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Bridging Theory in Practice

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1 Bridging Theory in Practice
Transferring Technical Knowledge to Practical Applications

2 The ABC’s of ESD, EOS, and SOA

3 The ABC’s of ESD, EOS, and SOA

4 The ABC’s of ESD, EOS, and SOA
Intended Audience: Electrical engineers with a knowledge of simple electrical circuits An understanding of MOSFET devices Topics Covered: What is Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) What is Electrical Over Stress (EOS) What is Safe Operating Area (SOA) Expected Time: Approximately 90 minutes

5 The ABC’s of ESD, EOS, and SOA
What is ESD Where does ESD come from MOSFET Gate susceptibility Test Standards Component level vs. module level tests What is EOS What is SOA

6 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)
We are all familiar with a common form of electrostatic discharge (ESD): ESD is the sudden transfer of electrostatic charge between objects at different electrostatic potentials Shaggy Carpet

7 Where Does ESD Come From
Triboelectric Charging Mechanical Contact and Separation “Walking on carpet” Direct Charging Mobile Charge Transfer – “Plugging in a cable” (e.g. USB to PC) Ionic Charging Not properly balanced Air Ionizer can charge an object (instead of intended operation to neutralize/balance charge) Charged object comes into contact with a grounded object (such as machine pick-up probe or grounded human operator) This is example of charged device model (CDM) event—more to come!!!

8 Where Does ESD Come From?
Which levels can occur? Below 3-4kV you see, hear or feel nothing! Just above 4kV, air-gap-sparks can occur 1mm == 1kV (5mm spark ~ 5kV) Why does a 2kV protected device survive the real world? You are charged relatively to earth, not to “pin7” You do not have 4kV between your thumb and your index finger You have 0Kv between your thumb and index finger and 4kv between your thumb and earth ground. The device itself does not have a path to ground until you put it in the application and then it becomes a CDM.

9 Where Does ESD Come From?
15% 35% office room (winter) without air humidity regulation Influence of Air Humidity Higher relative air humidity does cause a “moisture” film on surfaces Charge is more distributed, lower voltages thus occur But dry air does not have a higher inherent “resistance” 16 15 ESD Voltage (kV) anti-static wool synthetic 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 Balloon story: rub a balloon on a sweater and it builds charge on one side. Placing the balloon on the wall with the charged side causes the balloon to stick but not using the opposite side because the charge is local. Under higher humidity conditions the charge spreads across the whole balloon and it is not enough charge to stick to the wall. 5 4 3 2 1 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % Relative Air Humidity

10 MOSFET Gate Susceptibility
Source Gate Drain Often, the source is grounded Insulating SiO2 Gate SiO2 n n p-type

11 Charge Is Applied to the MOSFET Gate
But, the charge is stuck on gate due to insulating SiO2 Source Gate Drain SiO2 Cgs n n p-type

12 A Quick Review of Voltage and Capacitance
Think of voltage as an amount of possible electrical work A high voltage means additional electrical work is possible If the voltage is improperly directed or used, unintended (and potentially harmful) work will be performed Capacitance Capacitors are one way of storing electrical work/energy If a capacitor can store a large amount of electrical work, it has a large capacitance If a capacitor can store only a small amount of electrical work, it has a small capacitance +12V Ground Battery

13 A Quick Review of Voltage and Capacitance
Variables and Constants: C  Capacitance  Permittivity of Silicon Dioxide Q  Charge A  Area of Capacitor Plates V  Voltage d  Distance Between Conductors Two Basic Equations: Rearranging yields: ÎÎ = ox A C d

14 Quick Review Summary: is a constant for a given material (SiO2)
As the charge (Q) on the capacitor increases - the voltage across the capacitor increases….

15 Gate Charge Induces a Gate Voltage
Source Source Gate Gate Drain Drain POP SiO2 SiO2 n n n n p-type p-type

16 Induced Gate Voltage Creates a Hole in the SiO2
Source Source Gate Gate Drain Drain SiO2 SiO2 n n n n Allowable E-field within SiO2 exceeded p-type p-type

17 Induced Gate Voltage Creates a Hole in the SiO2
Source Source Gate Gate MOSFET cannot turn on Drain Drain Gate-Source Short SiO2 SiO2 n n n n p-type p-type

18 Gate susceptibility summary:
As the charge (Q) on the capacitor increases - the voltage across the capacitor increases…. If the transistor decreases in size - the thickness of the SiO2 gate (d) decreases - but, the area (A) of the gate decreases faster - For the same amount of charge, the voltage across the capacitor is higher for a smaller transistor More advanced technologies may require additional ESD precautions

19 Induced Voltage for 3m and 1.2m CMOS Processes
3m Process (Minimum Size Transistor) tox = 400 Å = 4x10-8 m L = 3m W = 3m Q = 1.16x10-11 C 1.2m Process (Minimum Size Transistor) tox = 200 Å = 2x10-8 m L = 1.2m W = 1.2m Note:

20 ESD Standards & Test: Overview
ESD Standards & Tests should simulate “real world” events as realistic as possible There is no “single/one size fits all” ESD Test available  Different handling/mounting conditions have resulted in different ESD tests e.g. car-manufacturers follow different ESD standards than component-suppliers: both are talking about ESD but not about the same applied ESD-standards Be careful to know complete standard definition “ESD 2kV”, “2kV HBM”,… does not mean much: The Standard is missing e.g JEDEC22-A114; MIL-STD-883, Method , ……(more complete)

21 ESD Standards & Tests: Overview
A “Standard” consists of … … a used MODEL (HBM, MM, …) … VALUES for the elements used in the model (R=1500 Ohm, C=100pF) … plus TEST PROCEDURE: how to apply the standard (e.g. 3 pulses) Standard = Model + Values + Procedure Therefore Standards can differ in each subset, in the MODEL VALUES TEST PROCEDURE “HBM 2kV” is not specific – “2kV JEDEC22-A114” is better defined

22 ESD Models: Human Body Model
Human Body Model (HBM) consists of a Capacitor and a series Resistor Values are defined in the specific standard Commonly used: C =100pf, R=1500 Ohm (JEDEC, Mil, etc.) Test Procedure is defined in the specific standard Commonly used: 1 to 3 pulses, both polarities, 3 devices/voltage level HBM Standards (R=1500 Ohm, C=100 pF) JEDEC JESD 22-A114 [2] Military Standard Mil [3] ANSI/ESD STM5.1 [4] IEC “Human ESD Model” (R=2000 Ohm, C=150 pF – 330 pF) ISO/TR [5] “Human Body Representative” (R=330 Ohm, C=150 pF) IEC [6] Commonly used for component tests

23 ESD Models: Human Body Model  Waveform
HBM Jedec22-A1114 Waveform: 10ns rise time typically (short) 2-10ns are allowed Peak current: Rule of Thumb: 1kV = 2/3 Ampere 1kV Why the 500 ohms? VESD (V) Ipeak - Ipeak+10% (A) 1000 0.67 – 0.74 2000 1.33 – 1.45 4000 2.67 – 2.93 ] [ 1500 W = Vesd Ipeak

24 ESD Models: Machine Model
Machine Model (MM) consists of a Capacitor and no series Resistor Values are defined in the specific standard Commonly used: C =200pF, Test Procedure is defined in the specific standard Commonly used: 1 to 3 pulses, both polarities, 3 devices/level MM Standards (C=200 pf) JEDEC JESD 22-A115 [11] ANSI/ESD STM5.2 “Philips Standard” (C=200 pF, R=10-25 Ohm, L= µH) Standard?? Why was machine model used inititally or what was the thinking? Some definitions use MM “standard” with a 25 Ohm series resistor, which at least doubles the achievable ESD Level!

25 ESD Models: Machine Model
MM stress is similar to HBM Oscillations due to setup parasitics MM and HBM failure modes are similar Less reproducible than HBM Source: T. Brodbeck; Models.pdf The oscillating waveform is due to uncontrolled parasitics in the setup. VESD (kV) Ipeak - Ipeak+30% (A) 0.1 0.2 0.4

26 Charged Device Model Test
Models an ESD event which occurs when a device acquires electrostatic charge and then touches a grounded object Device discharges through ground probe Device placed in dead-bug position Dielectric Field Plate High Voltage Source

27 CDM Waveform: Highly dependent on die size and package capacitance
500V with 4pF verification module tr<400psec / Ip1~4.5A / Ip2<0.5Ip1 / Ip3<0.25Ip1 Source: AEC-Q B

28 AEC-Q100 Automotive Electronic Council (AEC) Stress Test Qualification “100”: AEC Q100 – xxx AEC is not a single standard but a collection of requirements for automotive suppliers AEC Q100 validated suppliers have to fulfill the ESD regarding qualification described in it AEC Q : HBM (JEDEC) 2000V OR AEC Q : MM (JEDEC) 200V AND AEC Q : CDM (JEDEC) Corner Pins 750V / Non-corner pins 500V Include SDM comment

29 Component vs. Module level tests
ESD (pulses) testing originates from a subset of the wide field of EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility, EMI … Immunity) Due to the importance in the Semiconductor Industry, ESD testing has evolved into its own field of specialization The ESD/EMC world in general can be divided into two main-fields: (Powered) Systems (Unpowered) Components

30 ESD Standards & Tests: System vs. Component
Goal: UNDISTURBED functionality during and after ESD stress under powered / functional conditions Goal: UNDESTROYED components after ESD stress: All specification-parameters should stay within its limits ESD is a part of EMC qualification Different “behavior criteria” in response to ESD on system level exists (class A to D) ESD is a part of product qualification “Pass”/”fail” criteria Just dedicated pin combinations feasible  I/O vs. GND The reference/enemy is always earth potential Relative measure of robustness of end product during operation All pin combinations can occur and are tested Relative measure of robustness during handling/manufacturing

31 ESD Test methods (Models) System vs. Component
Module/System Level Component Level Human Body Model (HBM) 150pF / 330  EN (so called “GUN Test”) Human Body Model (HBM) 100pF / 1500  JEDEC-Norm JESD22-A114-B (MIL-STD883D, method 3015) Human Body Model (HBM) 150pF / 2000  ISO 10605 Machine Model (MM) 200pF / 0  JEDEC-Norm JESD22-A115-A (correlates to HBM) We need to clarify the fact that the ISO10605 is a different kind of human body model, i.e. second peak. Should the call out a human body model..check with our EMC guys. Human Body Model (HBM) 330pF / 2000  ISO 10605 Charged Device Model (CDM) Package pF / 0  JEDEC-Norm JESD22-C101-A

32 ESD Models: Human Body Model  Component Test
A “Pin-to-Pin” ESD Tester (like HBM, MM Testers) consists of the HV source and the model with its values, connected to two “Terminals” The Terminals are not changed for polarity reversal …  The capacitance is charged one time positively and one time negatively  Tester-Ground along with parasitics stay constant HV Terminal A Terminal B

33 ESD Models: Human Body Model  Component Test
2 different Pin-Combination-Types are tested Supply-Pin-Tests All Pins (individually one at a time) at Terminal A vs. Supply-X at Terminal B Repeat for Supply-Y, Supply-Z, etc. at Terminal B Non-Supply-Pin-Test “All Non-Supplies (individually one at a time) at Terminal A vs. all other non-supplies together at Terminal B” Repeat for each non-supply at Terminal A 1 positive and 1 negative pulse for each pin-combination Step-Stress, 500V, 1kV, 2kV and 4kV should be used; different levels and steps can be defined A new set of 3 devices per level is used ESD Product Qualification IFX according to JEDEC EIA/JESD 22-A114-B [2] described in IFX Procedure [1]

34 ESD Supply-Pin Test: HBM ESD Each pin vs. Supply-1 (GND)
ESD Test P1.1 All pins vs. Supply 1 (in this case GND) In this case: 10 different combinations 1+ and 1- pulse for each combination  20 pulses for each voltage step

35 ESD Supply-Pin Test: HBM ESD Each pin vs. Supply-2 (VBB)
ESD Test P1.2 All pins vs. Supply 2 (in this case VBB) Then subsequently All pins vs. Supply 3 (Vdd) In this case: 11 different combinations 1+ and 1- pulse for each combination  22 pulses for each voltage step

36 ESD Non-Supply-Pin Test: HBM ESD Each non-supply vs all other non-supply
ESD Test P2 Each non-supply vs. All other non-supply One non-supply at a time on Terminal A All other non-supplies at Terminal B In this case: 8 different combinations 1+ and 1- pulse for each combination  16 pulses for each voltage step

37 ESD Standards & Test: System-Level Test
Direct Discharge: Test points of normal accessibility. The Reference-’”Pin” at System-Level test is “Earth” and not a part of the DUT Indirect Discharge into couple plate: Test for radiated disturbance immunity

38 HBM: System Level Tests applied to components??
Some Customers ask for system-level test at component level Component is not powered Only pins which are accessible to the outside world are tested Reference pin(s) are the component ground pin(s) Pass/Fail according to Component test-program ESD current is 5x higher at a dedicated voltage level compared to component ESD tests 2kV Red: IEC (“GUN”) Blue: JEDEC “HBM” This is really confusing…what is it about the discharge model that allows 5x the current for the same charge voltage?!

39 Pulse Charge Comparison
Discharge generated Pulses (RC) Application Standard/Pulse Vmax [V] Duration (10-90%) # of Pulses Ri [Ohm] C [pF] Ipeak [A] Charge Charge relatively to HBM, JESD22-114 Component "HBM" JESD 8000 150ns 1 1500 100 5.3 800nC System "GUN" IEC 120ns 10 330 150 33 1.2µC 1.5 System/Vehicle ISO/TR inside 1µs 3 2000 30 2.64µC 3.3 ISO/TR outside 360ns Voltage generated Pulses Vehicle ISO 7637: 1 -100 2ms 5000 - 20mC 25x10^3 ISO 7637: 2 50µs 0.5nC 6.25x10^-4 ISO 7637: 3a 100ns 1h (3.6x10^6) 50 300nC 0.375 ISO 7637: 3b 2 200nC 0.25 ISO 7637: 5 87 40-400ms 1-10 43 1.7C 2.13x10^6 Additional Discharge generated Pulses (C) "MM" JESD22-115 400 16MHz >8 0.8nC 1x10^-3 "CDM" JESD22-101 750 0.8ns 8.5-17 HBM 8kV is normalized to “1”

40 HBM ESD Gate Shorted to Source
Very small damage area due to low energy of ESD pulses, normally cannot be seen with “naked eye”

41 HBM ESD Gate Shorted to Source
This device had a G-S short and you can see the burn mark is right at the boundary region of gate poly and source metal which is common since this is the area of highest E field strength Gate contact metal Gate Polysilicon Source contact metal

42 Can ESD Sensitive Devices in an Automobile Be Protected?
Electrostatic discharge sensitive components can be protected in an automobile Installation of spark gap topologies Establishing a predictable charge well topology such as capacitors

43 Decrease ESD Sensitivity with a Predictable Charge Well Topology
Recall our earlier equation: Place a capacitor across the device/pin to be protected The additional external capacitor sheds the electrostatic discharge energy, reducing the voltage at the pins of the semiconductor device

44 Decrease ESD Sensitivity with a Predictable Charge Well Topology
Protected Pin Cprotection ESD generator ESD current/charge For most robust design, the voltage at this point should be lowered to be less than internal ESD structure breakdown voltage so all current/energy is shed thru external capacitor. Please note that there is no resistor between C_prot and IC so high current/energy can flow into IC if internal ESD structure breaks down and begins to conduct current

45 Decrease ESD Sensitivity with a Predictable Charge Well Topology
System level/gun tests ESD voltages may need to be 15,000V (direct contact) Gun tests uses 330pf for source capacitor For automotive technologies having ESD structures with 40-45V breakdown is common C_prot = (C_gun / Vbr_ESD) * V_gun = (330pF / 45V) * 15kV = 110nF

46 Typical internal IC ESD Protection Circuits
Ground Referenced Protection VSupply Referenced Protection IC VSupply External Pin Protected Circuit Protected Circuit External Pin IC

47 ESD Summary Electrostatic discharge occurs when excessive static charge on an object builds up to a very high voltage (thousands of volts) and causes device damage during contact and subsequent discharge (current flow) with another object MOS devices with insulating SiO2 gates are especially susceptible to ESD damage Different test standards have evolved for component level and system level tests and confusion can result if these standards are not understood and clarified in reports and communication The very fast (HBM=nsecs / CDM=psecs) ESD pulses have low energy and result in VERY small physical damage signatures

48 The ABC’s of ESD, EOS, and SOA
What is ESD Where does ESD come from MOSFET Gate susceptibility Test Standards Component level vs. module level tests What is EOS What is SOA

49 What is Electrical Over Stress (EOS)?
Electrical Over Stress is exactly what it says…. A device is electrically stressed over it’s specified limits in terms of voltage, current, and/or power/energy Unlike ESD events, EOS is the result of "long" duration stress events (millisecond duration or longer) Excessive energy from turning off inductive loads Load Dump Extended operation at junction temperatures > 150degC Repetitive excessive thermal cycling Excessive/extended EMC exposure, etc. EOS often results in large scorch marks, discoloration of metal, melted metallization and/or bond wires, and massive destruction of the semiconductor component

50 What is Electrical Over Stress (EOS)?
Failures from EOS can result in the following: Hard failure: failure is immediate and results in a complete non-operational device Soft failure: EOS results in a marginal failure or a shift in parametric performance of the device Latent failure: At first the EOS results in a non-catastrophic damage but after a period of time further degradation occurs resulting in a hard or soft failure

51 EOS: Thermal Lifetime Curve
Point of accelerated device qualification h Lifetime curve for device worst case parameters 1 000 h 100 h 270°C 10 h app. 350°C 170°C 1 h Irreversible damage Over- temperature shutdown 220°C °C 0.1 h Soldering Device temperature 150°C 200°C 270°C 350°C Spec valid, full lifetime, full function Spec restricted, reduced lifetime, limited functionality No spec, no permanent damage, highly reduced lifetime, no function guaranteed Device destruction, irreversible damage, permanent out of control

52 Scorched/Melted metal (≥650ºC)
What is Electrical Over Stress (EOS)? What indicates EOS? Degradation/recrystalisation of metal (≥400ºC) ---also repetitive fast transients<100ºC Scorched/Melted metal (≥650ºC) Melted silicon (≥1200ºC)

53 EOS: Failure signature from excessive load dump
Scorched/melted metal

54 EOS Failure Signatures---Generalities
Visualization of single- and repetitive pulse events : number of cycles max. Chip temperature melting point in thermal hot spot repetitive mode single mode (e.g.)102 106 This isn‘t a completely black & white effect, but there can be a significant difference in single- and repetitive pulse failure signatures

55 EOS: Failure signature from excessive inductive turn-off energy
Example – Inductive clamp single pulse IDS(start)=10A, t=11.8 ms, T=25°C, Vbb = 12V I_ramp(10A/11.8ms) E=2.14 Joules Failure signature (10A): - No metal degradation - Scorch in DMOS field - NO bond fuse EOS at the „hot spot“ No metal degradation near bond

56 EOS: Failure signature from repetitive thermal cycling combined with high current
Severely degraded recrystalized metal

57 Aluminum Wire DC Ratings*
Electrical Over Stress (EOS) A common failure for electrical over stresses is MELTED METALLIZATION AND/OR BOND WIRES Gold Wire DC Ratings* Aluminum Wire DC Ratings* 350m 40A 50m 2.5A 25m 1A 50m 2A 125m 8A *Assumes TJ < 150C, TLeads < 85C, TWire < 220C, and Wire Length<3mm

58 How to Electrically Over Stress Components
Put components in/out of sockets while power already applied (hot plug) Applying electrical signals which exceeds a component’s ratings Apply an input signal to a device before applying supply voltage and/or ground Apply an input signal to a device output Use an inexpensive power supply (supply overshoot) Provide insufficient noise filtering on the board’s input line(s) Use a poor ground with high resistance and inductance

59 EOS Summary Electrical over stress refers to a condition when a device is electrically stressed over its specified limits EOS often catastrophically damages devices by degrading or melting of metallization and bond wires Operation of devices within the specified Safe Operating Area will eliminate electrical over stress damage

60 The ABC’s of ESD, EOS, and SOA
What is ESD Where does ESD come from MOSFET Gate susceptibility Test Standards Component level vs. module level tests What is EOS What is SOA

61 Safe Operating Area (SOA)
The safe operating area is a set of conditions specified for a certain device Within the safe operating area, the semiconductor component is specified to operate as expected By definition, no electrical over stress occurs within the specified safe operating area

62 SOA Graph for MOS Transistor
Single pulse, Tcase = 25C, Tjunction < 125C ID, Drain Current 0.1A 1A 10A 100A VDS, Drain-Source Voltage 1V 10V 100V 1000V DC 1ms 200s 50s 15s 4s Pulse Width Rdson=VDS/ID

63 SOA Graph for Linear Voltage Regulator
VOUT = 5V, Tjunction < 150C Soldered to board with 3cm2 copper heatsink IOUT, Output Current 0A 50mA 100mA 150mA VIN, Input Voltage 10V 15V 20V 25V Ta = 25C Ta = 85C Ta = 125C

64 The ABC’s of ESD, EOS, and SOA

65 Thank you!

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