Presentation on theme: "PROMOTING LEADERSHIP UNDERSTANDING OPPORTUNITY in the AMERICAS."— Presentation transcript:
PROMOTING LEADERSHIP UNDERSTANDING OPPORTUNITY in the AMERICAS
Partners is the largest private voluntary organization in the Western Hemisphere engaged in international cooperation and training.
Founded in 1964 as the people-to-people component of the Alliance for Progress, Partners of the Americas has conducted and facilitated community based training and technical assistance for 40 years.
U.S. states are paired with areas of Latin America and the Caribbean in 60 Partnerships.
Each partnership consists of two chapters: one in the north and one in the south. Chapters are organized as private, nonprofit institutions in their own respective communities. Individual chapters decide what projects they will carry out. Indiana USA Rio Grande do Sul Brazil
Agriculture & the Environment Citizen Participation Education & Culture Emergency Preparedness Public Outreach Sports Women & Families Youth Development Some areas in which we work:
To learn more about Partners of the Americas International, visit www.partners.net To learn more about Partners of the Americas Indiana, visit www.bsu.edu/partners To learn more about Partners of the Americas Rio Grande do Sul, visit www.partners.org.br
Rio Grande do Sul is located in Brazil, the largest country in South America and the fifth largest in the world.
Geography Area: 3,300,170.9 sq miles Population: 184,000,000 Capital: Brasilia ( pop. 2,051,146) Largest city: Sao Paulo (pop. 13,000,000) Climate: mostly tropical, but temperate in the south. Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt. Natural Hazards: recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south. Brazil anthem
Flag Green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the night sky over Brazil on the day of independence; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress).
Government Conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil Conventional short form: Brazil Government type: federative republic Branches of government Executive – Chief of State: President Luiz Inacio “Lula” da Silva Legislative – bicameral National Congress: Federal Senate and Chamber of Deputies Judicial – Supreme Federal Tribunal, Higher Tribunal of Justice, Regional Tribunals Suffrage: voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70. Compulsory between 18 and 70. Independence: September 7 1822, from Portugal Constitution: October 5 1988 Administrative Divisions: 26 states and 1 federal district.
Religions 74% - Catholic 16% - Protestant 06% - African-Brazilian beliefs 02% - Spiritism 02% - Eastern beliefs Syncretism is a very important aspect of the Brazilian culture. Syncretism is the reconciliation or fusion of differing systems of belief, as in philosophy or religion, especially when success is partial or the result is heterogeneous.
Languages: Primary first language: Portuguese Portuguese is a romance language, derived from vulgar Latin, that presents varied degrees of similarity to other romance languages: very close to Spanish, close to Italian, somewhat close to French, and not very close to Rumenian. Other first languages: German, Italian, Polish, Spanish, Japanese, and Native- Brazilian languages. These languages remain even today as the first language in small communities in the countryside, originally quite isolated and independent. Languages assimilated into Portuguese: Native and African Languages The languages of the Native-Brazilians and the Africans brought as slaves disappeared as their cultures were assimilated into the new emerging national culture. What has remained as their contribution is the vocabulary, especially words naming plants, animals, food and folclore.
Portuguese CIRCULO PLENO Eu sou feita de Fogo do sol Poeira de dinossauro Luz de estrela Chamas de Vulcao Vidas desconhecidas Rabos de cometa E todo o futuro Bestas e coisas Podem tambem ser eu. Language Samples Compare Portuguese to Spanish, its closest language, and English, in a poem by Elly Sherman (original in English). From http://www.languageportraits.net/panels/list.html English FULL CIRCLE I am made of Sun fire Dinosaur dust Star light Volcano flames Unknown lives Comet tails And all the future Beasts and things Shall also be me. Spanish CIRCULO COMPLETO Estoy hecha de Fuego del sol Polvo de dinosaurio Luz de las estrellas Lhamas de volcan Vidas desconocidas Colas de cometas Y estare tambien Em las bestias y cosas Del futuro.
Food and Drinks The most famous Brazilian food and drinks among foreigners are: Feijoada: black beans with different kinds of meat, served with cassava flour, kale, and orange. Brigadeiro: this dessert is made with sweet condensed milk and chocolate, covered with flocks of chocolate. Caipirinha: an alcoholic beverage made with cachaca (sugar cane spirit), lemon, and sugar. Quindim: a dessert made with coconut, egg yolks and sugar.
Brazil is divided into five regions with very distinct geography and culture: North Northeast Midwest Southeast South
The Northeast is a land of contrasts: the beautiful coast with its beaches and the dry countryside; the historical city of Olinda and the modern city of Recife (respectively the former and current state capital of Pernambuco).
The Northeast is the home of the only genuinely Brazilian sport: Capoeira. The African slaves brought to Brazil were not allowed to practice their fighting techniques. So, they disguised them into movements that resembled dance, with music that sounded as if they were celebrating. Today Capoeira is a fighting technique practiced as a sport or competition.
The Federal District is located in the Midwest and the Federal Capital is called Brasilia. The city is famous for its modern architecture: (counterclockwise) the Federal Congress, the President´s Residence, and the Cathedral.
The Pantanal is a large swampy area in the Midwest. It is a natural preservation area protected by law because it is the home and breeding environment for many species of birds.
Rio de Janeiro, the former national capital, has a privileged landscape and is the home for the grandest Carnival parade in Brazil
If you ever come to Brazil, you are almost certainly going to fly into Sao Paulo, one of the largest cities in the world. Don´t forget to look out the airplane window to apprehend the size of the country’s economical capital.
The state of Parana is famous for the Iguacu Falls on the boarder of Paraguay and Argentina and its capital, the city of Curitiba, internationally recognized as a model of urban planning and technology. Clockwise: city transportation system, Iguacu falls, the wire- frame opera house, and the botanical gardens.
The state of Santa Catarina offers the best beaches in southern Brazil attracting tourists from Chile, Argentina and Uruguay. The state capital, Florianopolis, is a modern city on the Island of Santa Catarina connected to the continent through an old historical bridge.
Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state in Brazil, sharing boarders with Uruguay and Argentina. The state was very disputed in its early history (1500 to 1800) belonging to the Portuguese and the Spanish alternately until its late consistent colonization by the Portuguese in 1735, Germans in 1825, and Italians in 1875. Between 1835 and 1845, the state fought and lost the Farroupilha war against the Brazilian Empire to be an independent country, the Pampas Republic. The state capital is the city of Porto Alegre.
Average summer temperature: 82ºF Average winter temperature: 53ºF Highest summer temperature: 100ºF Lowest winter temperature: 40ºF Size: 108,904 square miles North/South: 621 miles West/East: 497 miles Highest point: 4,586 feet Population: 10,512,283 Urban population: 8,756,394 Rural population: 1,775,889 Climate: subtropical, temperate State Information
The German Mountains This part of the mountains was colonized by German settlers and offers the best tourist infrastructure in the state. It is one of the very few places where it snows in Brazil (actually very little and quite seldom).
The Italian Mountains Here the settlers were Italian. The region is famous for the hearty Italian meals, the locally produced wine, and the furniture industry.
The Canyons In this part of the state there are canyons over 2,500 feet deep. A visitor can hike, climb up and down, go rafting, or simply enjoy the view.
The Pampas The Pampas of South America are flat, fertile plains covered with grass. The word Pampas comes from the Guarani Indian word for level plain. The Pampas is the home of the 'Gaucho', the original Rio Grande do Sul cowboy. The humid Pampas ecosystem is one of the richest grazing areas in the world.
In 1682 the Jesuits founded seven missions in Rio Grande do Sul to convert and civilize the Guarani natives. Each settlement had an impressive church and surrounding village. For political reasons, the Missions were caught between the Portuguese and Spanish fighting for the territory and eventually abandoned around 1800. The Missions
Brazilians love the beach and in the summer they crowd the cities and towns on the coast. Many families own a beach house where they spend the hottest months (December, January, and February). The Coast
Gaucho The word “gaucho” denotes a person or anything else from Rio Grande do Sul (as Hoosier in Indiana). “Gaucho” for a man and “gaucha” for a woman. However, when dressed up in the traditional outfit, called “pilcha”, a woman is called a “prenda”. Even today it is common to see people dressed in less elaborate versions of the outfit in the countryside, especially those involved in agriculture. Other than that, the “gauchos” dress their “pilchas” only for special parties and when participating in a folkloric dance group.
Chimarrao Chimarrao is a traditional drink in Rio Grande do Sul. It is a hot bitter green tea made of the ground leaves from the tree called “erva mate”, served in a gourd and sucked through a decorated metal straw.
Churrasco “Churrasco” is the most traditional and famous gaucho meal. It consists of skewering large pieces of meat (mostly beef, pork or lamb) and roasting them slowly over hot charcoal. The meat is traditionally flavored only with rock salt and served with cassava flour. The skewers are brought to the table and the person chooses a slice.
Gre-Nal When visiting Rio Grande do Sul, there is one choice you are not spared to make: to be “gremista” or “colorado”. Gaúchos are divided into those who root for Gremio and those who root for Internacional. A Gre- Nal is a game when the two teams play against each other.
Fauna The capibara, “capivara”, is the largest rodent in the world, reaching 120 pounds. The “quero-quero” is considered the state bird and lives in the fields. The name is an attempt to reproduce the sound the bird makes. It is considered a very good watch animal because it nests on the ground and defends the nest by making a lot of noise and being very aggressive. The rhea, “ema” is common only in the pampas or the southern flatlands.
Flora “Araucaria” is a species of pine tree that grows in higher altitudes in southern Brazil. Gauchos like to eat the seed from the pine cooked in water and salt. This tall grass is very common in the Pampas. From the ground leaves of this tree, Gauchos prepare the green tea used in the “chimarrao”.
Porto Alegre is located on the right margin of the Guaiba Lake, whose waters come from five different rivers and flow into Patos Lake. The city has developed from an original harbor by the lake, where the first Azorian imigrants arrived. Porto Alegre means “happy harbor”.
The red lines show the latitude where Porto Alegre would be in North America and Indianapolis in South America.
The Lacador statue is considered the city symbol. It depicts a typical gaucho man prepared to work in the fields. The man who modeled for the statue is Paixao Cortes, one of the most important researchers of gaucho culture.
There is a square downtown called Praça da Matriz, around which five “powers” are represented (clockwise): Metropolitan Cathedral (religious), Governor´s Palace (executive), State House of Representatives (legislative), Sao Pedro Theater (cultural), and the State Court House (judicial).
If you are in Porto Alegre on a Sunday, there is something you must do: go shopping at Brique da Redencao, a flea market at Redencao park, the biggest in the city.
Being downtown Porto Alegre is being in the crowd. The busiest street is Rua da Praia, closed to cars (left). Take time to shop for local produce at the Public Market (above right) and to visit the City Hall (above left).
In Porto Alegre, the sun sets on the Guaiba Lake, and many say it is one of the most beautiful sunsets in the country.
Brazilian Music To listen to the music, click on the red buttons or use a compatible software (the songs are in MP3 format).
1.Allah-la-o 2.Cabeleira do Zeze 3.Cidade Maravilhosa 4.Mamae eu quero 5.Mascara negra 6.Me da um dinheiro ai 7.Saca-rolha 8.Turma do funil Traditional Carnival Music Carnival started with people dressed in costumes parading through the streets following the rhythm and tune of “Marchinhas de Carnaval”, carnival march. Later, as more people in the upper classes joined the celebration, carnival was taken into ballrooms, but still with the same music. Although today more up- beat versions of samba are preferred, every Brazilian has the tunes below engraved in their memories. All songs are performed by the band Banda Rio- Copa.
1.Aquarela do Brasil – singer Francisco Alves 2.Na baixa do Sapateiro –singer Angela Maria 3.No tabuleiro da baiana – singers Luiz Barbosa and Carmem Miranda 4.No rancho fundo – singer Eliseth Cardoso 5.No rancho fundo 6.Camisa amarela – singer Ary Barroso 7.Trapo de gente – singer Ary Barroso 8.Upa! Upa! – singer Dyrcinha Batista Ary Barroso - The early 1900´s Ary Barroso was the most influential pre-bossa nova composer in Brazil. His 1939 composition, "Aquarela Do Brasil”, was featured in the 1942 Disney film Saludos Amigos, and has gone on to become one of the 20 most recorded songs of all time. His song, "Na Baixa Do Sapateiro”, based on a Brazilian pop tune, was included in the Disney film The Three Caballeros and popularized as "Bahia." In 1955, Barroso received the National Order Of Merit, the greatest honor bestowed by the Brazilian government.
A suave, romantic style which started in the 1950s, replacing samba as the national music. Typically, bossa nova (which means "new way" in Portuguese) is very mellow and laid-back, and very, very cool. In the early 1960s, bossa nova rhythms became popular with jazz and pop musicians in the U.S. and Europe. The two landmark composers are Joao Gilberto and Antonio Carlos Jobim. Bossa Nova 1.Aguas de marco – singers Elis Regina and Tom Jobim 2.Coisa mais Linda – singer Caetano Veloso 3.Corcovado – singer Sylvia Telles 4.Desafinado – singer Gal Costa 5.Garota de Ipanema – singer Sergio Mendes 6.Triste – singer Elis Regina
1.Criador e Criatura – Escola de Samba Mocidade Independente 2.Catarina de Medicis – Escola de Samba Imperatriz 3.Herois da Resistencia – Escola de Samba Academicos de Santa Cruz 4.Templo do absurdo – Escola de Samba Unidos da Tijuca Samba Enredo On carnival, the major samba associations in a city compete by parading on the street. Each association, “escola de samba”, chooses a theme, designing costumes and composing an original samba according to this theme. This kind of samba is called “samba enredo”; “enredo” means plot because the song has to tell the plot of what is being presented. The grandest of these competitions is in Rio de Janeiro.
1.Trem das Onze – part. Demonios da Garoa 2.A batucada dos nossos tantas – part. Dudu Nobre 3.Bebeto loteria 4.Parabens pra voce – part. Alcione 5.Se chama mulher 6.Seja sambista tambem Popular Samba Samba has many manifestations today and they are very distinct for Brazilians. The songs below are examples of what we can call modern popular samba, that is, good quality samba performed by renowned bands and singers. All songs below are played by the band Fundo de Quintal (live) with the participation of important Brazilian samba singers.
1.Flor do Baiao – Baiao de Corda 2.Forro da ribanceira – Forro na Contramao 3.Fungada da Crioula – Baiao de Corda 4.Toca pra nois dois – Targino Gondim 5.Bilha no sapato - Domquixote Forro During the second World War, the U.S. government set an air force base in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The base normally promoted dances for the Americans only, but sometimes they would open the dance “for all” to come. Brazilians who could not speak English would say it “forro” and the word has become the synonym for a big lively party. Today, “forro” is the typical dance party in the Northeast of Brazil with typical music from that region.
1.Trenzinho Caipira (the piece imitates a steam engine train) 2.Baiao (typical Northeast rhythm) 3.Xote (typical Northeast rhythm) 4.Caboclinho (typical Northeast rhythm) 5.Batuque 6.Novena Percussion In most Brazilian rhythms, percussion plays a key role. Here you can listen to the Santa Maria Federal University Percussion Ensemble, performing renowned pieces by renowned Brazilian composers.
1.Canto Alegretense 2.Ceu, Sol, Sul, terra e cor 3.Esquilador 4.Gaucho de Passo Fundo 5.Gaudencio sete luas 6.Negro da Gaita 7.Prenda Minha 8.Querencia Amada 9.Veterano 10.Rio Grande do Sul anthem Gaucho Music The traditional music in Rio Grande do Sul shares a lot more characteristics with the music from Uruguay and Argentina than with the rest of Brazil. It is the Pampas culture. There are special clubs, CTG – Gaucho Tradition Center, where gauchos go to dance the typical music. But one has to be dressed in “pilcha” to be allowed to dance there.
1.Anu 2.Balaio 3.Caranguejo 4.Macanico 5.Pezinho 6.Tirana do Lenco Gaucho Folkloric Music In the old times, at the ball dances, people used to dance the gaucho version of square dances. They had been totally forgotten until Paixao Cortes and Barbosa Lessa, through a thorough research, brought them back in their Gaucho Dance Manual. Today, special dance groups, “invernadas”, at the CTGs dance them for leisure, for shows, or even for competition. Below you can find some samples of these dances.
1.Porto Alegre e demais 2.Horizontes 3.Deu pra ti Music about Porto Alegre There are three songs that were inspired in Porto Alegre and are unofficially considered the city´s anthems, espcially the first.
1.Nuvem de lagrimas 2.Coracao sertanejo 3.Evidencias 4.Pagina virada Brazilian country Music In Brazil, country music is called “sertaneja”. It is only in the last 15 years that country music has left its marginal place in Brazilian music to become popular and well accepted. All songs below are performed by Chitaozinho e Xororo.
1.Da lata – Fernanda Abreu (funk) 2.Mama palavra – Joao Bosco (reggae) 3.Na esquina – Joao Bosco 4.Aconteceu – Adriana Calcanhoto 5.Cinema – Adriana Calcanhoto 6.2345meia78 – Gabriel Pensador (RAP) 7.Danca do desempregado – Gabriel Pensador (samba) 8.Amolacao – Skank 9.Pacato cidadao - Skank Pop Music Pop music today covers as many varieties as there are in the world. Below are some samples of modern pop music in Brazil.