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The Ethical Side of Leadership

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1 The Ethical Side of Leadership
“The great conversation across the centuries.” Dr. Helen Eckmann James L. Consulting

2 Michael J. Sandel, “Justice”
“For if we turn our gaze to the arguments about justice and animate contemporary politics – not among philosophers but among ordinary men and women – we find a more complicated picture. It is true that most of our arguments are about promoting prosperity and respecting individual freedom, at least on the surface. But underlying these arguments, and sometimes contending with them, we can often glimpse another set of convictions –about what virtues are worthy of honor and reward, and what way of life a good society should promote” (Sandel, 2009 p. 8).

3 Sandel’s Harvard Website +
Interview on Colbert Report

4 Why We Do What We Do Values Thoughts Decisions Behaviors

5 The Good Society – (Business & Government) No Agreement For 2,500 Years
Aristotle – “so some can live the good life” Locke – “life, liberty and property” Rousseau – “same as the state of nature” Adam Smith – “absolute economic freedom” Marx – “economic equality” M.L. King – “natural rights”

6 Four Parameters What is true on the macro is true on the micro.
If it is true in a personal situation it is also true in a professional situation. If a decision is based upon technical information then no leadership or ethics are involved. Ethics is about decision making of non-technical issues and opportunities.

7 Span of Control Concentric circles
Interior working to the family/organization moving to the society/government Me Family Organization Society/ Government

8 Learning To Decide “What Is Good”
Balcony Dance Floor 5 Heifetz, R. Linsky, M. (2002). Leadership on the line. New York. Harvard University Press.

9 Learning To Decide “What Is Good”
Tension Thinking

10 Learning To Decide “What Is Good”
Frameworks Affect Outcomes Senge (2006). The fifth discipline; The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Doubleday Publishers.

11 Three “Buckets of Moral Reasoning”
Deontological “I am ethical if I follow the rules.” Teleological “I am ethical if I do the best for myself or for as many people as possible.” Virtue “I am ethical if I do what a ‘best’ role model would do.”

12 Three “Buckets of Moral Reasoning”
80% of all decisions have an ethical component. Each decision is made from one bucket. D T V Kant, I. (1959). Foundations of the metaphysics of morals. (L. W. Beck, Trans.). New York: Macmillan Publishers.

13 The Eight Dials of Ethical Decision Making
Truth vs. Loyalty Justice vs. Mercy Self vs. Community Short Term vs. Long Term Polite vs. Authentic Fair vs. Equal Fantasy vs. Reality Competition vs. Collaboration

14 Deciding between what I love and the truth.
Loyalty Kidder, R. M. (1995). How good people make tough choices. New York: A Fireside Book, Simon & Schuster.

15 Deciding between giving others what they “deserve” and “giving them another chance.”
Justice Mercy

16 Deciding between what is good for the smaller ‘group’ and the larger ‘group.’
Self Community

17 Short-Term Long-Term Deciding between what is good right now
and what might be good in the future. Short-Term Long-Term

18 Deciding between saying or doing what I think is true or what is politically correct.
Polite Authentic

19 Deciding between who or what I think should receive an “exception” and when everyone should receive an equal amount. Fair Equal

20 Deciding between Vision/Brainstorming/Possibility and being practical and grounded in reality.
Fantasy Reality

21 Deciding between “going my own way” and “going the way of the group.”
Collaboration Competition

22 Testing Through Case Studies

23 References (1) Advancing Women in Business. (1998). Best practices from the corporate leaders. San Francisco: Jossey Bass Publishers. Aristotle. (1996) Aristotle. (Barnes, Trans.). New York: Oxford University Press. Arrow, H.& McGrath,J & Berdahl, J. (2000) Small Groups as complex systems. Thousands Oaks: CA. Sage Publications, Inc. Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass & Stogdill’s handbook of leadership. New York: The Free Press. Behe, M. J. (1996). Darwin’s black box. New York: Simon and Schuster Publishers. Boatright, J. R. (1997). Ethics and the conduct of business. New Jersey: Upper Saddle River Publishing.  Boatright, J. R. (1995). Cases in ethics and the conduct of business. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Publishers. Borisoff, D. & Merrill, L. (1998). The power to communicate. Gender differences as barriers. Prospect Heights, Il: Waveland Press, Inc. Callahan, J.C. (1998). Ethical issues in professional life. New York: Oxford University Press. Champion, J., & James, J. (1989). Critical incidents in management. Burr Ridge, IL: Irwin Publishing. Descartes, R. (1951). Meditations on first philosophy. (Laurence J. Lafleur, Trans.). New York: Macmillian Publishing.  Ferrell, O. & Fraedrich, J. & Ferrell, L. ((2005) Business Ethics, ethical decision making and cases. New York: Houghton Mifflin Publishers. Gardner, H. (1995). Leading minds. An anatomy of leadership. New York: Basic Books Publishing. Gardner, J. (1990). On leadership. New York: Free Press Publishers. Gordon, J. R. (1996). Organizational behavior. Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Publishing. Hackman, R. (Ed.) (1990) Groups that work (and those that don’t). San Francisco: Jossey Bass Publishers.

24 References (2) Hays, R. (1996) Moral Vision of the New Testament. New York: Harper Collins. Held, D. (1990). Models of democracy. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Heifitz, R. (1994). Leadership without easy answers. New York: Harvard University Press. Hoffman, M. W., & Frederick, R. E. (1995). Business ethics. Reading and cases in corporate morality. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing. Kanungo, R., & Mendonca, M. (1996). Ethical dimensions of leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishers Kinder, G. (1999). Seven stages of money maturity. New York: Random House Publishers. Kotter, J. P. (1998). Harvard business review on change. Leading change. Why transformation efforts fail. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. McLagan P. & Christo. N. (1995) The age of participation. New governance for the workplace and the world. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers. O’ Brien, M. J. (1995) Profit from experience. How to make the most of your learning and your life. Austin, TX: Bard & Stephen Publishing.  O, Toole, J. (1995). Leading change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishing. Pearce, T., & Austin, N. (1985). A passion for excellence. The leadership difference. New York: Random House Publishing. Pfeiffer, R., & Forsberg R. (1993). Ethics on the job. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing. Plunkett L.C. & Fournier R. (1991). Participative management. Implementing empowerment. New York: John Wiley & Sons Publishing. Pojman, L. (2002) Ethics, discovering right and wrong. New York. Wadsworth Publishing.

25 References (3) Powell, G. N. (1994). Gender and diversity in the workplace. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publishing. Powell, G. N. (1993). Women and men in management. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publishing.  Quinn, R. E. (1996). Deep change. Discovering the leader within. San Francisco: Jossey Bass Publishers. Rost, J.C. (1991). Leadership for the twenty-first century. New York: Paeger Publishing. Sandel, M. (2009). Justice: Wha the right thing to do? Farrar, Strauss & Giroux Publishing. New York.  Schein, E. H. (1997). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Sommers, C. & Sommers, F. (2001) Vice & Virtue in everyday life. New York: Harcourt Publishers. Tichy, N. M. & Devanna, M.A. (1986) The transformational leader. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

26 Thank You!

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