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Institutional Repositories supporting research. Open Access Institutional Repositories (OA Archives) What are OA IRs? How do they work? Who do they benefit:

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Presentation on theme: "Institutional Repositories supporting research. Open Access Institutional Repositories (OA Archives) What are OA IRs? How do they work? Who do they benefit:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Institutional Repositories supporting research

2 Open Access Institutional Repositories (OA Archives) What are OA IRs? How do they work? Who do they benefit: research/authors/institutes/ economies of low-income countries? What progress has been made? Are they making a difference? What next?

3 What are Institutional Repositories? They are interoperable digital archives providing free- of-cost access to already published research findings They are located in research organisations (institutes, universities...) They form a subsidiary access strategy, working in parallel with open access and toll access journals

4 Features of IRs –Free software, therefore appropriate for low-income countries; low cost to establish and maintain –Easy and quick to establish, free technical help available online –All IRs are interoperable, conforming to OAI-MPH international standards ( –Searchable by Google, Yahoo and specialised search programs (eg OAIster, SHERPA searches) –Distributed network, shared costs –Usage (impact) statistics available

5 If your institute has an IR, how does it work? Author submits article to his chosen peer-reviewed journal Article is peer reviewed, corrected and accepted in the usual way Once accepted, the author’s final refereed accepted version of the article is deposited in author’s IR (not yet OA) Author checks if the publisher allows OA using the SHERPA/Romeo database on (or do this first!) If so, the article may be set to be OA immediately or The article may be set to be OA when any embargo period ends

6 but the ‘magic button’ operates during any embargo period All abstracts are available to all from the time of deposit, but if readers urgently require a copy of the full text, they may click on the ‘Request Copy’ key in the abstract, giving their name and email address the request is sent automatically to the author who may agree that the article be emailed to the reader (similar to the past practice of requesting copies by mail) “ Almost OA”

7 68% of publishers allow archiving in OA repositories Others often agree if asked...

8 Benefits for authors Research output instantly accessible to all (higher impact) Research output of international research community accessible to author Partnerships/collaborative projects develop as a result Career prospects advanced – publications noted by authorities Opportunities for new research discoveries, data mining etc (‘If I have an apple....)

9 IRs display and promote research strengths IRs provide a tool for administrative purposes (research assessments, management reports, evaluation... ) – scholarly output in one place IRs link organisations with the international OA developments and raise their status, attract high quality researchers.... Benefits for Institutes:

10 Benefits for funding organisations What has been discovered with our financial support? Was it a good investment? Is it leading to acceleration in research? Could our funding have been better spent?

11 Benefits to national economies? Economic Development needs Science Science needs Access to Research Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first prime minister, said: "It is science alone that can solve the problems of hunger and poverty, of insanitation and illiteracy … A1982 UNESCO report states that "assimilation of scientific and technological information is an essential precondition for progress in developing countries". The InterAcademy Council says: "In a world moving rapidly toward the knowledge-based economies of the 21st century, capacity building in science and technology is necessary everywhere. But the need is greatest for the developing countries".

12 PROGRESS? Number of IRs registered in ROAR database, August 2008 Worldwide – 1131 Developing countries – 173 (~15.6%) Latin America and Caribbean – 100 (~9%) Statistics from Registry of OA Repositories (increasing on average 1/day)

13 Geographic distribution of IRs Source: ROAR, Eprints, Southampton

14 Repositories in OpenDOAR SHERPA file from Google Map

15 Are researchers depositing their publications in their IRs? - Queensland University of Technology >10,000 - Indian Institute of Science > 20,000 - Universitis Teknologi Malaysia Institutional Repository – 4526 records - Others – nil! We have the roads, we have the IR silos? Are they full or empty?

16 The problem of author inertia Author willingness to comply with a self-archiving mandate from their employer or funder (from Swan and Brown, 2005)

17 Mandates/Requirements August 28th 2008: 53 operating mandates 11 others under development Harvard Faculty of Arts and Science, NIH, 6 of 7 UK Research Councils, National Research Council Canada, Australian Research Council, European Research Council, Wellcome Trust, Stanford Faculty of Education, Southampton University, Howard Hughes..... See: ROARmap site for details of Material Archiving Policies

18 Growth of Repository Content

19 ‘The proof of the pudding is in the eating’ Are IRs being used? Are they making a difference? Institutional Repository University of Otago (NZ) University of Strathclyde (UK) Rhodes e- Research Repository (Sth Africa) 2004-5* Indian Inst of Science Full text downloads during 2007 No. of records in IR 66650528087865 (?) Usage from Canada29771032276092931 Usage from India50221032276099354 Usage from UK892612664253923581 Usage from Sth Africa1029175120598331 Total Usage in 20071030998532951638016197

20 Usage map of IR of Universidad do Los Andes, Venezuela

21 And in the meantime.. Many IR infrastructural developments –Networks - eg DRIVER in EU - ORCA in Australia - in LAC countries –Support facilities - Depot IR in UK –Software - eg statistical packages/SWORD and new OA services, eg – OA Scholarly Information Sourcebook


23 Usage of publications from developing country research distributed by Bioline International


25 International submissions

26 Effect of OA on subscriptions

27 The challenges and barriers ahead? Lack of awareness both among researchers and policy-makers about the benefits of OA Lack of awareness about ‘how to do it’ Delays in agreeing institutional or national OA policies ▲Bottom up and top down approaches ▼

28 A reminder of the scale of the problem ACCESS STUDY WHO study in 2003 showed: Of 75 countries with GNP/per capita/yr < $1000, 56% of medical institutions had NO subscriptions to journals over the last 5 years Of countries with GNP/capita/yr of $1-3000, 34% had NO subscriptions and a further 34% had an average of 2 subscriptions/yr So we are not just involved in an academic exercise – we have an urgent need to resolve the problem as soon as possible.

29 IRs are a simple, cheap and easy means to accelerate global research and put your Institute on the map ! Thank you for listening

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