Presentation on theme: "Sexual Victimization of College Women Prepared by the University of Vermont Department of Police Services In cooperation with The National Center for Crime."— Presentation transcript:
Sexual Victimization of College Women Prepared by the University of Vermont Department of Police Services In cooperation with The National Center for Crime Victim Services
2 of 24 What We Know (statistically) about Sexual Assault… Sexual Victimization of College Women (2000) 2.8% experienced a rape or attempted rape 1 in 36 college women experienced a completed or attempted rape in about 6 mos. Data suggests nearly 5% of college women are victimized in a calendar year. Over course of college career, 20 to 25% will experience rape or attempted rape.
3 of 24 The Sexual Victimization of College Women The 13% of female college students surveyed reported being stalked since the school year began Defined as: “Experiencing repeated, obsessive, and frightening behavior that made the victim afraid or concerned for her safety”
4 of 24 The Sexual Victimization of College Women 80% of victims knew or had seen the stalker before –42.5% Boyfriend/ex-boyfriend –24.5% Classmate –10% Acquaintance –6% Friend –6% Coworker
5 of 24 The Sexual Victimization of College Women Stalking incidents lasted an average of 60 days 30% of victims were stalked only off campus 66% of victims reported being stalked at least 2 – 6 times per week
6 of 24 The Sexual Victimization of College Women Most common reported behaviors –78% Telephoned –48% offender waiting for victim –42% being followed –31% being sent letters –25% being ed
7 of 24 The Sexual Victimization of College Women Effects –Almost 30% of victims said they were injured emotionally or psychologically –15% reported being threatened or attempted harm –10% reported forced or attempted sexual contact
8 of 24 The Sexual Victimization of College Women 83.1% of the stalking incidents were NOT reported to police or campus authorities 93.4% of stalking victims did confide in someone (usually a friend) about the stalking
9 of 24 Reasons for Not Reporting
10 of 24 Stalking on Campus: The Prevalence and Strategies for Coping with Stalking WVU psychology students Spring 1995 –31% of female respondents were victimized –17% of males were victims of stalking Relationship to the Stalker (Female Victim) –16% Stranger –16% Friend –26% Casual Date –40% Serious Date
11 of 24 Stalking on Campus: The Prevalence and Strategies for Coping with Stalking Relationship to the Stalker (Male Victim) –Stranger 17% –Friend 22% –Casual Date 37% –Serious Date 24%
12 of 24 Stalking on Campus: The Prevalence and Strategies for Coping with Stalking Strategies (Female Victims) –Ignored/hung up phone calls –Confronted the stalker –Changed scheduled to avoid stalker –Carried a repellent spray –Arranged to have a personal escort –Had someone warn the stalker –Reconciled with the stalker –Called the police –Had a restraint/warrant issued against the stalker –Carried a whistle or other type of alarm
13 of 24 Stalking on Campus: The Prevalence and Strategies for Coping with Stalking Strategies (Male Victims) –Confronted the stalker –Ignored/hung up on phone calls from stalker –Reconciled with stalker –Changed schedule in order to avoid stalker –Had someone warn the stalker –Changed phone number –Moved to a different address –Had someone beat the stalker up –Carried a gun or knife –Called the police –Had a restraint/warrant issued against the stalker
14 of 24 Dr. David Lisak’s Research The Rape Paradox –Millions of victims… –Relatively few rapists incarcerated… Only about 5% of all rapists are incarcerated or in treatment programs to be able to be studied. Where are all the rapists?
15 of Survey 2. Follow-up call 3. Money offer 4. Interview & testing Dr. Lisak’s Research
16 of 24 Survey Question “Have you ever had sexual intercourse with an adult when they didn’t want to because you used physical force (twisting their arm, holding them down, etc.) if they didn’t cooperate?”
17 of 24 Dr. Lisak’s Research Summary of studies of 1,882 men: –Duke University & University of Massachusetts –Men were interviewed as part of the study… they were volunteer participants ____________________________________________ Research Published in Violence and Victims, Volume 17, Number 1 (February 2002)
18 of 24 Dr. Lisak’s Research Of the 1,882 men… –120 (6.4%) met criteria for rape or attempted rape –76 reported committing multiple rapes –120 committed a total of 483 rapes, but the 76 repeat rapists committed 439 of them (average of 5.8 each).
19 of 24 Dr. Lisak’s Research –70 of the 120 admitted to other acts of interpersonal violence, including: Battery Physical/sexual abuse of kids Sexual assault short of rape/attempted rape.
20 of 24 Dr. Lisak’s Research Interviews with the men revealed: –Rapist feels anger not empathy when a victim resists. –Rapist minimizes and sanitizes his violence. –Women are “targets” & “prey” –Women are “staked out” Is this non-stranger sexual assault a form of stalking?
21 of 24 The Undetected Rapist 76 Serial Rapists Identified 439 Rapes of Adults 49 Sexual Assaults on Adults 277 Acts of Sexual Abuse of Children 66 Acts of Physical Abuse of Children 214 Acts of Battery 1,045 TOTAL Self Disclosed Offenses
22 of 24 The Undetected Rapist Depersonalizing victims Victims referred to as “targets”, “prey” Victims were “staked out” Premeditation and Planning Choosing vulnerable victims Preparation of “rape rooms” Serving them a separate punch at parties
23 of 24 The Undetected Rapist Increasing violence only as needed Using multiple strategies to make victim vulnerable üRapes were preceded by stalking activities: Surveillance Information gathering Following Voyeurism
24 of 24 Research Stalking on Campus: The Prevalence and Strategies for Coping with Stalking, Fremouw, Westrup and Pennypacker 1996 The Sexual Victimization of College Women, Fisher, Cullen and Turner 2000 Repeat Rape and Multiple Offending Among Undetected Rapists, Lisak 2002
25 of 24 The Campus Community Safety Availability of personal information Close environment Residence Hall life
26 of 24 The Campus Community Holding Perpetrators Accountable Campus Judicial Affairs Criminal Justice System Civil Justice System
27 of 24 The Campus Community Helping Victims Services available Privacy and confidentiality On- and off-campus assistance
28 of 24 UVM Resources Women’s Center CUSI Police Services AAEO