Presentation on theme: "History of the Institutional Controversy A brief review of the previous lesson."— Presentation transcript:
History of the Institutional Controversy A brief review of the previous lesson
Division has occurred over the last years This division in many respects mirrored the division in that took place Sadly, bitterness and wild charges often accompany division Conservative brethren were often called antis and orphan haters Those who believe Christians could visit the fatherless and widows by taking them in your home have taken the narrow, crooked pig-path of radicalism. (The words of a Christian College professor)
The Bible and Apostasy The Old Testament Period was full of apostasy –Prophecies of apostasy made even before they entered the promised land (Deut. 31:19-21) The New Testament history presents similar warnings –Pauls charge to the Ephesian elders (Acts 20:28-30) –Pauls warning to Timothy (I Tim. 4:1-4) –The warning in Hebrews 3:12 Within the 2 nd Cent. we see the beginnings of the system that eventually led to complete apostasy
The 19 th Cent.the beginning of Restoration The 16 th Century saw efforts by Luther, Zwingle, Calvin and others to reform the corruption in the Roman Catholic Church Rather than restoring N.T Christianity, this movement led to the formation of multitudes of Protestant denominations
Beginning around 1800, serious efforts are made to restore the ancient order of things Thomas & Alexander Campbell, along with Barton W. Stone and several others began the plea for a return to simple, undenominational Christianity
The spread of the Christians Only plea Through publishing and preaching, the growth of this movement grew to around 200,000 by 1839 But dark clouds of division were on the horizon –Some were not content with the simple plan of evangelism as practiced by the early church –They wanted another organization besides the church
The beginning of the end In 1849 we have the formation of a human organization to do the work of the churchthe Missionary Society –This was formed over strenuous objections Then about 1860 there came a change in worship, as mechanical instruments of music were introduced By 1900, the lines of division were pretty well drawn, and three groups emerged –Churches of Christ, The Christian Church, and the Disciples of Christ
History of the Institutional Controversy The 20th Century--Growth and New Division
VI. The First Half of the 20 th Century As the dust settled, the conservative churches were few and small –Perhaps 12 full-time preachers in 1900 Despite these numbers, these days were thrilling days for conservative churches –Foy E. Wallace, Jr., N. B. Hardeman, G. C. Brewer, J. D. Tant, Joe Warlick, H. Leo Boles
Foy E. Wallace, Jr.J. D. Tant N. B. Hardeman G. C. Brewer H. Leo Boles
The First Half of the 20 th Century During this time, various para-church organizations were also growing –Nashville Bible SchoolDavid Lipscomb College –Abilene Christian College –Harding College –Pepperdine College –Tennessee Orphan Home – 1909 –Potter Orphan Home – 1914 –Boles Home – 1927 –Tipton Orphan Home – 1928
The First Half of the 20 th Century There was a spirit of unity –There was a time when Churches of Christ were known as a people of the Book. All who knew us knew that we hungered above all for the word of God. They knew that we immersed in its truths and sacrificed dearly to share the gospel with those who had never heard. These were our most fundamental commitments. We knew, and others knew it (Leonard Allen).
The First Half of the 20 th Century I dont think they see the glory of the church, unencumbered by denominationalism, as I did… when I was growing up…I dont think members of the church think the church is different from Protestantism. When I started preaching members of the church believed Protestants needed to be saved. Weve lost a lot of that. It goes back to an understanding of the distinctiveness of the church. At an earlier time they really felt the gospel was a lot better than Protestantism (Willard Collins).
The First Half of the 20 th Century Most of the baptisms were from the denomina- tions. In those days denominational people would come to our meetings…Denominational people do not come these days to our meetings and if they did they would not, in most places, hear anything that would lead them out of false doctrine (G. K. Wallace)
The First Half of the 20 th Century …larger and more expensive buildings, the more affluent middle-class membership, the number of full-time ministers, the increasing emphasis on Bible schools and Christian education, and missionary outreach all reflect a gradual but impressive growth… After W.W. II the church enjoyed a remarkable growth in urban areas. As its members climbed the economic and educational ladder, the church moved across the tracks (Bill Humble).
Words of caution from Guy N. Woods The ship of Zion has floundered more than once on the sandbar of institutionalism. The tendency to organize is a characteristic of the age. On the theory that the end justifies the means, brethren have now scrupled to form organizations in the church to do the work the church itself was designed to do. All such organizations usurp the work of the church, and are unnecessary and sinful.
It should be noted that there was no elaborate organization for the discharge of these charitable functions. The contributions were sent directly to the elders by the churches who raised the offering. This is the New Testament method of functioning. We should be highly suspicious of any scheme that requires the setting up of an organization independent of the church in order to accomplish its work.
A word of caution by Guy N. Woods
VII. World War II The period of time around W.W. II marked a definite change in the church Attitudes toward the war itself produced some controversy and change
VIII. The Post W.W. II Era With the return of GIs from the war, fervor for evangelism grew In time some brethren began to have second thoughts about such cooperative efforts that involved something larger than the local church
Roy Cogdill, Luther Blackmon, Foy E. Wallace, Yater Tant and others were forced by conscience to withdraw their support Roy E. Cogdill Foy E. Wallace, Jr.Yater TantLuther Blackmon
Preceptor Searching the Scriptures Truth Magazine
IX. What Were the Issues? The proliferation of human institutions and sponsoring churches arrangements, all clamoring for church support –The Herald of Truth was looked upon as the voice of the churches of Christ –Clamoring for support were homes for unwed mothers, homes for the aged, orphan asylums, publishing ventures, Cows for Korea, etc.
What Were the Issues? Opposition began to appear in some of the religious journals –Foy Wallace in Gospel Guardian, May, 1949
What Were the Issues? Opposition began to appear in some of the religious journals –Glenn Wallace in Gospel Guardian, Dec., 1953
The Gospel Advocate and the Firm Foundation were the main organs supporting the innovations B. C. Goodpasture Gospel Advocate Reuel Lemmons Firm Foundation
Eventually there were several debates
Holt-Totty, Indianapolis, 1954
Harper-Tant, Lufkin and Abilene Texas, 1955
Woods-Porter, Indianapolis, 1956
Cogdill-Woods, Birmingham, 1957
Wallace-Holt, Florence, AL 1959
X. The Arguments Advanced by Non-institutional Brethren A. That God has revealed in Scripture patterns to be followed in the work and worship of the church –(Heb. 8:4-5) Now if he were on earth, he would not be a priest at all, seeing there are those who offer the gifts according to the law; who serve that which is a copy and shadow of the heavenly things, even as Moses is warned of God when he is about to make the taberna- cle: for, See, says he, that you make all things according to the pattern that was shown you in the mount.
X. The Arguments Advanced by Non-institutional Brethren A. That God has revealed in Scripture patterns to be followed in the work and worship of the church –(Heb. 8:4-5) Now if he were on earth, he would not be a priest at all, seeing there are those who offer the gifts according to the law; who serve that which is a copy and shadow of the heavenly things, even as Moses is warned of God when he is about to make the taberna-cle: for, See, says he, that you make all things according to the pattern that was shown you in the mount.
B. That authoritative patterns are expressed in terms of –Generic or specific statements or commands –Approved examples for churches to follow –Necessary conclusions or implications (Acts 15) C. That the generic statements or commands allow expedient ways of obeying, while the specific directions are more restrictive and do not allow changes
D. That the differences between general and specific instructions can be distinguished by common sense principles of interpretation. E. That there is a difference in individual and church responsibilities, in carrying out their respective roles in glorifying God. F. That the churchs treasury is to be used for the purposes of the edification and education of its members, assisting saints who are in need, and supporting preachers in their proclamation of the gospel.
G. That there is no authority in Scripture for human organizations or super-church arrangements through which local churches may do their work (II Cor. 11:8-9; Phil. 4:15-18). H. That the church Jesus died to purchase is a spiritual institution, and was not intended to provide for the recreational or social needs of its members, nor to be a world- wide benevolence organization.
I. That human societies or organizations (hospitals, publishing houses, colleges, etc.) may provide services on a fee-for-service basis, but the Scriptures do not allow for these to become permanent appendages to the church. J. That individual churches do not compose the universal church as in a denominational structure, but that it is individuals who are the universal church.
The universal church is not composed of individual, local churches. That is a denominational concept.
The universal church is composed of individuals, who share a relationship.
K. That there is no provision in Scripture for the universal church to function, for it is a relationship of people rather than a structured organization. –The human race exists, but has no organizational structure –The human race lives and functions in nations, which have organizational structure –The universal church exists, but has no organizational structure –Its members function in local churches, which have organizational structure
The human race exists but has no organizational structure
The human race exists but has no organizational structure The human race lives in nations, which have organizational structure
The human race exists but has no organizational structure The human race lives in nations, which have organizational structure Individual states comprise the United States
The universal church exists but has no organizational structure
The universal church exists but has no organizational structure Christians function in local churches which have organizational structure
The universal church exists but has no organizational structure Christians function in local churches which have organizational structure But local churches do not comprise The Church of Christ
XI. The Yellow Tag of Quarantine The lines of fellowship were further strained by the policies of the Gospel Advocate. WARNING! QUARANTINE AREA DO NOT ENTER
The Yellow Tag of Quarantine The lines of fellowship further strained by the Gospel Advocate. Florida College a target Hamilton PuckettPaynePickup HaileyCope
The Yellow Tag of Quarantine The ugliness of a partisan spirit was manifested in many ways –Ads for preachers – No anti need apply In short, by the 1960s the clear message was sent to the minority antisGo away, you bother me.
Tants group uses slander and libel, (And knows nothing much about Bible). Theyll find at the end, After judgment theyll spend Eternity down with le diable (The last two words used give this a fine continental flavor, and would let intelligent people know that you have at least one contributor who has traveled, has an education, and is above the general troglodyte level of your usual trash. No charge.) Regus P.
We contend that the homes perform a service more effective than the average private home in developing habits of work and industry…We contend that the homes do a more effective work teaching good, moral behavior than the home… We contend that the homes are more successful than the average private home in making Christians of the young people…This statement is no indictment of the private home. It is the best organization in the world. (Said by defender of Central Kentucky Orphan Home).
The average institutional church member gave 7¢ p er week for the care of orphan children.
The Yellow Tag of Quarantine What is abundantly clear is that the majority of the men and institutions that were centers of influence were with the institutional majority