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Neutron and X-ray imaging for Cultural Heritage research Giulia Festa University of Rome Tor Vergata University of Milano-Bicocca.

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Presentation on theme: "Neutron and X-ray imaging for Cultural Heritage research Giulia Festa University of Rome Tor Vergata University of Milano-Bicocca."— Presentation transcript:

1 Neutron and X-ray imaging for Cultural Heritage research Giulia Festa University of Rome Tor Vergata University of Milano-Bicocca

2 Group Research Activities Research Activities Sub-femtosecond quantum dynamics in light and heavy atoms Neutron detectors development CHIP Irradiation Neutron applications to cultural heritage Simulation

3 3/07/2013Giulia Festa3 Neutron applications to Cultural Heritage

4 3/07/2013Giulia Festa4 Time Of Flight Neutron Diffraction Powerful to investigating the crystal structure to the samples TOF: determination of neutron’s energy for a ‘white beam’ measuring their time of flight m n = neutron mass L = flight length between the moderator to the sample TOF = employed time to cover the L distance Bragg’s Law Structural information Phase structure – compound contents Crystal structure – atomic arrangement of each phase Grain structure – texture (size, shape and orientation grains) Micro-structure – structural deviation from ideal crystal within the grain Effects on the diffraction patterns Diffraction peak position: lattice parameters, macro and micro strain Diffraction peak width: particle size, micro- strain broadening Diffraction peak intensities: atomic arrangement and grain orientation

5 3/07/2013Giulia Festa5 Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis Based on radiative capture of neutrons (Z A + n→Z A+1 + γ) Prompt-  : measurements during sample irradiation (due to the de-excitation of the compound nucleus) Delayed-  : due to the beta decay of the new-formation instable nucleus   spectra: characteristic for any element used for elemental composition and isotope’s identification

6 3/07/2013Giulia Festa6 Neutron Resonance Capture Analysis NRCA: uses epithermal neutrons (E n from 1 eV up to 1 keV) to investigate the elemental composition of the irradiated sample. Neutrons impinging onto materials are captured by the nuclei. For many nuclear species, especially metals, there are intense peaks in the absorption cross section called resonances. Emitted gammas are detected by a standard photon detector counter as function of Time Of Flight. 150 MeV LINAC Sample U depl

7 3/07/2013Giulia Festa7 Neutron radiography/tomography A non destructive testing. Principle: when beam pass trough a sample, part of the radiation is attenuated by the material – related with the absorption coefficient

8 3/07/2013Giulia Festa8 Radiography/ Tomography Phase+structure +texture Analysis By neutron attenuation Making techniques Genuine or fake By neutron diffraction Neutrons in archaeometry Provenance Attribution Element Analysis By neutron activation analysis

9 3/07/2013Giulia Festa9 X-Ray / Neutrons cross-sections RX scattered by atomic electrons → cross section is linear depended with the square of atomic number Neutrons scattered by atomic nuclei → cross section vary from an isotope to an other

10 3/07/2013Giulia Festa10 Neutron applied to Cultural Heritage Research

11 11 Integrated neutron analysis of Ghiberti relief from the Battistero di Firenze Prompt Gamma Activation Imaging (PGAI) Gilding state Neutron Radiography + Neutron Diffraction Extension of the secondary fusion Neutron Diffraction Difference between two melting: composition and working methods Conclusions: 1) Gilding state: Chlorine was detected in the laser-pulished area (to be consider in the choice of microclimatic conditions for conservation) 2) Second fusion and emty volume inside: Definition fo an hollow volume and detection fo the extension of the secondary melting 3) Treatments: First fusion  thermal treatments Second fusion  without treatments Critical aspects: 1) Gilding state, 2) Extension of the secondary melting, 3) Study of the two melting about composition and working methods 1) G. Festa, C. Andreani, et al., Journal of Applied Physics, 106, N.4 (2009). 2) G. Festa, R. Senesi, C. Andreani, et al., Journal of Applied Physics, 109, n.6 (2011)

12 A Neutron-Gamma Logging System for Applications to Cultural Heritage (a Monte Carlo Study) Neutron-gamma logging is a nuclear technique based on the measurement of gamma rays under neutron irradiation. We investigate the feasibility of the technique for applications in cultural heritage by using Monte Carlo simulations. Simulated neutron logging system inside borehole. Simulated energy spectrum measured by the gamma ray detector. Simulated neutron capture gamma ray spectra with (top) and without (bottom) copper sample in the energy region 6.5 – 8 MeV. 1) A. Miceli, G. Festa, R. Senesi, C. Andreani, et al., atti di convegno Fotonica 2013, AEIT codice ISBN ) A.Miceli, G. Festa, R. Senesi, C. Andreani et al., in pubblicazione come contribution for Proceedings of the 17th CHNT peer reviewed

13 13 Bi-parametric time-energy acquisition Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (T-PGAA) for Cultural Heritage studies. The time-resolved Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis consists in the measurement of gamma energy spectrum induced by radiative capture as a function of incident neutron Time Of Flight. Layout of the designed experiment and n- gamma spectra recorded at different time of flight t 0

14 3/07/2013Giulia Festa14 Neutron and X-ray Imaging applied to Cultural Heritage

15 15 Simultaneous and integrated neutron-based techniques for material analysis of a metallic ancient flute A metallic 19 th century flute instrument coming from ‘Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia’ was studied by : Neutron Diffraction, Neutron Radiative Capture Analysis and Neutron Radiography. The aim of this study is showing the potential application of the multiple and integrated neutron-based techniques approach for musical instruments. Results: a non homogeneous composition of the flute. The body of the instrument is mainly composed of zinc covered by palladium (generally used for larger organ pipes), mouthpiece mainly composed by lead (material typically used for organ pipes of small dimensions). 1) G. Festa, C. Andreani, et al., In pubblication in Measurement Science and Technology (giugno 2013)

16 16 Neutrons and X-ray imaging to study wood musical instruments. Six musical instruments and two instrument cares coming from the 'Fondo Antico della Biblioteca del Sacro Convento' in Assisi, Italy, were investigated by Neutron and X-ray radiographies-tomographies. Measurements dedicated to studying: the internal structure of the samples, position of added materials like metals, the wood fibre displays, deformations, presence of adhesives and their spatial distribution to give information about construction methods and guide the restoration process. In collaboration with Giovanni Tardino (BauArt, Basel) 1) G. Festa, C. Andreani, et al., In preparation

17 17 Photo 3D reconstruction – isosurface In collaboration with the’ Servizio di Antropologia Soprintendenza Beni Archeologici Lazio’ Examination of human fossil materials through X-ray tomography 1) M. Rubini, V. Cerroni, G. Festa, R. Sardella, P. Zaio, In preparation for Journal of Human Evolution (2013 )

18 3/07/2013Giulia Festa18 Thank you. Team: Prof. C. Andreani, G. Festa, A. Miceli, R. Senesi

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