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M ETAL L EVELS AND M ICROBIAL E FFECTS IN F OREST S OILS AT THE A VESTA AND O XELÖSUND S TEEL W ORKS Staffan Åkerblom, Lage Bringmark www.ma.slu.se Mail:

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Presentation on theme: "M ETAL L EVELS AND M ICROBIAL E FFECTS IN F OREST S OILS AT THE A VESTA AND O XELÖSUND S TEEL W ORKS Staffan Åkerblom, Lage Bringmark www.ma.slu.se Mail:"— Presentation transcript:

1 M ETAL L EVELS AND M ICROBIAL E FFECTS IN F OREST S OILS AT THE A VESTA AND O XELÖSUND S TEEL W ORKS Staffan Åkerblom, Lage Bringmark Mail: Tel: METAL LEVELS AND MICROBIAL EFFECTS IN FOREST SOILS AT THE AVESTA AND OXELÖSUND STEEL WORKS (rapport JK ) Lage Bringmark and Staffan Åkerblom Department of Environmental Assessment Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala in cooperation with Jernkontoret (the study was performed in 2002 and 2003)

2 M ETAL L EVELS AND M ICROBIAL E FFECTS IN F OREST S OILS AT THE A VESTA AND O XELÖSUND S TEEL W ORKS Objectives Study the load and exposure from metals in organic forest top soils (mor layer) around 2 major steel works in central Sweden Use total metal concentrations in soil and porewater (tension lysimeter in vitro) to study the exposure of metals to soil microbial ecosystems Study to what degree alkaline deposition affects metal exposure and possibly microbial function Study metal effects on forest soil microbial function by the use of small scale spatial patterns Staffan Åkerblom, Lage Bringmark Mail: Tel:

3 M ETAL L EVELS AND M ICROBIAL E FFECTS IN F OREST S OILS AT THE A VESTA AND O XELÖSUND S TEEL W ORKS Studysites Staffan Åkerblom, Lage Bringmark Mail: Tel: Avesta Since 17th century (Cu and Zn) Stainless steel Moved 1949 to present location Smelting of scrapmetals Production: Steelwork expanded production in the 1950s Rawmaterial iron ores and coal Oxelösund Major metals: Iron(!) molybdenum Vanadium (chromium and zink) molybdenum chromium nickel (iron, copper, vanadium and cadmium)

4 M ETAL L EVELS AND M ICROBIAL E FFECTS IN F OREST S OILS AT THE A VESTA AND O XELÖSUND S TEEL W ORKS Field study (sampling for small scale spatial patterns) Staffan Åkerblom, Lage Bringmark Mail: Tel: A: Metals intercepted by trees are heterogeneously deposited on the forest floor B: Samples are taken at the nodes of regular grid systems measuring 50*50m 2

5 M ETAL L EVELS AND M ICROBIAL E FFECTS IN F OREST S OILS AT THE A VESTA AND O XELÖSUND S TEEL W ORKS Studysites Staffan Åkerblom, Lage Bringmark Mail: Tel: Avesta Oxelösund Nyköping 1: AGA 2: Kyrkbyn 3: Grönsinka (ref)1:Fence 2: Brannäs 3: Lid (ref)

6 M ETAL L EVELS AND M ICROBIAL E FFECTS IN F OREST S OILS AT THE A VESTA AND O XELÖSUND S TEEL W ORKS Podsol Staffan Åkerblom, Lage Bringmark Mail: Tel: Mor layer: Brown-blackish, high organic content (70-95%) and low pH ( ). Dead plant and animal material in different stages of decomposition. High metal retention capacity. Differentiated in upper O f -layer, lower O h - layer. E-horizon: Grey colour, leached mineral soil, low organic content, pH B-horizon: Reddish-brown colour, mineral soil with precipitated aluminium-ironorganic complexes, pH Metal accumulation. C-horizon: Light-brown colour, unaffected subsoil, pH 5-6 MOR LAYER

7 M ETAL L EVELS AND M ICROBIAL E FFECTS IN F OREST S OILS AT THE A VESTA AND O XELÖSUND S TEEL W ORKS Metal load / exposure (1) Staffan Åkerblom, Lage Bringmark Mail: Tel: AGA (600 m)Kyrkbyn (3000 m)Grönsinka (ref) Ratio*MeanRatio*Mean Mo Cr Ni Fence (1000 m)Brannäs (2000 m)Lid (ref) Ratio*MeanRatio*Mean Fe (!) (!)1717 Mo V Oxelösund Avesta *Ratio to reference= mean at site mean at reference Total metal concentration mg * kg -1

8 M ETAL L EVELS AND M ICROBIAL E FFECTS IN F OREST S OILS AT THE A VESTA AND O XELÖSUND S TEEL W ORKS Pore water extraction Staffan Åkerblom, Lage Bringmark Mail: Tel: Soil material from mor layer 2.Collection vessel 3.Suction vessel (-0.3 bar) 4.Ceramic lysimeter probe (1 μm pore size) 5.PVC tubing 5

9 M ETAL L EVELS AND M ICROBIAL E FFECTS IN F OREST S OILS AT THE A VESTA AND O XELÖSUND S TEEL W ORKS pH and metal solubility Staffan Åkerblom, Lage Bringmark Mail: Tel: Avesta Oxelösund Kd=Kd= Total metal concentration Dissolved metal concentration Alkaline deposition!

10 M ETAL L EVELS AND M ICROBIAL E FFECTS IN F OREST S OILS AT THE A VESTA AND O XELÖSUND S TEEL W ORKS Metal load / exposure (2) Staffan Åkerblom, Lage Bringmark Mail: Tel: AGA (600 m)Kyrkbyn (3000 m)Grönsinka (ref) Ratio*Mean (N=4)Ratio*Mean (N=4) Mo> Cr Ni Fence (1000 m)Brannäs (2000 m)Lid (ref) Ratio*MeanRatio*Mean (N=4)Mean (N=2) Fe Not available Mo VNot available Oxelösund Avesta *Ratio to reference= mean at site mean at reference Dissolved metal concentration μg * L -1

11 M ETAL L EVELS AND M ICROBIAL E FFECTS IN F OREST S OILS AT THE A VESTA AND O XELÖSUND S TEEL W ORKS Microbial response to metal load (and exposure…?) 1 Staffan Åkerblom, Lage Bringmark Mail: Tel: AVESTA Ni Cr 1Mo Ni Cr 1Mo However…. Strong covariation among metals! (Pearson correlation coefficient)

12 M ETAL L EVELS AND M ICROBIAL E FFECTS IN F OREST S OILS AT THE A VESTA AND O XELÖSUND S TEEL W ORKS Microbial response to metal load (and exposure…?) 2 Staffan Åkerblom, Lage Bringmark Mail: Tel: V V10.921Mo 1Fe V V10.817Mo 1Fe However…. Strong covariation among metals! (Pearson correlation coefficient) OXELÖSUND

13 M ETAL L EVELS AND M ICROBIAL E FFECTS IN F OREST S OILS AT THE A VESTA AND O XELÖSUND S TEEL W ORKS Conclusion (1) Staffan Åkerblom, Lage Bringmark Mail: Tel: AVESTA: Very high levels of metal concentrations Only small fractions of cationic metal species (Cr and Ni) were dissolved Mo was found in extremely high concentrations due to MoO 4 - -formation in alkaline condition Very probable toxic effects on microbial respiration OXELÖSUND: High levels of metal concentrations Small fractions of metal species were dissolved No, or minor, disturbance on microbial respiration was found

14 M ETAL L EVELS AND M ICROBIAL E FFECTS IN F OREST S OILS AT THE A VESTA AND O XELÖSUND S TEEL W ORKS Conclusion (2) Staffan Åkerblom, Lage Bringmark Mail: Tel: Results on microbial toxicity were verified with experimentally derived toxic endpoints for individual metal species Metal distribution in the soil profile was also studied Further reading: Metal levels and microbial effects in forest soils at the Avesta and Oxelösund steel works. Lage Bringmark and Staffan Åkerblom. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Jernkontoret (rapport JK ) Anthropogenic heavy metals in organic forest soils – Distribution, microbial risk assessment and Hg mobility. Staffan Åkerblom. PhD-thesis no. 2006:67. Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. (ISSN ; ISBN )


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