Presentation on theme: "February 20, 2008 Objective: To understand heat transfer and the causes of phase changes Check-in Frayer Models CW - Chapter 10 Notes HW - Study for a."— Presentation transcript:
1February 20, 2008Objective: To understand heat transfer and the causes of phase changesCheck-in Frayer ModelsCW - Chapter 10 NotesHW - Study for a super short Conduction vs. Convection vs. Radiation Quiz Monday!
2Ch 10 Heat Transfer & Change of Phase These notes are available on the Moodle!
310.1 ConductionConduction- transfer of heat E by the collisions between particles in a substance. ( especially solids!)Conductor- solids whose electrons can move freely.Insulator- molecules that do not have mobile electrons. POOR CONDUCTOR.
4EXAMPLES GOOD CONDUCTORS INSULATORS (Poor insulator) (Poor conductor) SilverCopperAluminumIronINSULATORS(Poor conductor)WoodWoolPaperCorkPlasticAir
5Both gases and liquids are fluids! 10.2 ConvectionConvection- transfer of heat E by the motion of fluids.Fluid – any substance with molecules/atoms that are free to flow past each other.Both gases and liquids are fluids!
6Convection Liquid- molecules at bottom move faster, spread apart & less dense.Buoyed up, denser liquid moves to bottom.Gases-Warm air expands, rises, and then cools.Stirs the atmosphere = windAIR heats up as compressed
710.3 Radiation Transfer of Heat by means of electromagnetic radiation. *** DO NOT CONFUSE W/ RADIATION INVOLVING ATOMIC NUCLEI***Similar to when you drop a stone in a pond, or shake the end of a rope Electromagnetic radiation is caused by a vibrating charge (electron(s) in atoms on the sun).Ex:radio wavesInfrared waveslight waves (light bulb)
9Wavelenth (λ) of radiation related to frequency & Temperature LONG WAVE = low frequency = coolSHORT WAVE = high frequency = hot
10Emission of Radiant EAll objects greater than 0 K emit some radiant energy.Frequency relative to temperaturef ~ TEx: sun ,fireplace, lamp↑ frequency, ↓ λ , ↑ tempyou feel high freq infrared waves as heat
11Absorption of radiant energy Objects emit & absorb radiant energyGood emitters are good absorbersPoor emitters are poor absorbersDark objects absorb & emit more radiant EnergyEx: black vs white container of water in sunBlack warms faster & cools faster.
12Temperature vs. Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular Forces – attractive forces that exist between atoms/molecules of a substance.Different strengths for different substances.Determines what phase the substance will be at certain temperatures.Example: solids at 25°C have stronger IMF that liquids, than gases do..html
1310.5 Evaporation A change of phase from liquid to gas. Liquid – molecules constantly in random motion & gain KE.as high E molecules break free of surface, lower KE left in liquid(TEMP ↓).EVAPORATION IS A COOLING PROCESS.Ex: sweat. evaporation cools skin.
14Boiling Point: Part 1 Boiling is evaporation within a liquid Evaporation occurs beneath surface of liquid when boiling.Bubbles (vapor) forms in liquid closest to the heat sourceBubbles only form when pressure equal to the pressure of the surroundings (atmosphere).
15Boiling Point: Part 2Boiling is evaporation at the surface of a liquidEvaporation is always occurring at the surface of a liquid, regardless of temperature.The vapor phase that exists above a liquid exerts a pressure called Vapor Pressure.When vapor molecules have enough KE to exert a pressure equal to that of the atmosphere then the substance is said to be boiling.
16BP vs. Atmospheric Pressure ↑ atmospheric pressure requires a ↑ temp to boil.Vapor molecules require more energy so that they can exert a pressure = to that of the atmosphere↑altitudes = ↓ pressureSo in Denver, CO WATER BOILS AT LOWER TEMP. (95°C) … takes longer to cook.
1710.6 Condensation A change of phase from a gas to a liquid. Molecules at liquid’s surface do not have enough KE to overcome IMF and are “attracted to liquid”Collisions with the surface transfer KE.KE is absorbed by the liquid.CONDENSATION IS A WARMING PROCESS
189.8 Thermal ExpansionMolecules jiggle and move farther apart when heated.Most substances expand when heated & contract when cooled.i.e. solids are more dense then liquids, then gases for most substances.Exception: Water contracts until 4 °C , then forms crystalline structure w/ open spaces and expands.
19Expansion of H2O Ice :Hexagonal , open structure Ex: Melt ice cube, H2O less volume
2010.8 Melting & freezing- opposite directions in phases changes. Melting – substance changes from solid → liquid.When heated, molecules gain KE, vibrate more and attractive force between molecules is overcome.SOLID MELTS
21Freezing - liquid changes to solid As E is removed from liquid, molecular motion slows. IMF take over & molecules bind together and vibrate in fixed positions.H2O w/o impurities - freezes at 0°C.w/ impurities - < 0°Cforeign molecules change the vapor pressure to less than that of pure water.
22SUBLIMATIONMolecules of a solid are transformed directly into gas phase.BP for a substance describes when the vapor molecules exert a pressure equal to that of the atmosphere.Sublimation occurs when vapor molecules at the surface of a solid exert a pressure greater than that of the atmosphere at room temperature.
23Phase DiagramsUnder different conditions of temperature and pressure substances will exist at either solid, liquid or a gas.
24Phase changes TRANSFER OF HEAT occurs whenever matter changes phases. solid→liquid→gas→plasmaGaining thermal energyPlasma→gas→liquid→solidLosing thermal energy
2510.9 Energy & Phase Change1st Law defines parameters for heat transfer under conditions of constant pressure (our atmosphere).– Specifically, the gain or loss of thermal energy equals the amount of heat transferred.Enthalpy (H) – the term used to describe heat absorbed or released under constant pressure.
26Energy is needed for a change of phase ΔH system = ΔH surrounding or…Energy lost by the system must equal energy gained by the surroundings.Energy may cause an increase in Temp OR a phase change!
27Changing Phase Melting Point Boiling Point Changes in state require energy!Add KE and TemprisesAt BP/MP temp stopsrising and E used tobreak IMF
28Heat of fusion Amount of E needed to change Solid ↔ liquid. Heat of fusion of H2O = 335 J/ g H2O
29Heat of vaporizationAmount of E required to change a substance from liquid ↔ gasheat of vaporization of H2O = 2255 J/g H2O