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Basics of Organizational Behavior

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1 Basics of Organizational Behavior
MGMT 360 Instructor: Marie S. Mitchell Individual Behavior, Values, Ethics and Personality Basics of Organizational Behavior

2 Employee Engagement Defined
How much employees identify with and are emotionally committed to their work, are cognitively focused on that work, and possess the ability and resources to do so

3 MARS Model of individual behavior
Role Perceptions Values Personality Perceptions Emotions Attitudes Stress Motivation Ability Individual Behavior and Results Situational Factors

4 Employee motivation Defined Influences
Internal forces that affect a person’s voluntary choice of behavior Influences Direction Intensity Persistence R M BAR A S

5 ABILITY Defined Can gain ability by
Natural aptitudes and learned abilities required to successfully complete a task competencies; Personal characteristics that lead to superior performance Can gain ability by Selecting Developing Redesigning R M BAR A S

6 Role perceptions Defined Employee should understand
Beliefs about what behavior is required to achieve Employee should understand what tasks to perform relative importance of tasks which tasks are preferred how to accomplish tasks R M BAR A S

7 Situational factors Environmental conditions that constrain or facilitate behavior Time People Budge Work facilities R M BAR A S

8 The basic unit of analysis in the study of organizational behavior
The Basic Unit of Analysis for the Study of Organizational Behavior BEHAVIOR

9 Types of behavior Goal-directed behaviors under person’s control
Task Performance Goal-directed behaviors under person’s control Organizational Citizenship Performance beyond the required job duties Counterproductive Work Behaviors Voluntary behavior that potentially harms the organization more

10 Types of cwb Production Deviance Leaving early Property Deviance
Organization Production Deviance Leaving early Excessive breaks Intentionally working slow Wasting resources Property Deviance Sabotaging equipment Accepting kickbacks Lying about hours Stealing company property Minor Severe Political Deviance Showing favoritism Gossiping Blaming others Competing non beneficially Personal Aggression Sexual harassment Verbal attacks Stealing from a coworker Endangering a coworker Individual

11 Values and personality
Stable influences of organizational behavior Values and personality

12 VALUES Defined Define what’s right and wrong Values influence behavior
Stable, long-lasting beliefs about what is important in a variety of situations Define what’s right and wrong Values influence behavior Habitual behavior is usually consistent with values Conscious behavior less guided by values Decisions and behaviors linked to values when Mindful of our values Have logical reason to apply values in that situation Situations does not interfere with values

13 Value congruence Defined Problems with incongruence
Where 2+ entities have similar value systems Problems with incongruence Incompatible decisions Lower satisfaction and commitment Increased stress and turnover Benefits of incongruence Better decision-making (diverse values) Enhanced problem definition Prevents “corporate cults” and “group think”

14 Hofstede’s 5 value clusters
Individualism vs. Collectivism Individualism – interests based on self Collectivism – interests based on group Power Distance High – powerful people yield influence Low – see little use of power or those in power Uncertainty Avoidance High – wish to reduce uncertainty or ambiguity Low – not bound by rules, time or strong work ethic

15 Hofstede’s 5 value clusters (Cont.)
Achievement vs. Nurturing Orientation Achievement – value money, material objects, independence Nurturing – value relationships, modesty, quality of life Time Orientation High – future orientation Low – emphasize past and present

16 Individualism vs. collectivism
High Peru Portugal Italy Taiwan Nigeria PR China India Hungary Mexico Chile Collectivism Hong Kong Korea United States Japan Australia New Zealand Singapore Egypt Low Low Individualism High

17 Power distance High Power Distance Malaysia The degree that people accept an unequal distribution of power in society Venezuela Japan U.S. Denmark Israel Low Power Distance

Japan The degree that people value assertiveness, competitiveness, and materialism (achievement) versus relationships and well-being of others (nurturing) China U.S. France Chile Sweden Nurturing

19 Uncertainty avoidance
High U. A. Greece Japan The degree that people tolerate ambiguity (low) or feel threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty (high uncertainty avoidance). Italy U.S. Singapore Low U. A.

20 Time orientation Long-Term Orientation
China Japan The degree that people value thrift, savings, and persistence (long-term) versus past and present issues, respect for tradition and fulfilling social obligations (short-term). Netherlands U.S.A. Russia Short-Term Orientation

21 Individual and organizational ETHICS
Principles that determine what’s right and wrong Individual and organizational ETHICS

22 ethical decision-making Model
1. Awareness

Moral Intensity Degree that issue demands ethical principles Ethical Sensitivity Ability to recognize the presence and determine the relative importance of an ethical issue

24 ethical decision-making Model (Cont.)
1. Awareness 2. Judgment

25 Ethical principles: INFLUENCE JUDGMENT
Utilitarianism Greatest good for the greatest number of people Individual Rights Every person is entitled to legal and human rights Distributive Justice People who are similar should be rewarded similarly Care Favor those with whom we have special relationships

26 ethical decision-making model (Cont.)
1. Awareness 2. Judgment 5. Motivation 4. Conduct

Situational Influences Competitive pressure Organizational structure and climate Social models at work Individual Characteristics Personality

Ethical Code of Conduct Establishes standards of behavior Problem: Limited effect alone on ethical behavior Ethics Training Awareness and clarification of ethics codes Practice resolving ethical dilemmas Ethics Officers Educate and counsel; hear about wrongdoing Ethical Leaders and Culture Demonstrate integrity and role model ethical conduct

29 Ethical dilemma The Scenario
Ted works at a local accounting firm. In recent years, Ted's firm, like many, has embraced a host of new technologies including adding accounts for all full-time staff. The other day Ted was checking his when he came upon a strange message ... apparently sent to his address by mistake. (By the way, Ted's address is only one character different from the company CEO's address.) The message indicated that Ted's good friend and co-worker Nancy is scheduled to be "laid-off" as a part of a workforce reduction next week. Ted happens to know that Nancy is pregnant but that she hasn't told her boss yet because she really needs to continue working for a few months to save money before the new baby arrives.

30 Teamwork: think and respond
As a Team decide what Ted should do and justify your answer.

31 Relatively stable patterns of behaviors and consistent internal states that explain a person’s behavioral tendencies personality

32 Big 5 personality dimensions
Conscientiousness Careful, dependable Agreeableness Courteous, caring Neuroticism Anxious, hostile Openness to Experience Sensitive, flexible Extroversion Outgoing, talkative

33 Myers-briggs type indicator
4 Basic Dimensions Extroversion/introversion Sensing/intuition Thinking/feeling Judging/perceiving Most widely used in organizations Least validated and correlated with work behavior Do not use for selection of any job (new or promotions)

34 Questions?

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