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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers

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Why is this important? What does the industry say? How does the technology work? How does it address the problem? What do we offer? What are the alternatives? If you are not already doing this work where do you find it?

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers

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Data Center Knowledge July, 2010 survey of 240 readers 26% operate more than 10 data centers 63% are expanding Top five interest areas Data Center Design Green IT and Energy Efficiency Power and Cooling Data Center Management and Automation Solutions to Reduce Energy Cost

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers Pike Research study Results released in August $41B market by 2015 28% of all data center projects 46% of investments focused on reducing power and cooling requirements

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers 42U rack 84 blades 250w/blade 19.32kw/rack 50 racks 1Mw of server demand Plus…1Mw of heat rejection = 275 tons of cooling and 100,000 to 150,000 cfm 2Mw total demand

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers

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Convert expense to revenue

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers PUE Previous slide PUE approximately 2.77 Target PUE approximately 1.0

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers

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Microsofts latest promos

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers

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What is Direct Evaporative Cooling Cooling occurs because water changes phase from a liquid to a vapor Water vapor is introduced directly into air stream Constant wet bulb temp Saturation efficiency 80% DB & WB approach

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers How much cooling can be achieved? Wet bulb depression Difference between 100 DB and 70 WB System efficiency (aka saturation efficiency) of 80% 100-70 = 30 30 x 0.8 = 24 100-24 = 76

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers Added grains of moisture

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers Cooling Effect Sensible cooling = 1.08 * cfm * delta-t 1.08 * 10,000 * 24 = 259,200 btuh or 21.6 tons

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers What is Indirect Evaporative cooling Water never enters the supply air stream Indirect up to 75% system efficiency Straight sensible cooling Reduces wet bulb temperature

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers How much cooling can be achieved? Wet bulb depression Difference between 100 DB and 70 WB System efficiency of 75% 100-70 = 30 30 x 0.75 = 22.5 100-22.5 = 77.5

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers Cooling Effect Sensible cooling = 1.08 * cfm * delta-t 1.08 * 10,000 * 22.5 = 243,000 btuh or 20.25 tons

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers

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What is Indirect/Direct Evaporative cooling Consider it a two-stage hybrid First stage lowers dry bulb and wet bulb Second stage further lowers the dry bulb using the first stage results as the starting point

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers How much cooling can be achieved (Stage One)? Wet bulb depression Difference between 100 DB and 70 WB System efficiency of 75% 100-70 = 30 30 x 0.75 = 22.5 100-22.5 = 77.5

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers How much cooling can be achieved (Stage Two)? Wet bulb depression Difference between 77.5 DB and 63.5 WB System efficiency of 80% 77.5-63.5 = 14 14 x 0.8 = 11.2 77.5-11.2 = 66.3 Total temperature drop is 22.5 + 11.2 = 33.7 degrees

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers Cooling Effect Sensible cooling = 1.08 * cfm * delta-t 1.08 * 10,000 * 33.7 = 363,960 btuh or 30.33 tons

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers Added grains of moisture

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers Cooling Effect Summary Direct evap Supply temp = 76 degrees Tonnage = 21.6 Indirect evap Supply temp = 77.5 degrees Tonnage = 20.25 Indirect/Direct evap Supply temp = 66.3 Tonnage = 30.33

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers DALLAS WICHITA SACRAMENTO

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers How does this address the problem? Remember the goal…shifting the kw required for cooling over to the kw available for servers Evaporative cooling vs. chilled water vs. DX

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers How does this address the problem? Aztec ASC ~.25 kw/ton Air cooled rooftop ~ 1.15 kw/ton (10.5 EER) Evaporative cooled chiller ~.88 kw/ton

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers How does this address the problem? For our 30 ton example unit: Aztec ASC ~ 7.5 kw Air cooled rooftop ~ 34.5 kw Evaporative cooled chiller ~ 26.4 kw

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers Potential applications Enterprise data centers Colocation data centers R&D labs Telecommunication equipment centers Server closets Container-based server centers Abandoned big box conversions

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers Applications that probably will not work Tropical environments Marine environments Potential corrosion due to salt air Heavily polluted environments Potential corrosion due to VOCs and ozone Traditional design criteria is specified

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers Issues to consider Hot aisle/Cold aisle separation Using the worst case scenario for design Be aware of the resulting dew point Remember the vapor barrier

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers Equipment characteristics to consider Control the water All welded floor of stainless steel or aluminum All welded drain pans at least 4 high Internal velocities Mist eliminators Conduit for electrical and control wiring

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers Equipment characteristics to consider Know the water Consider water quality Evaluate the use of automatic systems Remember the end user

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers Aztec ASC line Indirect or indirect/direct evap Cooling-only or Cooling- Heating systems DDC controls with Internet access available Stainless steel evap sections Fully welded floor pans Fiberdek UL900cl2 media Duradek edge coating Cleanable media pre-filters Internal seismic rated fan/motor isolation VFD capable Automatic fill and drain system DHTD digital high turndown burner heating technology 1,500 – 37,500 cfm range

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers Alton HECD line Stainless steel evap sections Fully welded floor Fiberdek UL900cl2 media optional Duradek edge coating optional Cleanable media pre-filters Automatic fill and drain system 5,000 – 64,000 cfm range

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers What are the alternatives? In-rack In-room Conventional HVAC Hybrid DX or Chilled Water/Evaporative HVAC

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers What are the alternatives? In-rack

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers What are the alternatives? In-room

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers What are the alternatives? Conventional HVAC

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers What are the alternatives? Hybrid Dx or chilled water/Evaporative Cooling

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers How to find the work Talk to electric utility folks Talk to local economic development folks Emphasize revenue vs. expense Emphasize easier repurposing of abandoned retail space

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Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers Summary Direct evaporative cooling is the least expensive Indirect/direct evaporative cooling is the most effective The goal is to convert expense to revenue for the client And remember….computers dont sweat…so go as warm as you can

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Q & A Evaporative Cooling of Data Centers

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