Presentation on theme: "WORD-FORMATION PROCESS. Previous Chapter: Discussion of how words are structured In order to discuss it, already existed words are studied. However, there."— Presentation transcript:
Previous Chapter: Discussion of how words are structured In order to discuss it, already existed words are studied. However, there are also new constructions, new combinations of words.
Derivation Creation of a new lexical item (i.e. word form which would be found in a dictionary) Sür- : 100 Gör- : 70 (Aksan, 1987: 27-30) Tut- : 65 (Aksan, 1996: 45-46)
Derivation 4 Possibilities of derivation (Table 6.1) ● denominal nominal (noun from noun) ● deverbal nominal (noun from verb) ● denominal verbal (verb from noun) ● deverbal verbal (verb from verb)
Derivation Some prefix examples in Turkish: anormal antipatik deforme dezavantaj deşifre diskalifiye hipotez otopsi paragraf prova reaksiyon
Reduplication Copying some part of the underlying stem to various extent ● Partial reduplication: insertion of /p/,/m/,/s/,/r/ ● Full reduplication: copying the entire stem
Some formal features ● grammatical: hızlı hızlı yürüdü * Hızlı hızlı tren ● phonological: Sound alternations: Sıkı fıkı Internal vowel alternation: çar çur Extenders: fır fır, zırıl zırıl Doublets: with /m/ Arı marı, sarı marı ● semantically: Synonymous words: sorgu sual Near synonyms: delik deşik Antonymous words: ileri geri ● morphologically: bilmiş bilmiş konuştu
Compounding Two free morphemes from different or same word classes to express a single meaning Types of compounding: ● nominal ● verbal ● adjectival
Compounding Nominal compounds: ● Noun noun pairings noun noun + 3rd poss: çocuk sandalyesi noun noun (bare): taş bina noun + case noun (1 bare+1 cased): şekerden ev adjective + noun: karaağaç, palabıyık noun + verb: imambayıldı
Compounding Verbal compounds: N/Adj + V Stem Ex: kitap okumak, banyo yapmak V + V (double verb construction) subordinativecoordinative (converb of theno verb is subordinated lexical verb (yapa)to another (ağladı durdu) followed by a post verb (dur)
Compounding Adjectival compounds: Nouns with 3rd person singular possessive marking followed by an adjective Ex: gözü pek, karnı tok
Onomatopoeia Sounds of the nature inspire creation of new words Ex: hırıldamak, cıvıldamak Others: çat, fır, pat, tık, güm, şır etc.
Conversion Shift from one word class to another without any other addition or reduction in the word Ex: acı: verb & adj ağrı: verb & noun
Borrowing Taking words from other languages Ex: check-up, sweatshirt A special type of borrowing: loan-translation or calque: word-for-word translation Ex: bilgi toplumu, uzaktan kumanda Kapak kızı (cover girl), yuvarlak masa toplantısı (round table meeting)
Coinage Creating previously non-existent roots in language Ex: selpak, aygaz
Semantic change Broadening, narrowing or a complete change of the word’s meaning Ex: alan / dirilmek Reversals: from positive to negative (semantic degradation) or vice versa (semantic elevation) Ex: alçak / çocuk A special case: Eponymy: Conversion of the proper nouns into common nouns
Metaphorical extension Using an existing word to refer to an object with similar properties of its referent Ex: çeşme ● using nature for colours: camgöbeği, vişneçürüğü ● idioms: öküz altında buzağı aramak, içine kurt düşmek ● human features: sinir küpü, yapışkan, pişkin ● appearance: fındıkkurdu, çam yarması
Clipping Reduction process that shortens a long word Ex: otomobil => oto
Blending compounding + clipping Ex: Avrupa & Asya => Avrasya
Acronyms Forming a new construction by using the first letters of the words Ex: BBC: British Broadcasting Corporation NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration ASAP: As Soon As Possible P.S: Post Script KISS: Keep It Simple, Stupid (advice often given to speakers and writers)
Backformation It is not a productive word formation process in Turkish Ex: Expected is simple from complex as below: ilet- > iletiş- > iletişim However, iletişim > iletiş
Multiple processes Using more than one word formation to form new words Ex: düşe kalka bitirdik => derivation & reduplication laser: light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation radar fax...