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12/01/19993. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 3. Protection of Information Assets 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) Protecting Personal &

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Presentation on theme: "12/01/19993. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 3. Protection of Information Assets 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) Protecting Personal &"— Presentation transcript:

1 12/01/ Protection of Information Assets (25%) 3. Protection of Information Assets 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) Protecting Personal & Institutional Information Assets & Data Extra Credit Project Jack Mason & July James

2 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 2 3. Protection of Information Assets (Content Area, Approximately 25% of exam) 3.1 Evaluate the design, implementation, and monitoring of logical access controls to ensure the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of information assets. 3.2 Evaluate network infrastructure security to ensure integrity, confidentiality, availability and authorized use of the network and the information transmitted.

3 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 3 3. Protection of Information Assets 2 3. Protection of Information Assets 3.3 Evaluate the design, implementation, and monitoring of environmental controls to prevent and/or minimize potential loss. 3.4 Evaluate the design, implementation, and monitoring of physical access controls to ensure that the level of protection for assets and facilities is sufficient to meet the organization's business objectives.

4 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 4 Knowledge Statements Knowledge of the processes of design, implementation, and monitoring of security (e.g. gap analysis, baseline, tool selection) 3.02 Knowledge of encryption techniques (e.g. DES, RSA) 3.03 Knowledge of public key infrastructure (PKI) components (e.g. certification authorities (CA), registration authorities) 3.04 Knowledge of digital signature techniques

5 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 5 Knowledge Statements Knowledge of physical security practices (e.g. biometrics, card swipes) 3.06 Knowledge of techniques for identification, authentication, and restriction of users to authorized functions and data (e.g. dynamic passwords, challenge/response, menus, profiles)

6 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 6 Knowledge Statements Knowledge of security software (e.g. single sign-on, intrusion detection systems (IDS), automated permissioning, network address translation) 3.08 Knowledge of security testing and assessment tools (e.g. penetration testing, vulnerability scanning) 3.09 Knowledge of network and Internet security (e.g. SSL, SET, VPN, tunneling)

7 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 7 Some Possible Threats Interception Spoofing Web Data Interception Network & Volume Invasion Marketing Data / Spam & Junk Mail Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horses Password Cracking

8 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 8 More Possible Threats Mail bomb Denial of Service (DoS) Piracy of Intellectual Property

9 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 9 Interception Methods Script Monitor –Running a script on a server that receives traffic, monitoring s for certain keywords or number patterns. (I.E. bomb + president or credit card number patterns) Account Emulation –Stealing someones user id and password to gain access to their account. Defenses Digital Certificates –Digital certificates authenticate you as the sender and are extremely difficult to forge. Allows very strong encryption of communications. PGP –Pretty Good Privacy allows strong encryption of your text. Can be incorporated easily into any text oriented program.

10 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 10 Standard Encryption Text is encrypted and sent by the originator Ciphertext is decrypted by recipient Same key is used for encryption and decryption If key is intercepted or deciphered, encryption becomes useless –This is how WWII was won...

11 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 11 Strong Cryptography There are two kinds of cryptography in this world: cryptography that will stop your kid sister from reading your files, and cryptography that will stop major governments from reading your files. This book is about the latter. -- Bruce Schneier, Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C. 40 bit cryptography is considered weak. This can be intercepted and deciphered in seconds using todays tools. By contrast, 128 bit cryptography is considered technically infeasible to crack. Most banks require a 128 bit browser for online banking.

12 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 12 Dual Key Cryptography Key pair is generated - public and private key. Public key is sent to server and exchanged with others Private key is guarded by the user

13 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 13 Dual Keys Continued Encrypted message is generated using recipients public key and your private key. Only the intended recipient with the corresponding private key will be able to decrypt. NSA hates this to be in the hands of the general public… but you have the right to privacy.

14 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 14 What is a Digital Certificate? Acts as a virtual signature Very hard to forge Can be used for encryption or authentication Resides in the Browser/ Client/OS Free digital certificates are available PGP Freeware is available (X.509)

15 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 15 What is PGP? Created by Phil Zimmerman –PGP is now a subsidiary of Network Associates Secures and files Based on Public Key Cryptography Users whom have never met can exchange encrypted documents. Freeware

16 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 16 How To Encrypt a Message (1) This will describe how to encrypt a message using Digital Certificates with Netscape Communicator. Obtain and install a certificate using the step by step instructions at the issuing website. Clicking on the Security button in Netscape Communicator opens the Security Window below:

17 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 17 How To Encrypt a Message (2) Users must exchange public keys. Can be done via LDAP directory or exchange. An that has a digital certificate attached will display this icon in Communicator. You can click on the icon to examine the cert. Certs ed to you are automatically added to Communicators database. You can search for certificates on public directories (LDAP) directly from within Communicator

18 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 18 How To Encrypt a Message (3) Once keys have been exchanged, address an to the other party. Click on the Security button and select the option for encrypting message. Thats it!

19 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 19 Spoofing Happens when someone impersonates an user, sending messages that appear to be from the victims address. Spoofing can be prevented by using your Digital Certificate or PGP to Digitally Sign your message. Even Certificates can be spoofed, although difficult. Check the Certificate Fingerprint of the message to be sure its authentic. Certificate Fingerprint:E4:58:C8:8F:B5:90:4C:AC:AB:79:9C:6A:32:0C:3E:4E

20 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 20 Shopping Securely You should never input sensitive info such as Credit Card numbers into a non- secure website. Make sure website is certified by a trusted Certificate Authority (CA) List of default trusted CAs in Communicator

21 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 21 How to Shop Securely When you enter a secure site, Communicators Security icon will change as shown: Click on the Security button to examine which CA asserts that this site is safe. Note: Attempting to enter a secure site that is not signed by a valid or default CA will result in a cautionary error message.

22 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 22 Hacking In to Your Computer DSL and Cable internet access means round the clock connections of home and small business computers to the Internet. Greatly increases the chance of attack. Physical access is always a danger, too. Hackers can gain access to your personal files, Quicken data, etc.

23 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 23 Stopping Hackers Set up a personal/home firewall. Encrypt your sensitive files!!! –PGP, all platforms. –Mac OS 9 Built-In Encryption Feature Dont give out your passwords to anyone! Use difficult passwords - not simple dictionary style words.

24 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 24 Password Strength Simple words out of a dictionary make bad passwords. Use mixed upper and lower case characters. Use non-alphanumeric characters such as: Avoid sharing passwords, even with friends and family.

25 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 25 Password Strength Examples Using a simple passphrase such as coffee is simple to hack, takes about 40 minutes to break. Using random alphanumerics is significantly more difficult: A passphrase such as bR1a9Az takes about 22 years to crack. Using the full range of the keyboard with truly random characters is totally infeasible to crack. A passphrase like,ThX1pD

26 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 26 Key Strength Comparison Most browsers ship with a default of 40 bit encryption capabilities. You must upgrade to a 128 bit encryption capable browser for most online banking.

27 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 27 Strong Encryption Browsers Netscape Communicator is freely available for all platforms with 128 bit encryption capability and full features. 128 bit capable version of Microsoft Internet Explorer is available for Windows and Macintosh. (Mac version has limited features.) You may have to install additional plug ins to get 128 bit capabilities out of MSIE.

28 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 28 Viruses Computer viruses are 100% man made. Can be transmitted via , disk, network, etc… Most are harmless experiments. Some are intended to wreak havoc on individuals and networks.

29 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 29 Virus Protection Get a virus protection package and install it on your computer. Check the vendors website for downloadable updates and alerts on new viruses. Dont open or attachments from unknown sources.

30 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 30 Safeguarding Customer Information Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA) Compliance

31 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 31 Why was GLBA enacted? Section 501 of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act requires Financial Institutions to establish standards relating to administrative, technical and physical information safeguards to protect customer records and information.

32 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 32 Safeguard Objectives: Ensure security and confidentially of customer records and information. Protect against any anticipated threats or hazards to the security of the records. Protect against unauthorized access or use of records or information which could result in harm or inconvenience to customer.

33 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 33 Information Security Plan Written to insure security and confidentiality of non-public customer financial information (NPI). Protect against any anticipated threats and hazards. Protect against unauthorized access or use.

34 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 34 Non-public customer information (NPI) Credit card numbers Social Security numbers Drivers license numbers Student loan data Income information Credit histories Customer files with NPI NPI Consumer information Bank Account data

35 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 35 Financial Institutions Including Colleges and Universities must ensure that their security programs provide adequate protection to customer information in whatever format – electronic or hardcopy.

36 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 36 FTC Ruling consumers information is not a privacy issue but is one of security. Compliance with FERPA does not exempt colleges and universities from GLBA safeguarding regulations.

37 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 37 FERPA vs.. GLBA The Family Education Rights and Privacy Act addresses the privacy of student information. Gramm- Leach-Bliley Act addresses the security of customer records and information.

38 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 38 University Actions Has established a committee to insure compliance. Committee meets regularly to review and insure compliance with the act. Performs risk assessment and regular testing. Oversees service providers and contracts. Trains staff to maintain security and confidentially.

39 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 39 Why Protect your Identity? Identity Theft

40 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 40 Statistics on Identity Theft in New Jersey 4802 Complaints / year 1. Credit Card Fraud 2, % 2. Phone or Utilities Fraud % 3. Bank Fraud % 4. Government Documents/Benefits Fraud % 5. Loan Fraud % 6. Employment-Related Fraud % 7. Attempted Identity Theft % 8. Other %

41 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 41 Under ID Theft Act, identity theft is defined very broadly as: knowingly using, without authority, a means of identification of another person to commit any unlawful activity. (unlawful activity: a violation of Federal law, or a felony under State or local law). What is Identity Theft?

42 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 42 Identity Theft When someone steals your identity, they are usually using your credit to obtain goods and services for themselves that you will have to pay for.

43 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 43 How Does an Identity Thief Get Your Information? Stealing files from places where you work, go to school, shop, get medical services, bank, etc. Stealing your wallet or purse. Stealing information from your home or car. Stealing from your mailbox or from mail in transit. Sending a bogus or calling with a false promise or fraudulent purpose. - For example: pretending to be from a bank, creating a false website, pretending to be a real company, fake auditing letters.

44 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 44 From: PNC Bank Sent: May 17, :31 PM To: Subject: To All PNC bank users Dear PNC user, During our regular update and verification of the user data, you must confirm your credit card details. Please confirm you information by clicking link below. pncfeatures/cardmember access.shtml

45 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 45 How Does an Identity Thief Use Your Information? Obtains Credit Cards in your name or makes charges on your existing accounts (42%). Obtains Wireless or telephone equipment or services in your name (20%). Forges checks, makes unauthorized EFTs, or open bank accounts in your name (13%). Works in your name (9%). Obtains personal, student, car and mortgage loans, or cashes convenience checks in your name (7%). Other uses: obtains drivers license in your name.

46 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 46 Victims of Identity Theft If your identity is stolen, do the following immediately: –Contact the fraud department of the three major credit bureaus (Equifax, Experian, Trans Union). –Contact your creditors and check your accounts. –File a police report. - File a complaint with the FTC.

47 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 47 Recovery Take back control of your identity: –Close any fraudulent accounts. –Put passwords on your accounts. –Change old passwords and create new PIN codes.

48 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 48 Prevention Protect yourself Protect others Guard against fraud: Sign cards as soon as they arrive. Keep records of account numbers and phone numbers. Keep an eye on your card during transactions. Also be aware of who is around you, is anyone else listening? Check your credit report and credit card monthly statements.

49 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 49 Annual credit bureau report New Jersey residents are entitled to one free annual credit report. If you are denied credit, you are allowed to request one free copy of your credit report. Check your report for accurate information, open accounts, balance information, loan information, etc.

50 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 50 Credit Bureau Links Equifax – – To order a report, –To report fraud, Experian – – To order a report, – To report fraud, Trans Union – –To order a report, –To report fraud,

51 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 51 Have you been a Victim?

52 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 52 You may be a victim if: You are denied credit. You stop getting mail. You start getting collection calls/mail. You start getting new bills for accounts you do not have or services you did not authorize. Your bank account balances drops.

53 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 53 Damages Time Money Credit rating Reputation

54 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 54 Good Practices Photocopy the contents of your wallet/purse. Photocopy your passport (keep a copy at home and one with you when you travel). Empty your wallet/purse of non-essential identifiers. Do not use any information provided by the people who may be trying to scam you look it up yourself. Shred documents before you depose of them.

55 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 55 GLBA requires us to PROTECT CONSUMERS from substantial harm or inconvenience.

56 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 56 What can we do to guard NPI? Keep confidential information private. Use care when asking or giving SSN. Use secure disposal methods. Protect the privacy of data transmissions. Improve procedures.

57 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 57 Actions to prevent Others from becoming Victims Determine what information you need. Provide a secure workplace. Always ask for a students ID or debtors account number. Keep prying eyes away from customers information. Dont expose NPI information to the outside world.

58 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 58 Actions to prevent Others from becoming Victims Take care when you provide employees or customers personal information to others. Know & explain how you handle personal information. Ask for written permission prior to sharing personal information. Report problems or concerns to managers or supervisors.

59 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 59 Avoid –unauthorized disclosure –removing information from your office –sharing information –tossing information in the trash –down loading or ing information. Remember to always maintain confidentiality, security and integrity :

60 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 60 General Privacy Do not provide correcting information for account verification questions. Be suspicious. Be paranoid. Dont be afraid to say no when asked for information that is not required to conduct the current business transaction.

61 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 61 What are university assets?

62 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 62 University Assets Are customer information and records assets?

63 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 63 Safeguarding Information Information takes many forms. Information is stored in various ways. Data assets have unique risks.

64 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 64 Safeguarding Information Your Role: Ensure Physical Security. Select and Protect hard to guess passwords. Avoid traps and disclosures. Back up files. Log off your computer when not in use. Do not open s with attachments from unknown sources. Obliterate data before giving up your computer. Recognize social engineering tactics.

65 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 65 Safeguarding Information Your role as a user…. What else can you do?

66 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 66 Check your work area! Do you leave NPI reports on your desk? Is NPI stored in unlocked file cabinets? Keep computer disks secure. Do not save NPI on your computer C drive.

67 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 67 Safeguarding Information Your role…. The University has many policies and procedures to help you, learn them.

68 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 68 University Regulations & Guidelines related to Safeguarding Standards for University Operations Handbook Confidentiality Accounting for Financial Resources Acceptable Use of Network &Computing Resources: –Agreement for Accessing Information –Acceptable Use Policy –Guidelines for Interpretation of Acceptable Use –Acceptable Use Supplement –Basics

69 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 69 Potential Damages to Any U. Reputation Violation of federal and state laws Fines Reparation costs Recovery costs Increased prevention costs Georgia Tech accidental release of credit card to the internet cost them over $1,000,000.

70 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 70 Expectations All University employees are responsible for securing and caring for University property, resources and other assets. University relies on the attention and cooperation of every member of the community to prevent, detect and report the misuse of university assets.

71 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 71 Prevention Protect yourself Protect others

72 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 72 Safeguarding customer information and university assets is everyones job!

73 12/01/ Protection of Information Assets (25%) 3. Protection of Information Assets Information Security Management (ISO/IEC 17799:2000) & Certified Risk Analysis Methodology Management (CRAMM ) ISO - International Standardization Organization

74 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 74Migrating Migrating from compliance with the IM&T (Info. Management Tech) Security Manual to compliance with BS7799 Overview Implementation - assistance available

75 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 75 What is Information Security Management (ISM)? An enabling mechanism shared whose application ensures that information may be shared in a manner which ensures the appropriate protection of that information & associated information assets

76 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 76 Basic Components ConfidentialityConfidentiality: protecting sensitive information from unauthorized disclosure IntegrityIntegrity: safeguarding the accuracy and completeness of information/data AvailabilityAvailability: ensuring that information and associated services are available to users when required

77 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 77Problem Until early 90s information was handled by many organizations in an ad hoc and, generally, unsatisfactory manner little or no assuranceIn a period of increasing need to share information, there was little or no assurance that such information could or would be safeguarded computer dataWhat control measures there were focussed almost entirely on computer data, to the exclusion of other forms of information

78 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 78 Code of Practice : in conjunction with a number of leading UK companies and organizations produced an ISM Code of Practice - incorporating the best information security practices in general use. Addressed all forms of informationAddressed all forms of information;e.g. computer data, written, spoken, microfiche etc

79 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 79 Code of Practice - Aims To provide –A common basis –A common basis for organizations to develop, implement, and measure effective information security management practice –Confidence –Confidence in inter-organisational dealings

80 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 80 Balance A common concern amongst organizations is that the application of security measures often has an adverse impact on, or interferes with, operational processes BS7799 processes are flexible enough to ensure that the right balance can be struck - security with operational efficiency!

81 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 81 Assets - Examples Information Databases, system documentation, data files, user manuals, continuity plans, backup processes Software Application software, system software, development tools Physical Computer equipment, magnetic media, furniture, accommodation Services Heating, lighting, power, air-conditioning

82 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 82 The Standard And –Personnel Security. –Personnel Security. Measures to reduce risks of human error, theft, fraud or misuse of facilities –Physical/Environmental Security. –Physical/Environmental Security. Prevention of unauthorized access, interference to IT services and damage –Computer and Network Management. –Computer and Network Management. To Ensure correct and secure operation of computer and network facilities

83 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 83 The Standard …………. –System Access Control. –System Access Control. Controls to prevent unauthorized access to computer systems –System Development and Maintenance. –System Development and Maintenance. A security program complementing development/maintenance of IT systems –BCP. –BCP. Measures to protect critical business processes from major failures and disasters –Compliance. a –Compliance. To avoid breaches of statutory or contractual requirements and ensure the ISMS is operational

84 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 84 Controls information security risk management strategy Each of these Categories contains a number of security controls, mandatory or otherwise, which can be implemented as part of the information security risk management strategy The same controls will not, necessarily apply across the board, owing to the varying nature of organizations, risk factors etc

85 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 85 The Crux of the Matter Information is subject to numerous risks; which can be grouped together under the generic headings of: –A –Accidental –N –Natural –D –Deliberate A risk being the product, in this case, of the threat to information and its assets, and vulnerability to the threats

86 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 86 Risk Analysis The point is: risk management strategy –An effective risk management strategy cannot be implemented until the risks are identified and measured (that is, analyzed) It almost goes without saying, that Analysis should be based upon a sound and proven methodology CRAMMtherefore the we will use CRAMM

87 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 87 CRAMM Developed in 1985, CRAMM Risk Analysis Methodology is a complete package, containing: –the risk analysis process itself –associated documentation (inc. report functionality; results and conclusions) –training –software support tools

88 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 88 3 Stages CRAMM offers a 3-staged approach that allows an organization to: 1. Identify and value assets 2. Assess the threats and vulnerabilities to those assets 3. Select appropriate recommended countermeasures Fine, so far……………………..

89 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 89 CRAMM Version 4.0 This version, the latest, includes –Full support for BS7799 –Full support for BS7799 including GAP analysis Implementation of a security improvement program Statement of Applicability Risk Modeling for multi-role organizations ANDAND undertake a Risk Analysis ! A fit with BS7799: Part 2

90 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 90 Define the Policy Define Scope of ISMS Undertake RA Manage Risk Select Controls Statement of Applicability Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Policy Document Scope of ISMS Information Assets Risk Assessment Results & Conclusions Select Control Options Statement Management Framework: ISMS T. V. I. Degree of Assurance Required Required Control Objectives Additional Controls (NB: Additional controls would incorporate DPA 1998, Caldicott and Info Governance requirements)

91 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 91 And then…….. Develop and implement security policies which comply with your specific requirements in terms of BS7799 Review and Maintain Simple, isnt it? significantNo, it is appreciated that compliance with BS7799 is a significant undertaking But, as the benefits themselves are significant…it is not only good practice, but makes good sense to adopt the standard

92 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 92 You are Not Alone CRAMM risks models are being developed for specific organizations (e.g. Acute Trusts) Such models will encompass approximately % of organizations Pioneer Projects - results of which will be fed into the overall implementation process Training Development and maintenance program FAQs Help Desk User Groups

93 3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 93 Thanks for Coming! For further information, contact: Dr. A. Rush, Ph.D.


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