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Solids, Liquids, and Gases (and Plasmas) Chapter 3

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Presentation on theme: "Solids, Liquids, and Gases (and Plasmas) Chapter 3"— Presentation transcript:

1 Solids, Liquids, and Gases (and Plasmas) Chapter 3
Standard 8.3d – Students will know the states of matter (solid, liquid, and gas) depend on molecular motion.

2 Solid – has definite shape and volume
Crystalline – matter is very orderly; iron or diamond Amorphous – not orderly; rubber, wax and glass

3 Liquid – takes the shape of container with definite volume
2 Liquid Properties Surface Tension- a force at the surface of liquid that creates spherical drops Viscosity – a liquids resistance to flow; honey vs water (who’s gonna win )

4 Gases- changes in both shape and volume
In a gas, the atoms and molecules are free to move independently, colliding frequently. The particles in a gas are much further apart than between a solid or a liquid.

5 and Plasma Has no definite shape or volume
Conduct electricity (like lightning, fire, and stars) Make up 99% of our Universe

6 Changes of State Particles at a warmer temp have more thermal energy than particles at a cooler temp Remember: Thermal energy flows as heat from a warmer substance to a cooler substance (ice cream cone melts when outside)

7 Melting Freezing Changes between solid and liquid
Changing from a solid to a liquid Melting occurs at the melting point (water’s melting point = 0˚C and table salt is 800.7˚C) Particles begin to speed up (vibrate quicker) Changing from a liquid to a solid Water’s freezing point = 0˚C Particles begin to slow down to fixed positions

8 Changes between liquid and gas
Vaporization - liquid particles gain enough energy to form a gas Evaporation Boiling Takes place only on the surface of a liquid (shrinking puddle, etc) Takes place when a liquid changes to gas below surface as well as at the surface

9 Condensation – change in state from a gas to a liquid
Gas particles lose thermal energy to form a liquid Cloud formation, fogged up mirrors, water droplets on pop can

10 Changes between solid and gas
Sublimation – when the surfaces particles of a solid gain enough energy to form a gas Solid CO2 = ˚F or -78.5˚C

11 The Behavior of Gases Measure gases in 3 ways: Volume – amount of space that matter fills Temperature – measure of the average energy of motion of the particles of matter (faster the particles are moving, the greater the energy, thus a higher temp results)

12 3. Pressure – the force exerted on a surface divided by the total area over which the force is exerted Pressure is measured in units called Pascal's (Pa) High vs Low Pressure Higher pressure has higher # of gas particles per unit volume than low pressure

13 Gas Laws Charles’s Law Boyle’s Law
The volume of a gas increases as temp increases, and vice versa (proportional) As the pressure of a gas increases, the volume of that gas will decrease, and vice versa (inversely proportional) Charles’s Law

14 Pressure and temperature
Recall: The higher the temperature, the faster the molecules are moving When the temp of a gas is increased, the pressure also increases, and vice versa.

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