GENDER 1.Com animais – he/she (feeling) 2.Sexo não conhecido he Look at the little frog. Isn’t he sweet? If a student is sneezing, he (he or she) must stay at home 3. Carros, motos, bicicletas – she: How’s your car? Terrific! She’s running beautifully. 4. Países – it: France is a big country. It’s breath-taking! 5.After indefinite words (somebody, anybody, nobody, person, whoever, each, every, either, neither, no) they: If a student is ill, they mustn’t come to school. If anybody wants my ticket they can have it. Whoever comes, tell them to go away.
6.Palavras terminadas em –MAN (fireman, spokesman) fireperson, firefighter, spokesperson 7.Em alguns casos usar a terminação –WOMAN spokeswoman, policewoman 8.Ou se possível usam-se as palavras ‘politicamente corretas’ supervisor (not: foreman), ambulance staff (not: ambulance man), firefighter (not: fireman) Nouns: singular and plural forms 1.Regra geral +s 2.Terminados em O, SH, CH, S, X, Z + ‘es’ hero = heroes / watch = watches / beach = beaches 3. Vowel + O +’s’: radio = radios / zoo = zoos (and also: commando, photo, piano, solo, concerto, soprano, Eskimo, kilo, logo)
4. Terminados em –o + ‘s’ ou ‘es’ buffalo, mosquito, tornado, volcano 5. Nomes próprios terminados em consoante y =ys Kennedys / Februarys but: Bush = Bushes 6. Terminados em –y retira o ‘y’ + ies country = countries / BUT: toy = toys 7. Terminados em ‘f’ ou ‘fe’ ves wolf = wolves / wife = wives BUT: chief, roof, handkerchief + S 8. hoof, wharf, scarf + ‘s’ ou ‘es’ 9. letras, siglas, numerais e abreviaturas + ‘s in the 70s / CDs / students Bs (remember!) 10. Não mudam: crossroads, means, series, species, Swiss, news, billiards, sheep, deer, fish, fruit (não mudam, tem uso no plural) 11. mathematics, physics, athletics, politics (não tem plural, não são usadas no plural) 12. family, team, government, firm: grupo de pessoas reunidas para decidir, querer fazer algo tem plural / se vistos como individuais singular
Ex: My family have decided to move to Rio. They think is a better place to live. (group of people) The average British family has 3 numbers. It is smaller than 50 years ago. (individuals) 13. News (notícia) singular. The news is good. 14. Person people / persons (official language), peoples = nation penny pence (price / sums), pennies (coin itself) 15. Greek and Latin origins: a) -on a, criterion = criteria; but: demon, electron, neutron, proton (+s) b) -is es, basis = bases; but: metropolis +es c) –um a, curriculum = curricula; but: album, forum, museum +s d) –us i, bacillus = fungi, nucleus = nuclei, radius = radii; but: bus, bonus, chorus, circus, virus + es 16. Hair (cabelo) não tem plural, não usa com artigo (hairs, a hair) 17. Name + name: Alice and Bob are my mates. Romeo and Juliet is the most beautiful story I’ve ever heard. War and peace is the longest book I’ve ever read.
18. compostos: passer-by = passers-by; runner-up = runners-up COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS Countable nouns are objects that come in discrete units and thus can be made plural. If the noun is singular, it usually requires the indefinite article a, an, a number, or some. If the noun is plural, it requires the article some or no article at all. a banana...some bananas a candy...candies Non-countable nouns are objects that cannot be divided into discrete units and thus cannot be made plural. They require the indefinite article some, an expression of quantity (a piece of, a lot of), or no article before them. milk... some milk... a cartoon of milk ethanol... some ethanol... a litter of ethanol bread... some bread... a loaf of bread / roll
So, a countable noun has a singular and a plural form. The plural may be irregular. We can use numbers with it. An uncountable noun has only one form. We cannot use numbers with it. Typical uncountables are: Material and substances: Plastic, iron, wood, paper, water, air, coffee Abstract ideas: life, fun, freedom, progress, health, time
Some words can be countable or uncountable with a change in meaning. The countable meaning is specific and the uncountable meaning is general. A fish (the animal) - some fish (portion of food) A business (a company) –business (in general) A noise ( a specific noise) noise (in general) A hair (a single piece) – hair (all together) A painting (one object) – painting (the activity/hobby) A work (a work of art) - work (in general) A loaf (a loaf of bread) – some bread (in general) A coffee ( a cup of coffee) – some coffee (the material) A paper ( a newspaper) some paper (the material) A wood (a small forest) – some wood (the material) An iron (for pressing clothes) – some iron (the material) A glass (for drinking) - some glass (the material)
Countable nouns can be singular or plural: The helmet is over there. There is a helmet over there. You will find the helmets over there.
Uncountable nouns are always singular. Brian has got no patience with his son anymore. Therefore, with countable nouns we can use a/an and some, while with uncountable ones we cannot. Ex: Do you want to see my picture (countable) ? Can I have some information (uncountable)?
UncountableCountable Much money Little money Many friends Few friends
Not enoughEnough (= suficiente) UncountableI’m afraid there’s little coffee left. I’ll make some more. I think there’s still a little coffee left. We can have another cup. CountableIt’s almost midnight. I’m afraid there are few buses running this time. It isn’t late. I’m sure there are still a few buses running at this time.
For more information on nouns and further practice, visit the websites: http://www.learn-english-online.org/ http://www.english-online.org.uk/ http://www.mundovestibular.com.br / That’s all for now Folks! Coming soon to a computer near you.... VERBS!
Genitive Case Usamos o caso genitivo (Genitive Case) para expressar posse. Ele é caracterizado por ‘s após o possuidor. Anna´s book. Alice and John´s house. # Alice’s and John’s houses. Artists´ ideas.
Quando o substantivo estiver no singular, utilizamos ´s. Ex.: My son’s car. Quando estiver no plural, utilizaremos apenas o apóstrofe ( ‘ ) após o possuidor. Porém, se o plural for irregular, utilizamos o ‘s, assim como no singular. Ex.: Those boys´ passaport. not Those boys´s passaport. Those children´s poems. Baby’s bottle (GB) / Baby bottle (AM)
Nomes próprios terminados em ‘s’: James’s house. Nomes próprios terminados em ‘s’ históricos ou clássicos: Socrates’ thoughts. / Dickens’ stories. / Jesus’ love Substantivo com a/an/this/that/ my(...) ‘of mine’ She’s a cousin of John’s. She’s a John’s cousin. How’s that brother of Maria’s? How’s that Maria’s brother? Clareza Whose is this? Maria’s. Loja, casa de alguém, empresa, profissão, igreja: We had a nice time at Susan and John’s last night. She got married at São Francisco’s. I bought it at Smith’s. I went to the hairdresser’s. Expressões de tempo Today’s program. / Yesterday’s class. Posse de coisas (non-living things) The pen of the desk. Be careful! Cow meat. Cow’s milk. / Fox’s tail. Fox fur.