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Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics Logic of Engineering Designing Žiga Turk.

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Presentation on theme: "Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics Logic of Engineering Designing Žiga Turk."— Presentation transcript:

1 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics Logic of Engineering Designing Žiga Turk

2 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics Contents Short introduction to modeling Short introduction to modeling Reference models Reference models structure – function – behavior model Short introduction to logic Short introduction to logic Logic of the SFB model Logic of the SFB model

3 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics Literature Books: Books: Eastman, C.M. (1999). Building Product Models, CRC press, ISBN Sowa, J.F. (2000). Knowledge representation, Brooks/Cole, ISBN Sowa, J.F. (1984). Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine, Addison Wesley, ISBN Raphael, Smith: Computer Aided Engineering.

4 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics Definitions model: model: reproduction of something [m-w]m-w perfect: deserving to be imitating modelling: a process during which models are created modelling: a process during which models are created modeller: a person who is modelling modeller: a person who is modelling examples: examples: model railroads, model buildings, finite elements models

5 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics Evolution of modelling in construction construction is about big 3D objects construction is about big 3D objects communication is essential communication is essential communication through drawings communication through drawings contributors: contributors: Brunelleschi, 15th century, scaled drawings Monge, 18th century, projections exchange of drawings: vital information technology! exchange of drawings: vital information technology! drawing is also a model drawing is also a model

6 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics SYMBOL OBJECT CONCEPT B-E-A-M Philosophical foundations of modelling how we understand the world around us how we understand the world around us the meaning triangle the meaning triangle Aristotle Aristotle things words experiences in the psyche Ogden and Richards: Ogden and Richards: object symbol concept

7 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics Meaning triangle: Object The object is any entity from some real or imagined world about which an idea is held. for example the beam in the Nada Ward Museum of Modern Art in Kobe damaged by an earthquake The object is any entity from some real or imagined world about which an idea is held. for example the beam in the Nada Ward Museum of Modern Art in Kobe damaged by an earthquake SYMBOL OBJECT CONCEPT B-E-A-M

8 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics Meaning triangle: Symbol The symbol is an auditory, visual, or other form of utterance that is taken to stand for the object when communicated as part of a language The symbol is an auditory, visual, or other form of utterance that is taken to stand for the object when communicated as part of a language SYMBOL OBJECT CONCEPT B-E-A-M

9 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics Meaning triangle: Concept The concept is the idea or thought of the object as held in the mind of a person, for example a structural concept of a beam. as illustrated. The concept is the idea or thought of the object as held in the mind of a person, for example a structural concept of a beam. as illustrated. SYMBOL OBJECT CONCEPT B-E-A-M

10 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics Mind and machine It has been suggested that intelligent systems achieve their intelligence by manipulating symbols of real world objects. Humans do it by manipulating "experiences in the psyche", concepts or "mind models". Computers could manipulate symbolic representations of the models. Therefore, computers could achieve intelligence, just as humans do, if only the models and the manipulation rules could be complex enough.humans are intelligent, because they and computers handle symbols. It has been suggested that intelligent systems achieve their intelligence by manipulating symbols of real world objects. Humans do it by manipulating "experiences in the psyche", concepts or "mind models". Computers could manipulate symbolic representations of the models. Therefore, computers could achieve intelligence, just as humans do, if only the models and the manipulation rules could be complex enough.humans are intelligent, because they and computers handle symbols.

11 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics Mental models when we think, we create a model of the messy real world situation when we think, we create a model of the messy real world situation we manipulate the model we manipulate the model we solve a problem we solve a problem models can be represented as semantic networks models can be represented as semantic networks

12 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics Semantic networks nodes: concepts nodes: concepts arches: relations between concepts arches: relations between concepts example: example: PS: similar to hypertext networks! PS: similar to hypertext networks! wall doorwindow opening white has is-anis strength reduces is-an

13 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics Moving semantic networks into a computer repetition, reuse, frames or similar repetition, reuse, frames or similar computer program should be good at helping in several situations computer program should be good at helping in several situations instances - unique instances - unique 1:1 mapping to real world problem this wall in this room concepts - generic concepts - generic one generic concept corresponds to several real world items walls in general

14 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics Reference models reference model reference model impose certain perspective on the world to be modelled define how to model how to decompose the model GARM GARM RATAS RATAS form, function, behaviour form, function, behaviour

15 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics GARM General AEC Reference Model General AEC Reference Model Describes a Product Definition Unit (PDU) Describes a Product Definition Unit (PDU) PDU has characteristics that refer to aspect of the product. Aspects: PDU has characteristics that refer to aspect of the product. Aspects: strength, cost, safety, durability... PDU has stage discriminator to include life cycle: PDU has stage discriminator to include life cycle: as required, designed, planned, built, used altered, demolished

16 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics GARM: Functional Units and Technical Solutions defined and required characteristics defined and required characteristics one functional unit, several technical solutions one functional unit, several technical solutions each technical solution, several functional units each technical solution, several functional units

17 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics GARM: FU/TS Example

18 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics GARM: Building example

19 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics Form, function, behaviour (fit, working principle) popular with design sciences popular with design sciences form: the structure of the design as captured by the parts hierarchy. function: the intended behaviour of the artifact that is designed as might be found in a functional classification of parts. behaviour: the causal relationships between different parts of the artifact. fit: how do the parts of the design fit together? working principle hydraulic, electro-mechanic etc.

20 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics Form, function, behaviour model products or their parts have: products or their parts have: form or structure function... the purpose they server behaviour... how they react to environment for example a wall: for example a wall: form: x,y,z,w,d,h function: load bearing, heat insulating, sound insulating behaviour … what happens w h d x,y,z

21 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics Inference deduction deduction abduction abduction induction induction

22 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics Types of inference type of inference givengiveninferred deductioncauseruleeffect forcetheory of elasticity deflection abductioneffectrulecause deflectiontheory of elasticity force inductioncauseeffectrule forcedeflectiontheory of elasticity

23 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics … and inference … cause = environment cause = environment structure = structure (cause?) structure = structure (cause?) function = effect function = effect behaviour = effect behaviour = effect working principle = rule working principle = rule fit ??? fit ???

24 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics Formulation formulation F B required F = Function B = Behavior S = Structure (+environment) transformation comparison

25 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics S as-designed B required F formulation synthesis Formulation + synthesis F = Function B = Behavior S = Structure (+environment) transformation comparison

26 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics S as-designed B required F formulation synthesis Formulation, synthesis, analysis, evaluation B predicte d evaluation analysis F = Function B = Behavior S = Structure (+environment) transformation comparison

27 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics S as-designed B required F formulation synthesis … construction … B predicte d evaluation analysis construction F = Function B = Behavior S = Structure (+environment) transformation comparison

28 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics S as-designed B required F formulation synthesis … measuring, monitoring B predicte d evaluation analysis S as-built B measured prediction monitoring induction of new models construction

29 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics Engineering tasks analysis = deduction analysis = deduction structure + cause + rules effect structure + cause + working principle function simulation = deduction simulation = deduction structure + cause + rules effect structure + cause + working principle behaviour diagnosis = abduction diagnosis = abduction structure + effect + rules cause structure + behaviour + working principle cause synthesis = abduction synthesis = abduction effect + rule structure function + behaviour + working principle structure interpretation = induction interpretation = induction cause + effect = rule cause + structure + behaviour = working principle

30 Univ. of Ljubljana, FGG IKPIR, Chair of Construction Informatics Tasks by Newell well defined well defined closed worlds closed worlds explicit goals explicit goals described by algorithms described by algorithms ideal situation ideal situation ill defined ill defined open world open world partially defined goals partially defined goals procedures to obtain solutions not known procedures to obtain solutions not known reality of engineering tasks reality of engineering tasks


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