes?

32 Reproductive Alignment
Course objectives, teaching and assessments aligned Around the reproduction of surface knowledge Learning Outcomes Learning Activities Assessment of Learning Evaluation for Learning Constructive Alignment Course objectives, teaching and assessments aligned Around the construction of deep meanings  (Light G., Cox R. & Calkins S. 2009)

33 Break?

34 Six Learning Principles
in Course Design “Some Assembly Required” - Chronicle of Higher Education: April 2013 (Light, G. & Micari, M (2013) Making Scientists: Six Principles for Effective College Teaching, Harvard University Press)

35 SIX LEARNING PRINCIPLES
1 Deep learning: Construct activities that enhance students abilities to analyze, critique, evaluate, create knowledge 2 Problem-focused Engage students with real world problems that are relevant, challenge misconceptions and promote dialogue 3 Peer led-Collaborative Create groups common goals, collaboration (over individual competition), inclusion, diverse perspectives

36 SIX LEARNING PRINCIPLES (cont.)
4 Mentoring Develop activities for peer feed-back, student leadership roles, facilitation skills, team-working 5 Learning community Promote wider student interactions and collaborations with faculty-graduate students-community of practitioners 6 Research Provide real research opportunities for students to develop research skills, share your research, bring real research examples into the classroom,

37 Students will critique assumptions about factory safety
Learning Principles: Example in Engineering 200-level chemical & biological engineering course Meant to provide an introduction to analysis of chemical process systems. Traditionally, had focused on the quantitative solution of logic problems. Learning Outcome: Students will critique assumptions about factory safety Case study: Peer-led student groups told an incident has occurred at a chemical factory. They need to research and respond to the fire marshal who is asking for input about possible chemicals and hazards on site and to speculate what accident could have occurred. Professor reviewed responses, found variation in level of thoroughness/depth of understanding and use of sources. In class: he addressed the issues of what constitutes extraordinary conditions in chemical engineering and how safe factories are designed (depth of understanding), and reputable information sources.

38 What are you already doing or could be doing that incorporates some of these learning principles in your classroom? At Tables Share

39 Constructing Learning Outcomes

40 Types of Learning Outcomes (Competencies, Transferable Skills)
intellectual Practical Social Personal Critical thinking Problem solving Research skills Creative thinking Synthesize Ideas Evaluate ideas Research Skills Presenting Clinical skills Professional skills Vocational Skills Team-working Collaboration Leadership Networking Communication Persuade/ influence Self-discipline Self-motivation Self-confidence Flexibility/ adaptability

41 Critical Thinking? Classical Emphasis Expanded Contemporary Emphasis
Evaluate Arguments and Conclusions Evaluate Ideas And Plans Evaluate Ideas And Plans Evaluate One’s Own Understanding Evaluate One’s Own Understanding Reasoning Life-Long Learning Skills Problem Solving Problem Solving Communication Communication Team Work Leadership Self-skills Networking Formal/Informal Information technologies Influence Creativity Creativity Research Skills Stein, B. & Haynes, A. (2011)

42 Course Related Learning Outcomes

43 Learning Goals vs Learning Outcomes
Course Goals are general statements of educational intent of a course (incl. threshold concepts?). Students will understand historical interpretation and analysis of primary and secondary sources (History) Students will develop the capacity to think creatively and independently about new design problems and make a realistic estimate of their own potential for solving them. (engineering) Learning Outcomes are specific statements of the learning (what and how) teachers expect students to achieve in a course.” Students will be able to analyze a primary source as a product of a particular historical context (history) Students will be able to calculate changes in energy and enthalpy of a system caused by changes in temperature or pressure. (engineering)

44 Learning Goals vs Learning Outcomes
Course Goals are general statements of educational intent (incl. threshold concepts?) of a course. Students will understand historical interpretation and analysis of primary and secondary sources (History) Students will develop the capacity to think creatively and independently about new design problems and make a realistic estimate of their own potential for solving them. (engineering) Learning Outcomes are specific statements of the learning (what and how) teachers expect students to achieve in a course.” Students will be able to analyze a primary source as a product of a particular historical context (history) Students will be able to calculate changes in energy and enthalpy of a system caused by changes in temperature or pressure. (engineering)

45 Why define Learning Goals and Outcomes for your course?
At Tables Share

46 Why define learning outcomes?
make clear to students what they can hope to gain from taking a particular course help teachers select appropriate teaching strategies to achieve the outcomes ensure that appropriate assessment strategies are employed help teachers develop a shared language with their colleagues about what a particular course/activity is designed to achieve

47 5 questions for identifying Key Learning Outcomes
What are the 3 or 4 most important concepts/skills I hope students will master during this course? Threshold concepts? What do students in this course need to learn to prepare them for subsequent courses? What would I like my students to be doing 5 years from now? How can I foster my students’ commitment to lifelong learning? How might my students use this course to accomplish something important in another setting? Whetten, 2007

48 Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy of Cognitive Outcomes
1 Remember Lembrar 2 Understand Entender 3 Apply Aplicar 4 Analyze Analisar 5 Evaluate Avaliar 6 Create Criar Surface Original 1950s, updated to make more active (verbs); also added dimensions of types of learning (not shown here). Deep Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001

49 Taxonomía De Bloom 1. Conhecimento Enumerar, definir, descrever, identificar, reproduzir, denominar, listar, declarar, memorizar. 2. Compreensão Interpretar, resumir, inferir, reformular, classificar, ilustrar, distinguir, converter, estimar. 3. Aplicação Aplicar, alterar, programar, demonstrar, organizar, resolver, modificar, usar, escolher. 4. Analise Analisar, reduzir, classificar, comparar, contrastar, diagramar, diferenciar, selecionar, questionar, testar. 5. Síntese Categorizar, formular, generalizar, criar, sistematizar, revisar, desenvolver, estruturar, montar e projector. 6. Avaliação Avaliar, averiguar, concluir, criticar, julgar e selecionar, idear, justificar, apoiar, validar. Original 1950s, updated to make more active (verbs); also added dimensions of types of learning (not shown here). Ferazz & Belhot, 2010

50 Activity Share Identify Construct Individual: identify 1 or 2 key (threshold) concepts from your course construct higher order learning outcomes related to them Pairs/Tables: Share & discuss with a partner Whole Group: Share with whole group

51 References Ferraz, Ana Paula & Belhot, Renato (2010) Taxonomia de Bloom: revisão teórica e apresentação das adequações do instrumento para definição de objetivos instrucionais in Gest. Prod., São Carlos, v. 17, n. 2, p , 2010. Freire, Paulo (1990) from We Make the Road by Walking: Conversations on Education and Social Change by Myles Horton & Paulo Freire, Temple University Press. Harvey, Lee et al. 1997, Graduates Work: Organisational Change and Student’s Attributes. Centre for research into Quality. Light, G. (2008). The puzzle of teaching in higher education: Implications for the structure of academic practice. Ideas on Teaching (Volume 6, pp ). Centre for Development of Teaching and Learning, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Light, G., Cox, R., Calkins, S. (2009). Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: The Reflective Professional. London: Sage Publications. Marton, F., Beatty, E. & Dall’Alba, G. (1993) Conceptions of learning, International Journal of Educational Research, 19: Marton, F., Hounsell, D. & Entwistle, N. (2005). (Eds.). The Experience of Learning: Implications for Teaching and Studying in Higher Education. (2nd edition). Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press. Meyer, J.H.F., Land, R. & Davies, P. (2006) Implications of threshold concepts for course design and evaluation, in Meyer J.H.F., Land, R. (eds.), Overcoming Barriers to Student Understanding: threshold concepts and troublesome knowledge, London and New York; Routledge. Prosser, M. & Trigwell, K. (1999). Understanding Learning and Teaching: The Experience in Higher Education. London: SRHE/Open University Press. Stein, B. & Haynes, A. (2011) Engaging faculty in the assessment and improvement of student critical thinking using the CAT. Change (March-April 2011): Whetten, D. ( 2007). Principles of effective course design: What I wish I had known about learning-centered teaching 30 years ago. Journal of Management Education, 31,

52 Obrigado!

53 Additional Material

54 Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy
Creating Generating new ideas, products, or ways of viewing things Designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing Evaluating Judging based on criteria Experimenting, checking, hypothesizing, critiquing, justifying Analyzing Breaking information into parts to explore relationships Comparing, organizing, deconstructing, interrogating, finding  Applying Using information in another familiar situation Implementing, carrying out, using, executing  Understanding Explaining ideas or concepts Interpreting, summarizing, paraphrasing, classifying, explaining Remembering Recalling information Recognising, listing, describing, retrieving, naming, finding Original 1950s, updated to make more active (verbs); also added dimensions of types of learning (not shown here). Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001

55

56 “The teacher is of course an artist, but being an artist does not mean that he or she can make the profile, can shape the students. What the educator does in teaching is to make it possible for the students to become themselves.” O professor é, naturalmente, um artista, mas ser um artista, não significa que ele ou ela pode fazer o perfil, pode moldar os alunos. O que o educador faz do ensino é o possível para que os alunos se tornem eles mesmos. Paulo Freire

57 “Students must have initiative; they should not be mere imitators
“Students must have initiative; they should not be mere imitators. They must learn to think and act for themselves–and be free.” — Cesar Chavez American labor leader and civil rights activist “Education is an admirable thing, but it is well to remember from time to time that nothing that is worth knowing can be taught.” –Oscar Wilde Irish writer and poet

58 “Education either functions as an instrument which is used to facilitate integration of the younger generation into the logic of the present system and bring about conformity or it becomes the practice of freedom, the means by which men and women deal critically and creatively with reality and discover how to participate in the transformation of their world.” ― Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed


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