Presentation on theme: "Dividend Policy: Does It Matter"— Presentation transcript:
1Dividend Policy: Does It Matter 18.1 Different Types of Dividends18.2 Standard Method of Cash Dividend Payment18.3 The Benchmark Case: An Illustration of the Irrelevance of Dividend Policy18.4 Taxes, Issuance Costs, and Dividends18.5 Repurchase of Stock18.6 Expected Return, Dividends, and Personal Taxes18.7 Real World Factors Favoring a High Dividend Policy18.8 A Resolution of Real-World Factors?18.9 What We Know and Do Not Know About Dividend Policy18.10 Summary and Conclusions
2Different Types of Dividends Many companies pay a regular cash dividend.Public companies often pay quarterly.Sometimes firms will throw in an extra cash dividend.The extreme case would be a liquidating dividend.Often companies will declare stock dividends.No cash leaves the firm.The firm increases the number of shares outstanding.Some companies declare a dividend in kind.Wrigley’s Gum sends around a box of chewing gum.Dundee Crematoria offers shareholders discounted cremations.
3Standard Method of Cash Dividend Payment Cash Dividend - Payment of cash by the firm to its shareholders.Ex-Dividend Date - Date that determines whether a stockholder is entitled to a dividend payment; anyone holding stock before this date is entitled to a dividend.Record Date - Person who owns stock on this date received the dividend.5
4Procedure for Cash Dividend Payment 25 Oct.1 Nov.2 Nov.6 Nov.7 Dec.…Declaration DateCum-dividend DateEx-dividend DateRecord DatePayment DateDeclaration Date: The Board of Directors declares a payment of dividends.Cum-Dividend Date: The last day that the buyer of a stock is entitled to the dividend.Ex-Dividend Date: The first day that the seller of a stock is entitled to the dividend.Record Date: The corporation prepares a list of all individuals believed to be stockholders as of 6 November.
5Price Behavior around the Ex-Dividend Date In a perfect world, the stock price will fall by the amount of the dividend on the ex-dividend date.-t … …$P$P - divThe price drops by the amount of the cash dividendEx-dividend DateTaxes complicate things a bit. Empirically, the price drop is less than the dividend and occurs within the first few minutes of the ex-date.
6The Benchmark Case: An Illustration of the Irrelevance of Dividend Policy A compelling case can be made that dividend policy is irrelevant.Since investors do not need dividends to convert shares to cash they will not pay higher prices for firms with higher dividend payouts.In other words, dividend policy will have no impact on the value of the firm because investors can create whatever income stream they prefer by using homemade dividends.
7Homemade DividendsBianchi Inc. is a $42 stock about to pay a $2 cash dividend.Bob Investor owns 80 shares and prefers $3 cash dividend.Bob’s homemade dividend strategy:Sell 2 shares ex-dividendhomemade dividendsCash from dividend $160Cash from selling stock $80Total Cash $240Value of Stock Holdings $40 × 78 =$3,120$3 Dividend$240$0$39 × 80 =$3,120
8Dividend Policy is Irrelevant Since investors do not need dividends to convert shares to cash, dividend policy will have no impact on the value of the firm.In the above example, Bob Investor began with total wealth of $3,360:After a $3 dividend, his total wealth is still $3,360:After a $2 dividend, and sale of 2 ex-dividend shares,his total wealth is still $3,360:19
9Irrelevance of Stock Dividends: Example Shimano USA has 2 million shares currently outstanding at $15 per share. The company declares a 50% stock dividend. How many shares will be outstanding after the dividend is paid?A 50% stock dividend will increase the number of shares by 50%:2 million×1.5 = 3 million sharesAfter the stock dividend what is the new price per share and what is the new value of the firm?The value of the firm was $2m × $15 per share = $30 m. After the dividend, the value will remain the same.Price per share = $30m/ 3m shares = $10 per share12
10Dividends and Investment Policy Firms should never forgo positive NPV projects to increase a dividend (or to pay a dividend for the first time).Recall that on of the assumptions underlying the dividend-irrelevance arguments was “The investment policy of the firm is set ahead of time and is not altered by changes in dividend policy.”
11Taxes, Issuance Costs, and Dividends In a tax-free world, cash dividends are a wash between the firm and its shareholders.Cash: stock issueFirmStockHoldersCash: dividendsTaxesIn a world with taxes, the government gets a cut.Gov.
12Taxes, Issuance Costs, and Dividends In the presence of personal taxes:A firm should not issue stock to pay a dividend.Managers have an incentive to seek alternative uses for funds to reduce dividends.Though personal taxes mitigate against the payment of dividends, these taxes are not sufficient to lead firms to eliminate all dividends.
13Repurchase of StockInstead of declaring cash dividends, firms can rid itself of excess cash through buying shares of their own stock.Recently share repurchase has become an important way of distributing earnings to shareholders.
14Stock Repurchase versus Dividend Consider a firm that wishes to distribute $100,000 to its shareholders.$10=/100,000$1,000,000Price per share100,000outstandingShares1,000,000Value of FirmEquity850,000assetsOtherDebt$150,000CashsheetbalanceOriginalA.&LiabilitiesAssets15
15Stock Repurchase versus Dividend If they distribute the $100,000 as cash dividend, the balance sheet will look like this:$9=00,000$900,000/1shareperPrice100,000goutstandinShares900,000FirmofValueEquity850,000assetsOtherDebt$50,000Cashdividendcash$1AfterB.&sLiabilitieAssets16
16Stock Repurchase versus Dividend If they distribute the $100,000 through a stock repurchase, the balance sheet will look like this:AssetsLiabilities&EquityC.After stock repurchaseCash$50,000DebtOther assets850,000900,000Value of FirmShares outstanding=90,000Price pershare$900,000/$1017
17Share Repurchase Lower tax (but the IRS is watching) Tender offers If offer price is set wrong, some stockholders lose.Open-market repurchaseTargeted repurchaseGreenmailGadfliesRepurchase as investmentRecent studies has shown that the long-term stock price performance of securities after a buyback is significantly better than the stock price performance of comparable companies that do not repurchase.
18Expected Return, Dividends, and Personal Taxes What is the relationship between the expected return on the stock and its dividend yield?The expected pretax return on a security with a high dividend yield is greater than the expected pretax return on an otherwise-identical security with a low dividend yield.After tax is a different story; otherwise-identical securities should have the same return.
19Real World Factors Favoring a High Dividend Policy Desire for Current IncomeResolution of UncertaintyTax ArbitrageAgency Costs
20Desire for Current Income The homemade dividend argument relies on no transactions costs.To put this in perspective, mutual funds can repackage securities for individuals at very low cost: they could buy low-dividend stocks and with a controlled policy of realizing gains, pay their investors at a specified rate.
21Resolution of Uncertainty It would be erroneous to conclude that increased dividends can make the firm less risky.A firm’s overall cash flows are not necessarily affected by dividend policy—as long as capital spending and borrowing are not changes.Thus, it is hard to see how the risks of the overall cash flows can be changed with a change in dividend policy.
22Tax ArbitrageInvestors can create positions in high dividend-yield securities that avoid tax liabilities.Thus, corporate managers need not view dividends as tax-disadvantaged.
23Agency Costs Agency Cost of Debt Agency Costs of Equity Firms in financial distress are reluctant to cut dividends. To protect themselves, bondholders frequently create loan agreements stating dividends can only be paid if the firm has earns, cash flow and working capital above pre-specified levels.Agency Costs of EquityManagers will find it easier to squander funds if they have a low dividend payout.
24A Resolution of Real-World Factors? Reasons for Low DividendPersonal TaxesHigh Issuing CostsReasons for High DividendInformation AsymmetryDividends as a signal about firm’s future performanceLower Agency Costscapital market as a monitoring devicereduce free cash flow, and hence wasteful spendingBird-in-the-hand: Theory or Fallacy?Uncertainty resolutionDesire for Current IncomeClientele Effect
25What is the “information content” or “signaling” hypothesis? Managers hate to cut dividends, so they will not raise dividends unless they think a raise is sustainable. So, investors view dividend increases as signals of management’s view of the future.Therefore, a stock price increase at the time of the dividend increase could reflect higher expectations for future EPS, not a desire for dividends.
26Clientele EffectDifferent groups of stockholders prefer different dividend payout policies.some investors prefer high payouts: many retirees, pension funds, and university endowment funds are in a low (or zero) tax bracket, and have a need for current cash income.other investors prefer low payouts: investors in their peak earnings years who are in high tax brackets and who have no need for current cash income should prefer low payout stocks.
27What We Know and Do Not Know About Dividend Policy Corporations “Smooth” Dividends.Dividends Provide Information to the Market.Firms should follow a sensible dividend policy:Don’t forgo positive NPV projects just to pay a dividend.Avoid issuing stock to pay dividends.Consider share repurchase when there are few better uses for the cash.
28Fama-French JFE 2001Paying dividends was the norm until the late 1970s.In 1978, 66.5% of companies paid dividends. By 1999, that percentage had fallen to 20.8%.Startups, small companies, and high-growth companies were the least likely to pay dividends, but the practice of paying dividends had fallen off across all major categories.
29Why the change? “Double taxation”? But that disparity existed before and after the late 1970s.An increasing portion of stock holdings are now in tax-deferred retirement accounts, where tax calculations aren’t relevant.Two other trends that began in the 1970s provide a better explanation.The boom in mergers and acquisitions and the explosion of stock options. Stock issued to finance a merger or to pay option benefits means less available money to pay out as dividends to shareholders.
30M&A and Stock BuybacksThe consensus among scholars of the two recent M&A waves is that most big mergers failed to maximize shareholder value.Acquiring companies often paid too much (the so-called winner’s curse).Insider executives of the enlarged enterprise, however, commanded heftier compensation.Free cash spent on a stock buyback (which has the convenient effect of pumping up the stock price for a chief executive waiting to exercise an option) is money that can’t be spent on dividends.
31Alternatives to Paying Dividends 1. Select Additional Capital Budgeting Projects2. Share Repurchase3. Acquire Other Companies4. Purchase Financial Assets
32Stock Dividends Vs. Stock Splits Stock dividend: Firm issues new shares in lieu of paying a cash dividend.10% stock dividend get 10 shares for each 100 owned.Stock split: Firm increases the number of shares outstanding.2:1 split get 1 new share for each share owned.
33Stock Dividends Vs. Stock Splits, continued Both stock dividends and stock splits increase the number of shares outstanding, so the “pie is divided into smaller pieces”.Unless the stock dividend or split conveys information, or is accompanied by another event like higher dividends, the stock price falls so as to keep each investor’s wealth unchanged.
34When should a firm consider declaring a stock dividend? Hard to come up with a good argument for small stock dividends such as 5% or 10%.Administrative costs hurt, and there are few if any benefits.When should a firm consider splitting its stock?There is a widespread belief that the optimal price range for stocks is $20 to $80.Stock splits can be used to keep the price in the optimal range.Stock splits generally occur when management is confident, so are interpreted as positive signals.
35Accounting Treatment of Splits and Stock Dividends A. Before:Common stock 1M$1 par; $1million shares)Add. paid in capital MRetained earnings 100MTotal equity $110MMarket price per share $50
36B. “Small” stock dividend (10%) 100,000 new shares at $50 each = $5M, soCommon $1.1M($1 par; 1.1 million shares)Add. paid in capital MRetained earnings MTotal equity $110MMarket price per share $45.45If I had 100 shares at $50 = $5000/110 = $45.45.
37C. A 4-for-1 stock splitCommon ($.25 par; $1M million shares)Add. paid in capital MRetained earnings 100MTotal equity $110M
38Summary and Conclusions The optimal payout ratio cannot be determined quantitatively.In a perfect capital market, dividend policy is irrelevant due to the homemade dividend concept.A firm should not reject positive NPV projects to pay a dividend.Personal taxes and issue costs are real-world considerations that favor low dividend payouts.Many firms appear to have along-run target dividend-payout policy. There appears to be some value to dividend stability and smoothing.There appears to be some information content in dividend payments.