Presentation on theme: "Welcome to the Kewabi (Aliya) language Presentation………….. Mendi – Southern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea. Wanpis Pokea, B/Ed Graduate, University."— Presentation transcript:
Welcome to the Kewabi (Aliya) language Presentation………….. Mendi – Southern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea. Wanpis Pokea, B/Ed Graduate, University of Goroka
Introduction The Kewabi (Aliya) language is one of the small languages spoken in Papua New Guinea. It is spoken by almost 1000 people living in the remote parts of Southern Highlands Province, especially in the Kagua/ Erave electorate. This presentation will focus on the basic grammatical features of the Kewabi language including phonology, morphology and syntax.
1. Phonology 1.1. Consonants The Kewabi language has the following consonants. / l/ as in lapo 'two' /m/ as in musa 'to lift it up' /k/ as in kalu 'head' /n/ as in mena 'pig' /p/ as in paita 'to sleep' /r/ as in rara 'medicine leaf' /w/ as in wasa 'to look for' /s/ as in papasi 'kinship term' /b/ as in banapa 'lets go' /d/ as in dia 'no'
1.2. Vowels FRONTCENTRALBACK HIGH / i / ipa 'water' /u/ musa lift it up' MID / ɛ / ame 'brother' /o/ popo steam LOW /e/ keke 'tongue' kebo big' /a/ apa father
1.3. Length. The vowels of monosyllabic words are always phonetically long: – /saa/ put it, – /i/ faeces; – /o/ scabs; – /u/ sleep.
1.4. Syllable structure In the Kewabi language, the syllable patterns are V, VV, CV, and CVV. E.g. V u 'sleep' a.ka 'teeth' a.do.a 'to wait VV ai.pa 'native salt,ai.na related brothers CV pu 'go/Urine pi.ki 'center post' CVV pea 'to make' ka.mea 'to smell'
Stress In the Kewabi language, different syllables can be stressed. There is no fixed stress. Examples; 1 st Syllable = pi-ra means sit down 2 nd Syllable = la-me-ya means they being talking Final Syllable = a-ne-pu-li where are you going? 1.5. Suprasegmentals (stress)
2. Morphology Kewabi morphemes can be divided into – Root morphemes; e.g. anda to see (present tense) – Derivational morpheme, e.g. le-anda (eyeglass) – Inflectional; e.g. anda-lo have seen (present Perfect tense)
By far the most frequent types of affixes in Kewabi are prefixes and suffixes. – E.g. le-anda, anda-lo The Kewabi language does not have infixes, circumfixes or reduplication.
3. Syntax 3.1. Verb classes There are four verb classes in Kewabi The verb classes are determined by the shape of the V stem: Class I: Va ada to see Class II: Vla pola to crack Class III: Vtya/Vra; patya to sleep pira to sit down Class IV: Vaa rumaa to distribute
The Kewabi language has an SOV structure. amananaripina motherchild hold S O V 'the mother holds the child'
Pronoun numberpersongender 1. Personal pronouns subjectobjectKewabi singular 1stmale/femaleIme Ni 2ndmale/femaleyou Ne 3rd malehehimNipi femalesheherNipi plural 1stmale/femaleweus Naa 2ndmale/femaleyou Ne 3rdmale/female/theythemNimu
numberpersongender 2. Possessive pronouns subjectobjectPossessiveKewabi singular 1stmale/femaleImeMy/MineNi nei 2ndmale/femaleyou yoursNe nei 3rd malehehimhisIpi nei femalesheherhersIpi nei plural 1stmale/femaleweusOursNa nai 2ndmale/femaleyou YoursNe nai 3rdmale/female/neutertheythemTheirsImu nei
Tenses There are four tenses in the dialect: 1. Present Tense Na-lo. I am eating. 2. Future Tense Na-lua I will eat. 3. Past Tenses Na-wo. I just ate. immediate past tense Na-su. I ate long time ago. remote past tense
Numerals The Kewabi language can be counted using base -5 numeral system. For example; Numeral in English Translation in Kewabi 1 egali 2 lapo 3 repo 4 mala 5 su 6 ki menda na egali
7 ki menda na lapo 8 ki menda na repo 9 ki menda na mala 10 ki lapo 11 ki lapo na egali 12 ki lapo na lapo 13 ki lapo na repo 14 ki lapo an mala
Conclusion The Kewabi (Aliya) language is too isolated, and it has therefore not been described by any linguists. More research needs to be done on the Kewabi language. Reference hpp//www. Ethnologue.com