Presentation on theme: "Rutherford Model of the Atom"— Presentation transcript:
1Rutherford Model of the Atom (The modern view of the atom was developed by Ernest Rutherford)Objectives:To describe the Rutherford nuclear model of the atom.To state the relative charge and approximate mass of the electron, proton, and neutron.
2Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) Learned physics in J.J. Thomson’ lab. PAPERLearned physics in J.J. Thomson’ lab.Noticed that ‘alpha’ particles were sometime deflected by something in the air.Gold-foil experimentErnest Rutherford received the Nobel Prize in chemistry (1908) for his work with radioactivity.Ernest Rutherford ( ) was born in Nelson, New Zealand in He began work in J.J. Thompson’s laboratory in He later moved to McGill University in Montreal where he became one of the leading figures in the field of radioactivity. From 1907 on he was professor at the University of Manchester where he worked with Geiger and Marsden. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1908 for his work on radioactivity. In 1910, with co-workers Geiger and Marsden he discovered that alpha-particles could be deflected by thin metal foil. This work enabled him to propose a structure for the atom. Later on he proposed the existence of the proton and predicted the existence of the neutron. He died in 1937 and like J.J. Thompson is buried in Westminster Abbey. He was one of the most distinguished scientists of his century.Is the Nucleus Fundamental?Because it appeared small, solid, and dense, scientists originally thought that the nucleus was fundamental. Later, they discovered that it was made of protons (p+), which are positively charged, and neutrons (n), which have no charge.Animation by Raymond Chang – All rights reserved.
3Rutherford ‘Scattering’ In 1909 Rutherford undertook a series of experimentsHe fired a (alpha) particles at a very thin sample of gold foilAccording to the Thomson model the a particles would onlybe slightly deflectedRutherford discovered that they were deflected through large angles and could even be reflected straight back to the sourceparticlesourceLead collimatorGold foilaqRutherford’s results strongly suggested that both the mass and positive charge are concentrated in a tiny fraction of the volume of the atom, called the nucleus.Rutherford established that the nucleus of the hydrogen atom was a positively charged particle, which he called a proton.Also suggested that the nuclei of elements other than hydrogen must contain electrically neutral particles with the same mass as the proton.The neutron was discovered in 1932 by Rutherford’s student Chadwick.Because of Rutherford’s work, it became clear that an α particle contains two protons and neutrons—the nucleus of a helium atom.
4Rutherford’s Apparatus Rutherford received the 1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his pioneering work in nuclear chemistry.beam of alpha particlesradioactivesubstanceMODERN ALCHEMY“Ernest Rutherford ( ) was the first person to bombard atoms artificially to produce transmutated elements. The physicist from New Zealand described atoms as having a central nucleus with electrons revolving around it. He showed that radium atoms emitted “rays” and were transformed into radon atoms. Nuclear reactions like this can be regarded as transmutations – one element changing into another, the process alchemists sought in vain to achieve by chemical means.”Eyewitness Science “Chemistry” , Dr. Ann Newmark, DK Publishing, Inc., 1993, pg 35When Rutherford shot alpha particles at a thin piece of gold foil, he found that while most of them traveled straight through, some of them were deflected by huge angles.circular ZnS - coatedfluorescent screengold foilDorin, Demmin, Gabel, Chemistry The Study of Matter , 3rd Edition, 1990, page 120
5Rutherford’s Apparatus beam of alpha particlesradioactivesubstanceMODERN ALCHEMYErnest Rutherford ( ) was the first person to bombard atoms artificially to produce transmutated elements. The physicist from New Zealand described atoms as having a central nucleus with electrons revolving around it. He showed that radium atoms emitted “rays” and were transformed into radon atoms. Nuclear reactions like this can be regarded as transmutations – one element changing into another, the process alchemists sought in vain to achieve by chemical means.Eyewitness Science “Chemistry” , Dr. Ann Newmark, DK Publishing, Inc., 1993, pg 35Ernest Rutherford English physicist. (1910)Wanted to see how big atoms are.Used radioactivity, alpha particles - positively charged pieces given off by polonium atoms.Shot them at a thin gold foil (~0.5 um thick) which can be made a few atoms thick.When the alpha particles hit a florescent screen, it glows.Approximately 1/20,000 bounced back at the alpha emitter source.Rutherford said this was like shooting a 15" shell at tissue paper and the shell came back and hit you.It was clearly, NOT what he thought should happen if Thomson's model of the atom was correct.Ernest Rutherford received the 1908 Nobel prize in chemistry for his work at McGill University with radioactive substances.fluorescent screencircular - ZnS coatedgold foilDorin, Demmin, Gabel, Chemistry The Study of Matter , 3rd Edition, 1990, page 120
6Geiger-Muller Counter Hans GeigerSpeaker gives“click” foreach particleWindowParticlepathArgon atoms
7Geiger Counter (-) (+) e- + e- + e- + + e- Ionization of fill gas takes place alongtrack of radiation(-)Speaker gives“click” foreach particle(+)Metal tube(negativelycharged)e-+e-Window+e-++e-Radiation cannot be seen, heard, felt, or smelled. Thus warning signs and radiation detection instruments must be used to alert people to the presence of radiation and to monitor its level. The Geiger counter is one such instrument that is widely used.Other devices used to detect and measure ionizing radiation: scintillation counter, film badgeFree e- are attracted to (+) electrode, completing the circuit and generating a current.The Geiger counter then translates the current reading into a measure of radioactivity.IonizingradiationpathFree e- are attracted to(+) electrode, completingthe circuit and generating a current. The Geiger counter then translates the current reading into a measure of radioactivity.Atoms or moleculesof fill gasCentral wire electrode(positively charged)Wilbraham, Staley, Matta, Waterman, Chemistry, 2002, page 857
8Florescent Screen Lead block Polonium Gold Foil Ernest Rutherford English physicist. (1910)Wanted to see how big atoms are.Used radioactivity, alpha particles - positively charged pieces given off by polonium.Shot them at gold foil which can be made a few atoms thick.When the alpha particles hit a florescent screen, it glows.California WEB
9What He ExpectedThe alpha particles to pass through without changing direction (very much)BecauseThe positive charges were spread out evenly. Alone they were not enough to stop the alpha particlesCalifornia WEB
16The Predicted Result:expectedpathexpectedmarks on screenObserved Result:mark onscreenlikely alphaparticle path
17Interpreting the Observed Deflections .gold foil.beam ofalphaparticlesundeflectedparticles..The observations:(1) Most of the alpha particles pass through the foil un-deflected.(2) Some alpha particles are deflected slightly as the penetrate the foil.(3) A few (about 1 in 20,000) are greatly deflected.(4) A similar small number do not penetrate the foil at all, but are reflected back toward the source.Rutherford believed that when positively charged alpha particles passed near the positively charged nucleus, the resulting strong repulsion caused them to be deflected at extreme angles.Rutherford's interpretation: If atoms of the foil have a massive, positively charged nucleus and light electrons outside the nucleus, one can explain how:(1) an alpha particle passes through the atom un-deflected (a fate share by most of the alpha particles);(2) an alpha particle is deflected slightly as it passes near an electron;(3) an alpha particle is strongly deflected by passing close to the atomic nucleus; and(4) an alpha particle bounces back as it approaches the nucleus head-on.deflected particleDorin, Demmin, Gabel, Chemistry The Study of Matter , 3rd Edition, 1990, page 120
18Density and the AtomSince most of the particles went through, the atom was mostly empty.Because the alpha rays were deflected so much, the positive pieces it was striking were heavy.Small volume and big mass = big densityThis small dense positive area is the nucleusCalifornia WEB
19Rutherford Scattering (cont.) Rutherford interpreted this result by suggesting that the a particles interacted with very small and heavy particlesParticle bounces offof atom?Case ACase BParticle goes throughatom?In the first case, one would assume the alpha particle (positively charged) struck another positively charged particle. Perhaps William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) was correct and the atom is like plum-pudding and is a positive ball with electrons embedded.In the middle example, where the alpha particles pass straight through and are not deflected, it implies the atom is mostly empty space or the alpha particle is too penetrating to give any useful information about the composition of an atom.The third example is NOT what is observed. For this to occur, the atom would have to be negatively charged and absorb all the positively charged alpha particles. At some point the atom would be “full” of alpha particles and then the atom would begin to bounce off of its surface alpha particles.The last example also occurs. In the gold foil experiment, Rutherford observed case A and D (rarely) and mostly case B. This was explained by saying the atom was mostly empty space where electrons spin rapidly around a positively charged, massive (most of the mass of the atom) but tiny nucleus.Particle attractsto atom?Case C.Particle path is alteredas it passes through atom?Case D
21Explanation of Alpha-Scattering Results +-Alpha particlesNuclear atomNucleusPlum-pudding atomThomson’s modelRutherford’s model
22Results of foil experiment if plum-pudding had been correct. Electrons scatteredthroughoutpositivecharges+-+-++-+--++-+--Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 57
23Interpreting the Observed Deflections deflected particle.gold foil.beam ofalphaparticlesundeflectedparticles..Atom is mostly emptySmall dense, positive piece at center (the nucleus).Alpha particles are deflected by it… if they get close enough to nucleus.Conclusion:From Rutherford’s results he proposed a nuclear atom model wherethere is a dense center of positive charge called the nucleus around whichelectrons move in space that is otherwise empty.Dorin, Demmin, Gabel, Chemistry The Study of Matter , 3rd Edition, 1990, page 120
24Rutherford’s Gold-Leaf Experiment Conclusions: Atom is mostly empty space Nucleus has (+) charge Electrons float around nucleus“Rutherford’s Gold-Leaf Experiment”DescriptionThis slide illustrates Ernest Rutherford’s experiment with alpha particles and gold foil and his interpretation of the results.Basic ConceptsWhen charged particles are directed at high speed toward a metal foil target, most pass through with little or no deflection, but some particles are deflected at large angles.Solids are composed of atoms that are closely packed. The atoms themselves are mostly empty space.All atoms contain a relatively small, massive, positively charged nucleus. The nucleus is surrounded by negatively charged electrons of low mass that occupy a relatively large volume.Teaching SuggestionsUse this slide to describe and explain Rutherford’s experiment. Rutherford designed the apparatus shown in figure (A) to study the scattering of alpha particles by gold. Students may have difficult with the concepts in this experiment because they lack the necessary physics background. To help students understand how it was determined that the nucleus is relatively massive, use questions 3 and 4 to explain the concept of inertia.Explain that the electrostatic force is directly proportional to the quantity of electric charge involved. A greater charge exerts a greater force. (Try comparing the electrostatic force to the foce of gravity, which is greater near a massive object like the sun, but smaller near an object of lesser mass, such as the moon.) The force exerted on an alpha particle by a concentrated nucleus would be much greater that the force exerted on an alpha particle by a single proton. Hence, larger deflections will result from a dense nucleus than from an atom with diffuse positive charges.Point out that Rutherford used physics to calculate how small the nucleus would have to be produce the large-angle deflections observed. He calculated that the maximum possible size of the nucleus is about 1/10,000 the diameter of the atom. Rutherford concluded that the atom is mostly space.QuestionsIf gold atoms were solid spheres stacked together with no space between them, what would you expect would happen to particles shot at them? Explain your reasoning.When Ernest Rutherford performed the experiment shown in diagram (A) he observed that most of the alpha particles passed straight through the gold foil. He also noted that the gold foil did not appear to be affected. How can these two observations be explained?Can you explain why Rutherford concluded that the mass of the f\gold nucleus must be much greater than the mass of an alpha particle? (Hint: Imagine one marble striking another marble at high speed. Compare this with a marble striking a bowling ball.)Do you think that, in Rutherford’s experiment, the electrons in the gold atoms would deflect the alpha particles significantly? Why or why not? (Hint: The mass of an electron is extremely small.)Rutherford experimented with many kinds of metal foil as the target. The results were always similar. Why was it important to do this?A friend tries to convince you that gold atoms are solid because gold feels solid. Your friend also argues that, because the negatively charged electrons are attracted to the positively charged nucleus, the electrons should collapse into the nucleus. How would you respond?As you know, like charges repel each other. Yet, Rutherford determined that the nucleus contains all of an atom’s positive charges. Invent a theory to explain how all the positive charges can be contained in such a small area without repelling each other. Be creative!Dorin, Demmin, Gabel, Chemistry The Study of Matter , 3rd Edition, 1990, page 120
25Rutherford’s Experiment Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 56
26Actual Results of Gold-Leaf Experiment Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 57
27The Rutherford Atom - - - - - - - - - - n + Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 57
28This is the modern atom model. Electrons are in constant motion around the nucleus, protons and neutrons jiggle within the nucleus, and quarks jiggle within the protons and neutrons.This picture is quite distorted. If we drew the atom to scale and made protons and neutrons a centimeter in diameter, then the electrons and quarks would be less than the diameter of a hair and the entire atom's diameter would be greater than the length of thirty football fields! % of an atom's volume is just empty space!Website “The Particle Adventure”
29Scale of the atom.While an atom is tiny, the nucleus is ten thousand times smaller than the atom and the quarks and electrons are at least ten thousand times smaller than that. We don't know exactly how small quarks and electrons are; they are definitely smaller than meters, and they might literally be points, but we do not know.It is also possible that quarks and electrons are not fundamental after all, and will turn out to be made up of other, more fundamental particles. (Oh, will this madness ever end?)Website “The Particle Adventure”
306 leptons. The best-known lepton is the electron. Physicists have developed a theory called The Standard Model that explains what the world is and what holds it together. It is a simple and comprehensive theory that explains all the hundreds of particles and complex interactions with only:6 quarks.6 leptons. The best-known lepton is the electron.Force carrier particles, like the photon. We will talk about these particles later.All the known matter particles are composites of quarks and leptons, and they interact by exchanging force carrier particles.The Standard Model is a good theory. Experiments have verified its predictions to incredible precision, and all the particles predicted by this theory have been found. But it does not explain everything. For example, gravity is not included in the Standard Model.Website “The Particle Adventure”
31Discovery of the electron Davy suggested that electrical forces held compound together.Faraday related atomic mass and the electricity needed to free an element during electrolysis experiments.Stoney proposed that electricity exists in units he called electrons.Thomson first quantitatively measured the properties of electrons.
32Coulomb’s LawWhy don’t electrons collide while moving around the outside of atom?Both negative charges (repel each other)Coulomb’s lawWhy can’t we add protons to nucleus?Hard to hit small nucleus(+) will repel (+)When an ion forms:cation…gain protons or lose electrons?anion…lose protons or gain electrons?
33Hit moth driving car – no change in car direction Hit deer – car changes directionAlpha particlemothdeerGold AtomLarge angle of deflection, must have hit massive object!
34Hit moth driving car – no change in car direction Hit deer – car changes directionGold AtomAlpha particlemothdeerLarge angle of deflection, must have hit massive object!
35Force Coulomb’s law Definite proportions H2O 2 H @1 g/mol = 2 g 1 16 g/mol = 16 g1:8 H:Oby mass