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National Board of Trade Lena Johansson Director General.

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Presentation on theme: "National Board of Trade Lena Johansson Director General."— Presentation transcript:

1 National Board of Trade Lena Johansson Director General

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3 Agency for foreign trade and trade policy Promote free trade and transparent rules Our main task is to improve opportunities for international trade National Board of Trade

4 Objectives An effective Internal Market An open trade policy in the EU A strong multilateral international trading system

5 Ljuset är proportionell mot den ekonomiska aktiviteten

6 Ljuset (ekonomiska aktiviteten) är mest intensiv vid kusten och navigerbara floder

7 Var ”ljusnar” det och varför? - Framförallt i länder som integrerar sig i världsekonomin, t.ex. BRICs

8 The Swedish Government: ….. create growth and employment in Sweden by promoting free trade and dismantling of trade barriers

9 Developing countries Analyses of developing countries perspective Competence and capacity building programmes in developing countries Open Trade Gate Sweden

10 International trade and development Why do people trade? Situation and developments in world trade Trade and Climate Change Development perspective Swedish trade patterns and developments Trade policies

11 F ree trade Trade creates welfare Sweden is very dependant on international trade

12 Swedish trade dependance Exports/GDP > 50 % Imports/GDP = almost 50 %

13 Källa: WTO

14 Exports of goods and services, percent of GDP ( )

15 Global 10 %20 % 30 % Sweden 14 %35 %> 50 % Exports/GDP

16 Källa: UNCTAD

17 Global10 % 24 % Sweden30 %> 50 % Foreign investments/GDP

18 Imports of goods and services increase faster then GDP in almost every country FDI´s grow even faster

19 Total trade between North America, Asia and Europé = 23 % of world trade Trade within the three regions= 53 % of world trade - Europe 31 % (single market 25 %) - Asia 14 % - North America 8 % International trade is still regional

20 951 mdr $ (7 %) 122 mdr $ (1 %) 40,5 mdr $ (0,3 %) 4243mdr $ (31%) 103 mdr $ (1 %) 1889mdr $ (14%) 282 mdr $ (2%) 787mdr $ (6 %) 315 mdr $ (2 %) 1148 mdr $ (8%) 93,4 mdr $ (1%) 1108 mdr $ (8%) Intra regional handel Inter-regional handel 477mdr $ (4 %) Källa: WTO International Trade Statistics 2008

21 Källa: UN comtrade database (Wits) EU-27:s intra- och extra regional varuhandel som andel av total handel

22 Sveriges intra- och extra-handel med varor som procentandel av total handel Källa: UN comtrade database (WITS)

23 Källa: Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland, U.S. Department of Commerce Bureau of Economic Analysis, Tulli, Finland, Eurostat och SCB 23

24 The public opinion Support for international trade is strong, but the trend is negative?

25 The public opinion (2) Important to note that support for imports much smaller than for trade

26 25 new WTO-members Decrease in tarrifs and quotas Trade facilitiation at the border World trade encreased by 170 % Trade in services increasing Liberalized rules for foreign investments Decreasing protectionism,

27 Imports of goods and services increase faster then GDP in almost every country FDI´s grow even faster

28 Conclusion: Trade policy has, almost by any measure, been dramatically liberalised almost everywhere since 1995

29 Trends in world trade – long term Global market place Global Value Chains Goods -> Services Servicification e-commerce Other tendencies - short term? Crises effects, politics New protectionism Public procurement, internationally, EU, Sweden, locally Local production Climate concerns? Development aspects Emerging markets

30 Export by regions (1963 och 2007) 50

31 Fragmenterad produktion “The first unbundling” – Baldwin Olika arbetsinsatser genomförs på samma plats (i samma land)

32 Fragmenterad produktion “The second unbundling” – Baldwin “Trade in tasks” - arbetsuppgifterna sprids ut över världen Fragmentering kan ske på flera olika sätt – inom eller utom företaget, i hemlandet eller i utlandet Offshoring och outsourcing leder till handel med insatser

33 A typical Swedish motor vehicle is only 50 % Swedish… Made in Sweden?

34 One third of Sweden´s exports consists of imports

35 Källa: Egna beräkningar baserade på SCB:s Input-Outputtabeller

36 Swedish exports are not only made in Sweden OECD-average: 31 %

37 Sectors Tjänstesektorer

38 En Boeing Dreamliner : Made in America? 43 subcontractors Spread on 135 production facilities in the world Among other things, wings made in Japan, the engines of in the U.S. and Great Britain, the doors in France and Sweden 70 % of the components are manufacturesd outside the U.S. ”Källa: Newhouse, John and A. A, Knopf (2007), Boeing vs Airbus, The inside story of the greatest international competetion in business, New York, USA

39 Ett växande avstånd mellan företagens verklighet och handelspolitiken “While the nature of global trade has changed, trade regulation in the EU and other OECD economies has remained largely the same.”

40 “Everybody is in Services” – The Impact of Servicification in Manufacturing on Trade and Trade Policy (under tryck)

41 E-commerce New options New barriers Cloud computing

42 Trends in world trade – long term Global market place Global Value Chains Goods -> Services Servicification e-commerce But also Other tendencies - short term? Crises effects, politics New protectionism Public procurement, internationally, EU, Sweden, locally Local production Climate concerns? Development aspects Emerging markets

43 The relationship between international trade and transport modes Källa: UNCTAD (2008) Andel av världshandeln i vikt (2006)

44 CO 2 emissions by sector and the transport sector Källor: IEA (2011) och OECD (2010b)

45 Emission intensity for different modes Källa: Cristea m.fl. (2011) CO 2 -utsläpp per ton-km

46 How does trade effect CO2 emissions? Transports Production: location, methods Innovations and technical developments are spread

47 A surgery Made in Sweden? A surgery Made in Sweden? A commute Made in Hong Kong? A commute Made in Hong Kong?

48 Swedish trade with other EU countries Exports61 % Imports 72 %

49 Källa: SCB

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52 Varuexport till Sveriges fem största exportländer Källa: SCB

53 Varuimport från Sveriges fem största importländer Källa: SCB

54 What companies regard as their home market?

55 Vad hindrar att företagen ser EU som sin hemmamarknad?

56 Ser företagen den inre marknaden som ett hot eller möjlighet?

57 SOLVIT Centre Provides assistance to companies and private citizens encountering trade barriers Free of charge

58 Sveriges varuexport och världsmarknadsandel

59 Source: National Board of Trade (2010) Swedish companies’ problem with exports (%)

60 Do you find that customs duties or other trade barriers have increased since the start of the financial crisis? YesNo Don’t know Total Size of company Small Medium-sized Large Larger companies experience increased trade barriers

61 WTO Members (153) Applicant countries (30)

62 Key issues in Doha round Agriculture Industrial Goods, NAMA Services Trad e

63 Genomsnittlig tullnivå för industrivaror i i-länder

64 Tullnivåer i i-länder och u-länder

65 Number of FTAs Notified to GATT/WTONotified to GATT/WTO and in force WTO is founded Source: WTO RTA gateway FTAs notified and active ( )

66 EU:s new approach in FTAs Global Europe –EU:s economic interest –Abolish all tariffs and other import restrictions –Include services and investments –Non Tariff Measures –Sectors –Sustainable development Agreement with South Korea

67 EU trade policy Common policy EU acts as one part in WTO Customs Union Import Quotas Antidumping and other safeguards Free Trade Agreements Common Agicultural Policy, CAP

68 “Nations do not trade, nor do sectors. It is firms that trade” “… This simple truth makes it clear that understanding the firm-level facts is essential to good policy-making in Europe. The view that it is important to focus on the firm rather than the sector is the single most important message of recent developments in international economics”. Citat från EU-sponsrade forskningsprojektet: European Firms in a Global Economy (EFIGE)

69 The National Board of Trade reports on global value chains 2007: Adding value to the European Economy 2010: Made in Sweden? (engelska och svenska) 2010: At your service/Till er tjänst 2010: Servicification of Swedish manufacturing 2012: Business reality and trade policy – Closing the gap

70 Trade related Development Cooperation Contribute to developing countries trade possibilities and trade negotiation capacity

71 Surveys and publications Reports in Swedish and English Website:

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