Presentation on theme: "Solids, Liquids, and Gases (and Plasmas) Chapter 3"— Presentation transcript:
1 Solids, Liquids, and Gases (and Plasmas) Chapter 3 Standard 8.3d – Students will know the states of matter (solid, liquid, and gas) depend on molecular motion.
2 Solid – has definite shape and volume Crystalline – matter is very orderly; iron or diamondAmorphous – not orderly; rubber, wax and glass
3 Liquid – takes the shape of container with definite volume 2 Liquid PropertiesSurface Tension- a force at the surface of liquid that creates spherical dropsViscosity – a liquids resistance to flow; honey vs water (who’s gonna win )
4 Gases- changes in both shape and volume In a gas, the atoms and molecules are free to move independently, colliding frequently. The particles in a gas are much further apart than between a solid or a liquid.
5 and Plasma Has no definite shape or volume Conduct electricity (like lightning, fire, and stars)Make up 99% of our Universe
6 Changes of StateParticles at a warmer temp have more thermal energy than particles at a cooler tempRemember: Thermal energy flows as heat from a warmer substance to a cooler substance (ice cream cone melts when outside)
7 Melting Freezing Changes between solid and liquid Changing from a solid to a liquidMelting occurs at the melting point (water’s melting point = 0˚C and table salt is 800.7˚C)Particles begin to speed up (vibrate quicker)Changing from a liquid to a solidWater’s freezing point = 0˚CParticles begin to slow down to fixed positions
8 Changes between liquid and gas Vaporization - liquid particles gain enough energy to form a gasEvaporationBoilingTakes place only on the surface of a liquid (shrinking puddle, etc)Takes place when a liquid changes to gas below surface as well as at the surface
9 Condensation – change in state from a gas to a liquid Gas particles lose thermal energy to form a liquidCloud formation, fogged up mirrors, water droplets on pop can
10 Changes between solid and gas Sublimation – when the surfaces particles of a solid gain enough energy to form a gasSolid CO2 = ˚F or -78.5˚C
11 The Behavior of GasesMeasure gases in 3 ways:Volume – amount of space that matter fillsTemperature – measure of the average energy of motion of the particles of matter (faster the particles are moving, the greater the energy, thus a higher temp results)
12 3. Pressure – the force exerted on a surface divided by the total area over which the force is exertedPressure is measured in units called Pascal's (Pa)High vs Low PressureHigher pressure has higher # of gas particles per unit volume than low pressure
13 Gas Laws Charles’s Law Boyle’s Law The volume of a gas increases as temp increases, and vice versa (proportional)As the pressure of a gas increases, the volume of that gas will decrease, and vice versa (inversely proportional)Charles’s Law
14 Pressure and temperature Recall: The higher the temperature, the faster the molecules are movingWhen the temp of a gas is increased, the pressure also increases, and vice versa.