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Dr Arya Jith. Best way to a manage Is to prevent a snake bite…..!

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Presentation on theme: "Dr Arya Jith. Best way to a manage Is to prevent a snake bite…..!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr Arya Jith

2 Best way to a manage Is to prevent a snake bite…..!

3 A WORLD WITHOUT SNAKES NEARLY A QUARTER OF US WOULD GO HUNGRY THEY ARE IMPORTANT ELEMENTS IN FOOD CHAIN THAT CONTROL RODENT POPULATION

4 For more presentations 5 DANGEROUSLY POISONOUS SNAKES KING COBRA COMMON COBRA COMMON KRAIT RUSSELLS VIPER SAWSCALED VIPER MOST COMMON POISONOUS SNAKE IS COMMON KRAIT

5 TO IDENTIFY WHETHER IT WAS A POISONOUS SNAKE. 216 SPECIES- 52 VENOMOUS IF THE PAIN NUMBNESS AND OEDEMA IS SPREADING THEN IT IS A VENOMOUS SNAKE. SUSPECTED SNAKE BITE OBSERVATION 24 HOURS

6 For more presentations Universal fear - a state of shock Bite site -multiple teeth impressions significant local pain or swelling -ABSENT Adequate reassurance and symptomatic treatment.

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8 To rule out ptosis Evidence of early external ophthalmoplegia. size and reaction of the pupils. Early paralysis of pterygoid muscles. broken neck sign

9 Oedema petechiae bullae oozing from the wound should be noted Extent of swelling circumference of the bitten limb should be noted every 15 minutes- spreading

10 CT> 10 MINUTES Bleeding manifestations Oliguria /haematuria Hypotension Ptosis Circumoral paraesthesia Aphonia/Dysarthria

11 GRADE0 – NO ENVENOMATION GRADE 1- MINIMAL ENVENOMATION (local pain and swelling) GRADE2-MODERATE ENVENOMATION (Pain,swelling,ecchymosis spreading +mild systemic/ lab manifestations) GRADE 3-SEVERE ENVENOMATION (Marked local response+severe systemic findings+significant lab findings)

12 Blood grouping Hb, elevated PCV TC-leucocytosis Platelet count- thrombocytopenia Peripheral smear – Haemolysis BT,CT(20 min) prolonged PT,aPTT Urea Serum Electrolytes- hyperkalemia Urine Routine-haematuria Metabolic /resp acidosis

13 Level of consiousness Pulse, BP, Resp rate,Capillary refill time Clotting time 1/2hr -1hourly Urine output Muscle weakness

14 GRADE 0-NO ENVENOMATION Local wound care Injn TT Observation -24 hrs

15 MINIMAL ENVENOMATION Injn TT Antibiotics (inj CP/Ampicillin) Observe for 24 hours

16 Moderate and Severe Envenomation Injn TT Antibiotics(Ampicillin /CP/ 3 rd genertn cephalosporins+ metronidazole) local anti oedema measures

17 NEVER APPLY A TOURNIQUET ABOVE THE SITE IF THE PATIENT COMES WITH A TOURNIQUET always CHECK FOR VASCULARITY Do not suck out venom Do not incise the bite wound nor apply any chemicals

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19 Antivenom is immunoglobulin (usually the enzyme refined F(ab)2 fragment of IgG) purified from the serum or plasma of a horse or sheep that has been immunized with the venoms of one or more species of snake. Monovalent or monospecific antivenom Polyvalent India –polyvalent is available which act against the venom of commonly found snakes in india

20 Neurotoxicity Bleeding/coagulopathy Myoglobinuria/haemoglobinuria Cardiac toxicity Local swelling involving more than half of the bitten limb Rapid extension of swelling Development of an enlarged tender Lymph node draining the bitten limb ARF

21 10 vials polyvalent asv(irrespective of body weight and age) 2 nd dose - overt bleeding is present 10 vials OR Do 20 minute clotting time and give 2 vials Q6H till the coagulation parameters are normal

22 No test dose is required One vial is added with 100 ml of normal saline. After minutes 9 vials can be added in the same fluid over one hour

23 Urticaria,itching,fever, shaking chills,nausea,vomiting,diarrhoea abdominal cramps,tachycardia hypotension, bronchospasm and angioedema ASV is discontinued 0.01mg/kg of Adrenaline is given (1:1000)as IM should be given

24 100mg of Hydocortisone(2mg/kg) and 10mg of H1 antihistamine (children- 0.2mg/kg) IV 2 nd dose of Adrenaline 0.5 mg (1:1000) IM can be repeated Patient is recovered ASV can be restarted slowly within 10 – 15 minutes

25 Best effect – used within 4 hours Can be administered upto 48 hours Efficacy is seen upto 6- 7 days

26 Normalization of BP Bleeding stops within 15 – 30 mts Normalization of coagulation parameters within 6 hours Neurological sign will be resolving within hours

27 Neostigmine -0.05mg to 0.1mg/kg every 4 hours Atropine 0.02mg/kg (5minutes prior to neostigmine) Watch for ptosis

28 Shock Renal failure Myocardial failure Shock lung Bleeding

29 PUFFINESS CHEMOSIS PAROTID SWELLING Rx - methyl prednisolone (10mg/kgQ8H) x 3days

30 hypovolemic neurogenic cardiogenic

31 If renal function is normal Start with volume expanders(20ml/kg of isotonic soln) Corrected? Symptoms of other shock hypovolemic shock

32 Raised JVP Oedema Signs of pulmonary oedema Feeble heart sounds Changes in ecg Start Dobutamine Drip (5-10microg/min) Uncorrected-Neurogenic shock

33 Dopamine drip(10-12microg /min) BP is coming up Nor adrenaline ( microgram/kg)

34 Early dialysis Peritoneal dialysis uremia Flluid overload hyperkalemiaanuria

35 Treat cardigenic shock Treat ccf Avoid fluid overload Oxygen inhalation

36 Tacypnea Hypoxemia Unexplained drowsiness Mild acidosis treatment-o2inhalation cpap ventillation

37 Correct coagulation failure FFP-10ml/kg Correct platelet deficiency Whole blood– frank bleeding

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