Project Highlights The Kitui Food Security Project is a Title II Project funded by USAID Targets Agro-pastoralist communities Location: Ikutha and Yatta divisions of Kitui district Economy based on subsistence marginal crop farming and livestock keeping. Climatic conditions: –semi-arid receiving less than 500mm of rainfall annually.
Elements of Insecurity Recurring Drought Dependency Absent or weak community organizations Weak public or community infrastructure Low water infrastructure Weak health infrastructure Poor or non-existent roads Weak agricultural systems Low agricultural productivity Under-developed markets
Elements of Insecurity Water a top priority need: –Nearly 90% of households trek 5 kms to get to the nearest sources Wage employment provides 15% of household income Self employment provides 10% of HH income 69% of the population unable to meet their basic needs Poverty levels in rural areas 70% Poverty levels in urban areas 39% Low agricultural productivity in livestock and crop farming
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES To increase rural household incomes of 23,400 poor farmers by September 2008 To improve the health and nutrition status of 58,500 vulnerable persons
Building Community Organization CORPS –Extension Farmers –Seed Multipliers –Tree Seedling Producers –Veterinary (Paravets) –Research & Government Institutions Value Chain –Community Business Units Micro Agricultural Credit
Extension Farmers A community capacity building strategy in which lead farmers identified by the community are intensively trained by the project and later pass-on the skills gained to the larger community both formally and informally in the process of their normal community interactions.
Extension Farmers (contd) Each trained community farmer (CORP) trains at least 5 other farmers (Follower Farmers) –CORPs apply on-farm technologies –The farm of the CORP becomes an ‘agricultural laboratory’ from where others come to learn.
AGRICULTURAL INTERVENTIONS 1. Community capacity building: With assistance from the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Natural resources, the Project has trained Community Own Resource Persons (CORPS) in the following key areas: Extension Farmers (EFs)- 260 Tree Seedling Producers - 78 Seed Multipliers- 126 Paravets -77
AGRICULTURAL INTERVENTIONS 2) Agricultural technology diffusion on: Drought Tolerant crops. Soil Fertility management Field crop management Disease & pest control Post harvest handling & management 3) Livestock interventions. Stock management Pasture management Breed improvement Disease and pest control
Health Interventions Health & Nutrition HIV & AIDS Growth Monitoring Water & Sanitation Developmental relief
HEALTH & NUTRITION Community capacity building Training of Community Health and Nutrition Facilitators (CHNFs). To date 450 CHNFs trained with support from the Ministry of Health. Each CHNF has trained 2 groups of 10 members in his/her catchment area.
Hygiene & Sanitation Sanitary facility improvement in all villages - demonstration on VIP latrines Waste disposal – in all villages Water borne diseases - reducing Water points protection and catchment conservation – all villages
OVC (Supplementary Feeding) Target: Under weight under five children, Critically ill including HIV/AIDS patients, Orphans below the age of 18 years The elderly Food is distributed once a month through Trained Food Distribution committees elected by the beneficiaries in 45 FDP
GROWTH MONITORING Only for under 5 years Carried out in collaboration with MoH once a month. Only weight-for-age parameter utilized The underweight in-built in the food beneficiary lists and their families targeted for training on child care and nutrition
FOOD & NUTRITION TRAINING Target: 450 CHNFs. Training concentration: Balanced diet Food preparation, utilization and preservation Recipes from locally available foodstuffs Child care, feeding & nutrition Post-harvest handling, storage and afflatoxin sensitization
HIV/AIDS INTERVENTIONS Awareness creation on transmission and effects of the disease Training on care and nutrition for patients. Encouraging people to know their HIV status/ linkage with mobile VCT facilities Linking patients with GOK aided hospitals for free Anti-retroviral and associated post testing care Home visits and post testing counseling Food distribution to Households
Building Local Capacity to Respond to Shocks The acreage under Drought Tolerant Crops (DTCs) improved to 4 acres in 2007. At least 7,360 households consume locally available nutrient rich foods. The 480 trained CHNFs have formed 960 Community Health and Nutrition Groups Households that were food secure improved from 9% in FY 2006 to 64% in FY 2007 During the 2006 drought that affected over 3.5 million people and resulted in the deaths of 70% of livestock in ASAL areas, mortality in the project area was significantly less than in other areas Percent change in hh with malnourished children under 5 years (using weight for age) improving though with challenges because of the cyclical drought
WATER INTERVENTIONS Project Target: 138 Shallow boreholes with Rotary Club, others Community training on water resource management on- going Access increased
Building Local Capacity to respond to shocks The number of households with access to safe water increased by over 50%. The number of households adopting improved water and sanitation practices increased to 13,614. 148 water projects and 30 demonstration latrines. Small holder organizations’ capacity (commodity business units) to access the market increasing in the following sub-sectors, Vegetables, Livestock, Cereals, Pulses Honey and Cotton The use of monetization as a resource generated project funds, maintained jobs & supply chain
Community Infrastructure Development Carried out during the crop production off-season period. Interventions include: Soil conservation through terracing: –Tools distributed farmer groups/associations –Technical support Rural access road construction and rehabilitation Protection of water catchment areas Summary of terracing interventions. 917 Km of terraces completed 17,890 farmers
FOOD FOR WORK INTERVENTIONS Carried out during the crop production off-season period. Interventions include: Soil conservation through terracing: –Tools distributed farmer groups/associations –Technical support Rural access road construction and rehabilitation Protection of water catchment areas 917 Km of terraces completed Beneficiaries - 17,890 households
Market Diversification Market Access Enhancement - build incomes, enhance growth, improve infrastructure (roads, etc) Business Development Services and Private Sector Partnerships –Honey & beekeeping –Livestock restocking & improvements –Cotton ) industrial –Sunflower ) crops –Horticulture Chili Vegetables Mangoes HIV & AIDS programming Abstinence and behavior change Orphaned and vulnerable households
INCOME GENERATION Credit and Loans Loan capital : $225,000 Loans disbursed (on-farm and off-farm activities) Loan Repayment rate: 95% - 100% Client capacity building Training in business management including business planning and record keeping. Linkage of farmer groups to markets (cotton & horticulture) Training on lobbying and advocacy for small scale farmers
Building the Capacity of Rural Communities to Respond to Shock The mean value of agricultural trade entering domestic, regional and international markets from the project area was Ksh 31,888 per farmer (approx. $500) The number of farmers adopting at least three Natural Resource Management Practices (soil and water conservation; improved water use efficiency; soil fertility improvement and tree planting) almost doubled
Building Local Capacity to Respond to Shocks Other interventions lacking e.g. the use of donkey and bullocks for plowing not widespread – cash constraints. the use of silage and hay has not been successful because of the scarcity of materials for ensiling, and efficient equipments for making of hay Livestock improvement and marketing picking up
MAJOR CHALLENGES Areas of intervention less than a tenth of the most vulnerable segments of the population Erratic, unreliable rainfall –Major Irrigation intervention OVC marginalized Uncertainty with funding both for current DAP and for meaningful drought response
Lessons Learned Increased food security resulted in Ikutha Division being removed from the list of communities receiving relief food but sustained progress was dependent on reliable rainfall More time needed to consolidate gains made Complimentary large scale irrigation urgently needed Organized Farmers’ Associations linked to private sector, established area storage and marketing systems meeting other value chain issues along the way
Lessons Learned Integrated development aid across the value chain opened doors for other community needs to be met Community dynamics changed over time necessitating changes in relations with stakeholders/Emerging Opportunities – –Private market operators –Complimentary markets e.g. livestock Development aid needs a strategic balance with emergency response for long term impact and cost effectiveness A regional approach to food security will yield higher dividends