Presentation on theme: "SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, AND GASES (AND PLASMAS) CHAPTER 3 Standard 8.3d – Students will know the states of matter (solid, liquid, and gas) depend on molecular."— Presentation transcript:
SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, AND GASES (AND PLASMAS) CHAPTER 3 Standard 8.3d – Students will know the states of matter (solid, liquid, and gas) depend on molecular motion.
1.Crystalline – matter is very orderly; iron or diamond 2.Amorphous – not orderly; rubber, wax and glass
2 Liquid Properties 1.Surface Tension- a force at the surface of liquid that creates spherical drops 2.Viscosity – a liquids resistance to flow; honey vs water (who’s gonna win ) Liquid – takes the shape of container with definite volume
Gases- changes in both shape and volume In a gas, the atoms and molecules are free to move independently, colliding frequently. The particles in a gas are much further apart than between a solid or a liquid.
1.Has no definite shape or volume 2.Conduct electricity (like lightning, fire, and stars) 3.Make up 99% of our Universe and Plasma
Changes of State Particles at a warmer temp have more thermal energy than particles at a cooler temp Remember: Thermal energy flows as heat from a warmer substance to a cooler substance (ice cream cone melts when outside)
Changes between solid and liquid Melting Changing from a solid to a liquid Melting occurs at the melting point (water’s melting point = 0˚C and table salt is 800.7˚C) Particles begin to speed up (vibrate quicker) Freezing Changing from a liquid to a solid Water’s freezing point = 0˚C Particles begin to slow down to fixed positions
Evaporation Takes place only on the surface of a liquid (shrinking puddle, etc) Boiling Changes between liquid and gas Vaporization - liquid particles gain enough energy to form a gas Takes place when a liquid changes to gas below surface as well as at the surface
CONDENSATION – CHANGE IN STATE FROM A GAS TO A LIQUID Gas particles lose thermal energy to form a liquid Cloud formation, fogged up mirrors, water droplets on pop can
Sublimation – when the surfaces particles of a solid gain enough energy to form a gas Changes between solid and gas Solid CO2 = ˚F or -78.5˚C
THE BEHAVIOR OF GASES Measure gases in 3 ways: 1.Volume – amount of space that matter fills 2.Temperature – measure of the average energy of motion of the particles of matter (faster the particles are moving, the greater the energy, thus a higher temp results)
3. Pressure – the force exerted on a surface divided by the total area over which the force is exerted Pressure is measured in units called Pascal's (Pa) High vs Low Pressure Higher pressure has higher # of gas particles per unit volume than low pressure
GAS LAWS Charles’s Law The volume of a gas increases as temp increases, and vice versa (proportional) Boyle’s Law As the pressure of a gas increases, the volume of that gas will decrease, and vice versa (inversely proportional) Charles’s Law
PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE Recall: The higher the temperature, the faster the molecules are moving When the temp of a gas is increased, the pressure also increases, and vice versa.