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Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Effect of gender on energy utilization Effect of gender on energy utilization Jean Noblet INRA, Saint-Gilles,

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Presentation on theme: "Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Effect of gender on energy utilization Effect of gender on energy utilization Jean Noblet INRA, Saint-Gilles,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Effect of gender on energy utilization Effect of gender on energy utilization Jean Noblet INRA, Saint-Gilles, France A L I M E N T A T I O N A G R I C U L T U R E E N V I R O N N E M E N T

2 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 France Saint- Gilles

3 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010Introduction Feed # 60% of cost of pig meat production Energy is the main feed cost More and more available ingredients (by-products) Energy requirement is dependent on animal characteristics (gender, genotype, BW, etc.), its environment (climate, housing, etc.) and production objectives Energy=regulator of growth (appetite, restriction, etc.) Precise nutritional values and precise recommendations? Effect of gender?

4 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Feed energy systems for pig feeds?

5 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Digestible Energy (DE) Metabolizable Energy (ME) Gross Energy (GE) Fecal energy Urinary and gas energy Net Energy (NE) Heat increment dE ME/DE k Energy utilization

6 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Digestibility of energy in pigs Adult pig Growing pig Le Goff and Noblet, 2001

7 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 ME = DE – E in urines – E in gas oE in urines = xN urines (g/kg DM) oE in gas: # negligible (in young pigs) N in urines = f (digestible N) oN in urines = 50% of digestible N Metabolizable energy in (growing) pigs (MJ or g per kg DM) Noblet et al., 2002 ME s = DE – ( *digestible N)

8 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Noblet et al., 1993; 1994 Crude protein58 Crude fat90 Starch82 Dietary fiber58 Efficiencies of utilization of ME of nutrients in (growing) pigs (k g, %) NE = 0.75 ME (cereals + SBM diet)

9 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 DE Ingredients * As % of the energy value of a compound feed (wheat: 67%, soybean meal: 16%, fat: 2.5%, wheat bran: 5%, peas: 5%, …) Fat Corn Wheat Soybean meal ME ==-+==- Comparison of energy systems for pig feeds* INRA&AFZ feeding tables NE

10 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 DE, ME and NE for growing pigs DE, ME and NE for adult pigs (sows) No effect of gender on energy value MJ (kJ) or MCal (kcal) Most studies on requirements = ME basis (or DE) (NE = 0.75 ME)(ME/DE # 0.96) Energy systems and Units

11 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Available at: 13 languages

12 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Energy requirements: Effect of gender?

13 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Energy requirements Requirements for maintenance + protein gain + fat gain Requirements for maintenance + tissues (adipose, lean, etc.) gain + Thermoregulation & activity

14 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Metabolic body size ? Adult pig# 0.75 Growing pig< ME for maintenance Adult pig0.45 MJ/kg BW 0.75 Growing pig# 1.05 MJ/kg BW 0.60 No effect of gender on MEm Energy requirements for maintenance INRA data

15 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Physical activity in growing pigs Average: 200 kJ/kg BW 0.60 /day # 20% of MEm # 8% of ME intake +10 kJ / kg BW / 100 minutes (+80 g feed /100 minutes at 100 kg BW) Increased activity in boars when approaching sexual maturity? Interactions with genotype, management, etc. INRA data

16 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Energy requirements for growth Protein gain40 kJ ME/g Lipid gain50 kJ ME/g k p # 60% k f # 80% Noblet et al., 1999

17 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Chemical composition of tissues gain in growing pigs Lean Water, % Proteins, % Lipids, % Energy, kJ/g (LW males ; 20 to 95 kg) Adipose INRA data

18 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Energy requirements for tissues deposition (kJ ME/g) BoarsFemalesBarrows Lean Adipose (20 to 90 kg eBW ; LW breed) INRA data Adipose # 3 x Lean

19 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Piétrain Meishan

20 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Composition of eBW gain in growing pigs Piétrain M Meishan B Protein, % Lipid, % Muscles, % Adipose, % Energy, kJ/g Noblet et al., 1994 (20-95 kg)

21 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Effect of gender on composition of eBW gain in growing pigs Lean, % Adipose, % Energy, kJ/g Noblet et al., 1994 (20-95 kg; LW genotype) GenderBoarsFemalesBarrows ME, kJ/g

22 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Gain, g/d Quiniou et al., 1996 Barrows; 45 to 100 kg BW ME intake and protein and lipid gain

23 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, E. intake, MJ/d Protein gain, g/d INRA E intake, genotype and protein gain Improved Control

24 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Quiniou et al., 1996; Campbell et al., E. intake, MJ/d Protein gain, g/d Castrates PP x LW Males PP x LW E intake, castration and protein gain

25 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Response of growing pigs to E. intake (g / MJ ME) Protein, g Lipid, g GenderBoarsBarrows Quiniou et al., 1996

26 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 ME intake and tissues gains Quiniou et al., 1996

27 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Response of growing pigs to E. intake (g / MJ ME) Lean, g Adipose, g ADG, g GenderBoarsBarrows Quiniou et al., 1996

28 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Effect of gender on energy intake and performance Intake, kg/d GenderBoarsFemalesBarrows ADG, g Lean meat, % F:G ( kg BW) Quiniou et al., 2010

29 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Feed efficiency and gender-genotype-… F:G = (1/[ME]) x (1/k g ) x [E] ADG x (FL/[FL-1]) [E] ADG : Energy content of BW gain FL: feeding level (x MEm) Feed efficiency is depressed linearly with increase of [E] ADG (males castration, poor genotype, protein limitation, etc.) Feed efficiency is marginally improved with increase of feed intake

30 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Efficiencies and gender-genotype-… % of boars GenderBoarsFemalesBarrows ADG/ME33.5 g/MJ 8177 Lean/ME17.0 g/MJ 7772 RE/ME Lean E/ME Noblet et al., 1994 These data should be updated with modern breeds (20 to 95 kg BW; LW)

31 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Efficiencies and gender-genotype-… GenderBoarsBarrows, % boars ADG/ME31.2 g/MJ 87 Lean/ME16.9 g/MJ 89 RE/ME Quiniou et al., 1995 (45 to 100 kg BW; crossbred) Other (in)efficiencies: C/Lean, C/RE, etc.

32 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Lysine and gender-genotype-…. ME/ADG (or F:G): variable with body composition and feeding level Lysine/ADG: rather constant (18-20 g LysD/kg gain) Lysine/ME (or Lysine%) is directly dependent on feed efficiency

33 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Conclusions No difference in feed E value between genders Differences in ME utilization between genders = differences between genotypes, BW stages, etc.: the animals response must be characterized. Body composition ([E] in ADG) is the most important factor of variation of feed efficiency and requirements (lysine): Boars

34 Swine Nutrition Symposium Toronto, May 5-7, 2010 Thanks A L I M E N T A T I O N A G R I C U L T U R E E N V I R O N N E M E N T


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