Presentation on theme: "History of the Institutional Controversy"— Presentation transcript:
1History of the Institutional Controversy A brief review of the previous lesson
2Division has occurred over the last 50-60 years This division in many respects mirrored the division in that took placeSadly, bitterness and wild charges often accompany divisionConservative brethren were often called “antis” and “orphan haters”Those who believe Christians could “visit the fatherless and widows by taking them in your home” have “taken the narrow, crooked pig-path of radicalism.” (The words of a Christian College professor)
3The Bible and Apostasy The Old Testament Period was full of apostasy Prophecies of apostasy made even before they entered the promised land (Deut. 31:19-21)The New Testament history presents similar warningsPaul’s charge to the Ephesian elders (Acts 20:28-30)Paul’s warning to Timothy (I Tim. 4:1-4)The warning in Hebrews 3:12Within the 2nd Cent. we see the beginnings of the system that eventually led to complete apostasy
4The 19th Cent.—the beginning of Restoration The 16th Century saw efforts by Luther, Zwingle, Calvin and others to reform the corruption in the Roman Catholic ChurchRather than restoring N.T Christianity, this movement led to the formation of multitudes of Protestant denominations
5Beginning around 1800, serious efforts are made to restore the ancient order of things Thomas & Alexander Campbell, along with Barton W. Stone and several others began the plea for a return to simple, undenominational Christianity
6The spread of the “Christian’s Only” plea—1830-1849 Through publishing and preaching, the growth of this movement grew to around 200,000 by 1839But dark clouds of division were on the horizonSome were not content with the simple plan of evangelism as practiced by the early churchThey wanted another organization besides the church
7The beginning of the end--1849 In 1849 we have the formation of a human organization to do the work of the church—the Missionary SocietyThis was formed over strenuous objectionsThen about 1860 there came a change in worship, as mechanical instruments of music were introducedBy 1900, the lines of division were pretty well drawn, and three groups emergedChurches of Christ, The Christian Church, and the Disciples of Christ
8History of the Institutional Controversy The 20th Century--Growth andNew Division
9VI. The First Half of the 20th Century As the “dust settled,” the conservative churches were few and smallPerhaps 12 full-time preachers in 1900Despite these numbers, these days were thrilling days for conservative churchesFoy E. Wallace, Jr., N. B. Hardeman, G. C. Brewer, J. D. Tant, Joe Warlick, H. Leo Boles
10Foy E. Wallace, Jr.H. Leo BolesJ. D. TantN. B. HardemanG. C. Brewer
12The First Half of the 20th Century During this time, various para-church organizations were also growingNashville Bible School—David Lipscomb CollegeAbilene Christian CollegeHarding CollegePepperdine CollegeTennessee Orphan Home – 1909Potter Orphan Home – 1914Boles Home – 1927Tipton Orphan Home – 1928
13The First Half of the 20th Century There was a spirit of unity“There was a time when Churches of Christ were known as a people of the Book. All who knew us knew that we hungered above all for the word of God. They knew that we immersed in its truths and sacrificed dearly to share the gospel with those who had never heard. These were our most fundamental commitments. We knew, and others knew it” (Leonard Allen).
14The First Half of the 20th Century “I don’t think they see the glory of the church, unencumbered by denominationalism, as I did… when I was growing up…I don’t think members of the church think the church is different from Protestantism. When I started preaching members of the church believed Protestants needed to be saved We’ve lost a lot of that. It goes back to an understanding of the distinctiveness of the church. At an earlier time they really felt the gospel was a lot better than Protestantism” (Willard Collins).
15The First Half of the 20th Century “Most of the baptisms were from the denomina-tions. In those days denominational people would come to our meetings…Denominational people do not come these days to our meetings and if they did they would not, in most places, hear anything that would lead them out of false doctrine” (G. K. Wallace)
16The First Half of the 20th Century “…larger and more expensive buildings, the more affluent middle-class membership, the number of full-time ministers, the increasing emphasis on Bible schools and Christian education, and missionary outreach all reflect a gradual but impressive growth… After W.W. II the church enjoyed a remarkable growth in urban areas. As its members climbed the economic and educational ladder, the church moved ‘across the tracks” (Bill Humble).
17Words of caution from Guy N. Woods “The ship of Zion has floundered more than once on the sandbar of institutionalism. The tendency to organize is a characteristic of the age. On the theory that the end justifies the means, brethren have now scrupled to form organizations in the church to do the work the church itself was designed to do. All such organizations usurp the work of the church, and are unnecessary and sinful.”
18“It should be noted that there was no elaborate organization for the discharge of these charitable functions. The contributions were sent directly to the elders by the churches who raised the offering. This is the New Testament method of functioning. We should be highly suspicious of any scheme that requires the setting up of an organization independent of the church in order to accomplish its work.”
20VII. World War IIThe period of time around W.W. II marked a definite change in the churchAttitudes toward the war itself produced some controversy and change
21VIII. The Post W.W. II EraWith the return of GIs from the war, fervor for evangelism grewIn time some brethren began to have second thoughts about such cooperative efforts that involved something larger than the local church
22Roy Cogdill, Luther Blackmon, Foy E Roy Cogdill, Luther Blackmon, Foy E. Wallace, Yater Tant and others were forced by conscience to withdraw their supportRoy E. CogdillLuther BlackmonFoy E. Wallace, Jr.Yater Tant
26IX. What Were the “Issues”? The proliferation of human institutions and sponsoring churches’ arrangements, all clamoring for church supportThe “Herald of Truth” was looked upon as the “voice” of the churches of ChristClamoring for support were homes for unwed mothers, homes for the aged, orphan asylums, publishing ventures, “Cows for Korea,” etc.
27What Were the “Issues”?Opposition began to appear in some of the religious journalsFoy Wallace in Gospel Guardian, May, 1949
28What Were the “Issues”?Opposition began to appear in some of the religious journalsGlenn Wallace in Gospel Guardian, Dec., 1953
29The Gospel Advocate and the Firm Foundation were the main organs supporting the innovations B. C. GoodpastureGospel AdvocateReuel LemmonsFirm Foundation
36X. The Arguments Advanced by Non-institutional Brethren A. That God has revealed in Scripture patterns to be followed in the work and worship of the church(Heb. 8:4-5) “Now if he were on earth, he would not be a priest at all, seeing there are those who offer the gifts according to the law; who serve that which is a copy and shadow of the heavenly things, even as Moses is warned of God when he is about to make the taberna-cle: for, See, says he, that you make all things according to the pattern that was shown you in the mount.”
37X. The Arguments Advanced by Non-institutional Brethren A. That God has revealed in Scripture patterns to be followed in the work and worship of the church(Heb. 8:4-5) “Now if he were on earth, he would not be a priest at all, seeing there are those who offer the gifts according to the law; who serve that which is a copy and shadow of the heavenly things, even as Moses is warned of God when he is about to make the taberna-cle: for, See, says he, that you make all things according to the pattern that was shown you in the mount.”
38B. That authoritative patterns are expressed in terms of Generic or specific statements or commandsApproved examples for churches to followNecessary conclusions or implications (Acts 15)C. That the generic statements or commands allow expedient ways of obeying, while the specific directions are more restrictive and do not allow changes
39D. That the differences between general and specific instructions can be distinguished by common sense principles of interpretation.E. That there is a difference in individual and church responsibilities, in carrying out their respective roles in glorifying God.F. That the church’s treasury is to be used for the purposes of the edification and education of its members, assisting saints who are in need, and supporting preachers in their proclamation of the gospel.
40G. That there is no authority in Scripture for human organizations or super-church arrangements through which local churches may do their work (II Cor. 11:8-9; Phil. 4:15-18).H. That the church Jesus died to purchase is a spiritual institution, and was not intended to provide for the recreational or social needs of its members, nor to be a world-wide benevolence organization.
41I. That human societies or organizations (hospitals, publishing houses, colleges, etc.) may provide services on a fee-for-service basis, but the Scriptures do not allow for these to become permanent appendages to the church.J. That individual churches do not compose the universal church as in a denominational structure, but that it is individuals who are the universal church.
42The universal church is not composed of individual, local churches The universal church is not composed of individual, local churches. That is a denominational concept.
43The universal church is not composed of individual, local churches The universal church is not composed of individual, local churches. That is a denominational concept.The universal church is composed of individuals, who share a relationship.
44K. That there is no provision in Scripture for the universal church to function, for it is a relationship of people rather than a structured organization.The human race exists, but has no organizational structureThe human race lives and functions in nations, which have organizational structureThe universal church exists, but has no organizational structureIts members function in local churches, which have organizational structure
45The human race exists but has no organizational structure
46The human race lives in nations, which have organizational structure The human race exists buthas no organizational structure
47Individual states comprise the United States The human race lives in nations,which have organizationalstructureThe human race exists buthas no organizational structureIndividual states comprisethe United States
48The universal church exists but has no organizational structure
49Christians function in local churches which have organizational structureThe universal church exists buthas no organizational structure
50But local churches do not comprise “The Church of Christ” Christians function in localchurches which haveorganizational structureThe universal church exists buthas no organizational structureBut local churches do notcomprise “The Church of Christ”
51XI. The Yellow Tag of Quarantine The lines of fellowship were further strained by the policies of the Gospel Advocate.WARNING!QUARANTINE AREADO NOT ENTER
52The Yellow Tag of Quarantine The lines of fellowship further strained by the Gospel Advocate.Florida College a targetCopeHaileyPuckettPaynePickupHamilton
53The Yellow Tag of Quarantine The ugliness of a partisan spirit was manifested in many waysAds for preachers – “No anti need apply”In short, by the 1960s the clear message was sent to the minority “antis”—“Go away, you bother me.”
55Tant’s group uses slander and libel, (And knows nothing much about Bible) They’ll find at the end, After judgment they’ll spend Eternity down with le diable(The last two words used give this a fine continental flavor, and would let intelligent people know that you have at least one contributor who has traveled, has an education, and is above the general troglodyte level of your usual trash. No charge.) Regus P.
56“We contend that the homes perform a service more effective than the average private home in developing habits of work and industry…We contend that the homes do a more effective work teaching good, moral behavior than the home… We contend that the homes are more successful than the average private home in making Christians of the young people…This statement is no indictment of the private home. It is the best organization in the world.” (Said by defender of Central Kentucky Orphan Home).
57“We contend that the homes perform a service more effective than the average private home in developing habits of work and industry…We contend that the homes do a more effective work teaching good, moral behavior than the home… We contend that the homes are more successful than the average private home in making Christians of the young people…This statement is no indictment of the private home. It is the best organization in the world.” (Said by defender of Central Kentucky Orphan Home).
58The average institutional church member gave 7¢ per week for the care of orphan children.
59The Yellow Tag of Quarantine What is abundantly clear is that the majority of the men and institutions that were centers of influence were with the institutional majority