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CHESS IN MILITARY EDUCATION

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1 CHESS IN MILITARY EDUCATION
Prof. Dr. György Kende Associate prof. Dr. György Seres Zrínyi Miklós National Defence University Budapest 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

2 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Motto On the chessboard lies and hypocrisy do not survive long Emanuel Lasker World Chess Champion 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

3 Goals of this presentation
To show the usefulness of chess in strategic thinking decision making skills development To launch research to work out methods of using chess in military education To find colleagues in conducting the research To introduce teaching chess in military curriculum

4 Outline Introduction Hungarian relations Foreign relations Research proposal

5 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Introduction Sors bona nihil aliud, that is good luck and nothing more Miklós Zrínyi Hungarian military commander in the XVII century. 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

6 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Introduction The good player is always lucky José Raoul Capablanca, World Chess Champion 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

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Introduction Military commander and chess champion, conducting war and conducting chess pieces – is there any relationship whatsoever between the two fields?  Tactics and strategy, initiative, breakthrough, attack, defence, counter attack, what analogies exist? 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

8 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Introduction Around 1920 there was a Soviet study of chess masters that revealed 16 skills and strengths that the master possessed to a high degree: 1) A good reserve of physical strength and good general health 2) Strong nerves 3) Self-control 4) Ability to distribute attention over many factors 5) Ability to perceive dynamic relationships 6) A contemplative turn of mind 7) A high level of intellectual development 8) Ability to think objectively This list from Garry Kasparov's Child of Change 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

9 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Introduction Around 1920 there was a Soviet study of chess masters that revealed 16 skills and strengths that the master possessed to a high degree: 9) Ability to think concretely 10) A powerful memory for chess matters 11) Powers of synthetical thought and imagination 12) Combinative ability 13) A disciplined will 14) A highly active intellect 15) Disciplined emotions 16) Self-confidence 17) Knowledge of technology (IT) This list from Garry Kasparov's Child of Change 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

10 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Introduction It is well known that chess was a martial game, its Sanskrit name chaturanga from the period when Alexander the great defeated the Indian king Poros at Hydaspes. (chatur=four, anga=part) refers to the four Indian arms (infantry, cavalry, war carts, elephants) 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

11 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Introduction When Jingis Chan could not occupy a town for 30 days he said to his strategist: think! They thought and they made a special table with wood pieces of own and enemy forces – warriors, cavaliers, martial carts. Actually they constructed a board on which they planned their strategy and tactics. 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

12 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Introduction The relationship between chess and military strategy, chess and skills development, chess and personality development is not new.  The timeliness of presentation and suggestions is supported by the development of information technology in the recent decades.  69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

13 Already in 1997 Deep Blue computer beat Gary Kasparov
Chess algorithms (chess computers) play better than world chess champion . Battlefield algorithms or strategic planning algorithms may give essential help to military commanders 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

14 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
MILITARY ANALOGIES 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

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Hungarian Relations Work of a chess master András Ozsváth Tactics on 64 squares 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

16 In this excellent work seems to recognize several tactical parallels
The following chapter titles illustrate this: The Science of Tactics; The Restriction of the Movement of Military Force; Initiative and Attack; Disruption of Balance; Active Defence; Attitude and Conduct of War; Cooperation of Combat Units; Planning and Executing Military Operations. 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

17 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Hungarian Relations János Harsányi ( ) got his Nobel Prize for his pioneer work on the field of balance analysis in the theory of non-cooperative games (including chess). 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

18 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Hungarian Relations Some outstanding Hungarian statesmen, artists and scientists with chess is worth mentioning: István Széchenyi, founder of Hungarian Academy of Sciences 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

19 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Hungarian Relations Some outstanding Hungarian statesmen, artists and scientists with chess is worth mentioning: Ferenc Erkel, outstanding Hungarian composer 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

20 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Hungarian Relations Some outstanding Hungarian statesmen, artists and scientists with chess is worth mentioning: Otto Titusz Bláthy, engineer-inventor, excellent author of chess problems, 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

21 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Hungarian Relations Some outstanding Hungarian statesmen, artists and scientists with chess is worth mentioning: Albert Szent-Györgyi Nobel prize winner, president of the Szeged chess circle, 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

22 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Hungarian Relations Some outstanding Hungarian statesmen, artists and scientists with chess is worth mentioning: Szilveszter Vizi E. the present President of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

23 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Hungarian Relations A Hungarian researcher of this topic, Peter Hardicsay, international chess master, is a PhD student at the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences of the Semmelweis University, Budapest, 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

24 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Hungarian Relations “Chess has the power to make the mind keener, and through creating discipline, to develop the personality.” “Chess teaches adequate concentration, self discipline and improves willpower.” 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

25 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Hungarian Relations „Abilities, which can be attained through chess, but which can be very well used in other walks of life: Willpower (coping with and digesting failure, drawing the conclusions, preparing for new tasks) 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

26 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Hungarian Relations „Abilities, which can be attained through chess, but which can be very well used in other walks of life: Lasting and concentrated attention, dividing of attention Developing the memory Thinking, judgments, and ability to draw conclusions 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

27 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Hungarian Relations „Abilities, which can be attained through chess, but which can be very well used in other walks of life: Reproductive and productive creative imagination, planning, creativity, the ability of thinking 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

28 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Hungarian Relations „Abilities, which can be attained through chess, but which can be very well used in other walks of life: Decision making ability, power of judgment, determination, bravery 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

29 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Hungarian Relations „Abilities, which can be attained through chess, but which can be very well used in other walks of life: Evaluation of the situation Systematic thinking Deliberation.” 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

30 Hungarian Relations INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE NEW CHALLENGES IN THE FIELD OF MILITARY SCIENCES 2006 USE OF CHESS IN MILITARY EDUCATION Prof. Dr. György Kende, Dr. György Seres CHESS AS A RESEARCH TOOL FOR THE STUDY OF MILITARY COMMAND AND CONTROL Dr. Jan Kuylenstierna, Department of War Studies Swedish National Defence College 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

31 A new PhD topic approved by Doctoral Council (from September 2007)
Hungarian Relations A new PhD topic approved by Doctoral Council (from September 2007) Studying chess and its information technology background to find analogies and application possibilities regarding battlefield operations, armaments development, decision making, military training and education 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

32 Swedish and Australian Researches
Foreign relations Swedish and Australian Researches Teams at the Swedish National Defence College in Stockholm and the Defence Science and Technology Organization in Australia are studying the game afresh in an attempt to understand better how to gain military success. In Sweden, the researchers are using real players. In Australia, the team has run tens of thousands of virtual games - with some clear messages for their military sponsors. 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

33 Swedish and Australian Researches
Foreign relations Swedish and Australian Researches Two interesting articles have appeared about this researches: Chess! What is it good for? by Emma Young (March 4, 2004) Military theory and chess by Dr Colin Crouch, International Chess Master (March 13, 2004) Some citations from these articles 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

34 Swedish and Australian Researches
Foreign relations Swedish and Australian Researches The chess research one of the "tools in the armoury" for developing, testing and evaluating operational concepts and strategies.  "It's not the panacea. It's one of several methods, which are all valuable and each have their place.„ 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau Retired Australian Air Vice Marshal Peter Nicholson

35 Swedish and Australian Researches
Foreign relations Swedish and Australian Researches On the face of it, the bloodless, low-tech game of chess might seem to bear little resemblance to modern warfare.  "But it resembles real war in many respects." 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau One of the Swedish researchers Jan Kuylenstierna

36 Swedish and Australian Researches
Foreign relations Swedish and Australian Researches „I do not wish to condone the bloodthirsty business of warfare, but I agree that chess has much to teach military strategists.” 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau Dr Colin Crouch International Chess Master

37 Swedish experiments Researcher of the Swedish National Defense College Dr. Jan Kuylenstierna presented two interesting experiment serials in his lecture on conference of ZMNDU "NEW CHALLENGES IN THE FIELD OF MILITARY SCIENCES 2006” at Budapest.

38 Chess as a research tool for the study of military command and control
Jan Kuylenstierna

39 Experimental set-up

40 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Foreign relations Franklin’s Essay:“Morales of Chess” (1779) „As the game thereby becomes more the image of human life, and particularly of war; in which, if you have incautiously put yourself into a bad and dangerous position, you cannot obtain your enemy's leave to withdraw your troops, and place them more securely, but you must abide all the consequences of your rashness.” 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

41 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Foreign relations Franklin’s Essay:“Morales of Chess” (1779) "If we move this piece, what will be the advantages of our new situation? What use can our adversary make of it to annoy me? What other moves can we make to support it, and to defend myself from his attacks?" 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

42 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Foreign relations We succeeded in discovering several foreign research findings dealing with the question of skills and personality development. Out of these we would like to give a short overview of The Use and Impact of Chess by Dr. Robert Ferguson , probably the most noted expert of the topic. 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

43 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Foreign relations We would like to quote some parts of this work with the aim of introducing the usefulness of chess: In Zaire the research conducted by Dr. Albert Frank in 1974 on a group 92 chess players between years of age showed that the students made a remarkable progress in spatial, numerical and administrative-leadership skills as opposed to the non chess playing control group. What makes this result exceptionally interesting is that it was regardless of the level of chess knowledge of the experimental group. 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

44 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Foreign relations We would like to quote some parts of this work with the aim of introducing the usefulness of chess: According to the findings of the research conducted by Dr. Yee Wang at the Chinese University, Hong Kong, between the chess playing students’ results showed a 15% improvement in mathematics and science tests. 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

45 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Foreign relations We would like to quote some parts of this work with the aim of introducing the usefulness of chess: Ferguson gives an account of similar experiments conducted in Belgium, Venezuela, Pennsylvania, Kisinov, Texas and New Jersey, naturally with exact listing of his sources. In New Jersey the self esteem of those taking part in chess education showed a substantial, often dramatic raise, which is a new and interesting experience. 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

46 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Foreign relations We would like to quote some parts of this work with the aim of introducing the usefulness of chess: At the 40th World Chess Congress in 1969, Dr. Hans Klaus, Dean of the School of Philosophy at Humboldt University in Berlin, commented upon the chess studies completed in Germany: „Chess helps any human being to elaborate exact methods of thinking… Everybody prefers to learn something while playing rather than to learn it formally… '' 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

47 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Foreign relations And a very interesting citation from the former world chess champion Emmanuel Lasker: "Properly taught, a student can learn more in a few hours than he would find out in ten years of untutored trial and error.” 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

48 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Foreign relations We would like to mention a 104 page long, comprehensive Canadian collection of articles: The Benefits of Chess in Education. Some titles of studies: Chess in Education Research Summary; Chess Improves Academic Performance; Teachers Guide: Research and Benefits of Chess; The Importance of Chess in the Classroom; 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

49 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Foreign relations We would like to mention a 104 page long, comprehensive Canadian collection of articles: The Benefits of Chess in Education. Some titles of studies: Developing Critical and Creative Thinking Through Chess; The USA Junior Chess Olympics Research: Developing Memory and Verbal Reasoning; 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

50 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Foreign relations We would like to mention a 104 page long, comprehensive Canadian collection of articles: The Benefits of Chess in Education. Some titles of studies: Chess and Aptitudes – Summary; The Role of Chess in Modern Education; Chess in the Math Curriculum; Chess Anyone? – Chess as an Essential Teaching Tool. 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

51 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Foreign relations Philip E. Ross writes in „The Expert Mind” (Scientific American, August 2006) „Studies of the mental processes of chess grandmasters have revealed clues to how people become experts in other fields as well” 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

52 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Foreign relations Philip E. Ross writes in „The Expert Mind” „Skill at chess, however, can be measured, broken into components, subjected to laboratory experiments and readily observed in its natural environment, the tournament hall.” 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

53 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Foreign relations Philip E. Ross writes in „The Expert Mind” „It is for those reasons that chess has served as the greatest single test bed for theories of thinking…” 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

54 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Research proposal Research Objectives Analogies between chess and military strategy, chess and war-gaming, chess and military tactics. Analysis of chess IT background in order to use in military. Chess and game theory. Chess and military – correlations and differences. Possibility of chess IT for positioning of military equipment on the battlefield. Research of use of chess in foreign military organizations and education facilities (academies, colleges, universities). 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

55 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Research proposal Research Objectives The main objectives: (1) New findings which make possible to work out new methods in military command and control, in skills and personality development; (2) Search and analysis of related Hungarian and foreign results (for example PhD thesis, publications, books), synthesis and summarizing of main results and directions; (3) Application of findings in military training and education. 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

56 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Research proposal Expected results Proper formulation of research objectives and use of appropriate research methods must guarantee finding of new scientific results in conformity with research objectives. Results have to answer many questions, among which at the moment the most important ones are: (1) Analysis of super grandmaster level chess program (e.g. Fritz 10, Hydra, etc.) in order to find possibilities of their adaptation in battlefield activities and in training of military commanders (2) Exploring coherencies and differences between chess and battlefield activities, chess and positioning of military equipment, chess and C4I, chess and informational uncertainty 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

57 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Research proposal Expected results Proper formulation of research objectives and use of appropriate research methods must guarantee finding of new scientific results in conformity with research objectives. Results have to answer many questions, among which at the moment the most important ones are: (3) Usage of chess in skills and personality development (4) Usage of chess in military and civilian BSc and MSc education (5) Drafting a chess-related curriculum at military academies and universities. Development of main lines ands points of chess related subjects, designing content of lecture notes, course books, textbooks and multimedia curriculum. 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

58 A planned action in Hungary Role of chess in higher education
Research proposal A planned action in Hungary An international workshop in frame of Hungarian Science Festival organized by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Budapest, November 2007: Role of chess in higher education 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau

59 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting 2007 -- Oberammergau
Prof. Dr. György Kende Dr. György Seres Thank you for attention 69th NTG WG IT&ED -- Spring Meeting Oberammergau


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