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Tanzania - summary of qualitative and quantitative findings by research question Researching Womens Collective Action project team meeting: Arusha, Tanzania,

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Presentation on theme: "Tanzania - summary of qualitative and quantitative findings by research question Researching Womens Collective Action project team meeting: Arusha, Tanzania,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Tanzania - summary of qualitative and quantitative findings by research question Researching Womens Collective Action project team meeting: Arusha, Tanzania, st July 2012

2 1.Which categories of women smallholders benefit from participation in collective action in agricultural markets? Qualitative findings: WCA- women tend to be- better educated; slightly older on average; with increased access to land; able to afford membership fees; married; Women with retired/white collar husbands receive more support to become involved in WCA activities Single women may be excluded from CA unless widowed, or divorced after joining group More empowered women are able to join the groups more easily- due to greater freedom from control of husbands/increased economic power WCA increases diversity of vegetables grown- they are easier to market through groups. Groups also benefit from support with calendar/market prices info- when to grow what etc. So they tend to know demand/consumer side better Qualitative findings: WCA- women tend to be- better educated; slightly older on average; with increased access to land; able to afford membership fees; married; Women with retired/white collar husbands receive more support to become involved in WCA activities Single women may be excluded from CA unless widowed, or divorced after joining group More empowered women are able to join the groups more easily- due to greater freedom from control of husbands/increased economic power WCA increases diversity of vegetables grown- they are easier to market through groups. Groups also benefit from support with calendar/market prices info- when to grow what etc. So they tend to know demand/consumer side better 2

3 1.Which categories of women smallholders benefit from participation in collective action in agricultural markets? Quantitative findings: WCA Members... Are older- (42 compared to 39) highly significant Use fewer plots (2.5 versus 3.7)- highly significant Own more goats/sheep (2.4 versus 1.8) highly significant Own slightly more durable goods(6.5 to 6) highly significant Cultivate a greater variety of vegetables (3.7 versus 2.5) highly significant Receive better credit (17% versus 1%)- through agricultural union farmer groups- highly significant Quantitative findings: WCA Members... Are older- (42 compared to 39) highly significant Use fewer plots (2.5 versus 3.7)- highly significant Own more goats/sheep (2.4 versus 1.8) highly significant Own slightly more durable goods(6.5 to 6) highly significant Cultivate a greater variety of vegetables (3.7 versus 2.5) highly significant Receive better credit (17% versus 1%)- through agricultural union farmer groups- highly significant 3

4 1.Which categories of women smallholders benefit from participation in collective action in agricultural markets? 4 Conflicting findings /gaps in data: From QUAL no evidence of more assets in WCA in QUANT significant difference QUAL WCA have higher access to inputs in QUANT no significant difference Conflicting findings /gaps in data: From QUAL no evidence of more assets in WCA in QUANT significant difference QUAL WCA have higher access to inputs in QUANT no significant difference Complimentary findings: Age, Marriage, Women received small ruminants from NGOs benefiting mostly WCA Access to credit Higher diversity of vegetables, as can access higher markets Complimentary findings: Age, Marriage, Women received small ruminants from NGOs benefiting mostly WCA Access to credit Higher diversity of vegetables, as can access higher markets

5 2.What livelihoods (income, assets) and empowerment benefits do women smallholders gain from their participation in collective action in agricultural markets? Qualitative findings: Membership obviously affects freedom to attend group meetings but unclear of it is cause or effect Involvement in groups does give women more power over income and decision making over agricultural income – but not necessarily overall household income WCA- benefits can be more limited in marketing of product- so empowerment in production or household may not stretch to capturing marketing value Womens product may be sold less than mens within mixed collectives- due to marginalisation at marketing stage More market information for WCA Qualitative findings: Membership obviously affects freedom to attend group meetings but unclear of it is cause or effect Involvement in groups does give women more power over income and decision making over agricultural income – but not necessarily overall household income WCA- benefits can be more limited in marketing of product- so empowerment in production or household may not stretch to capturing marketing value Womens product may be sold less than mens within mixed collectives- due to marginalisation at marketing stage More market information for WCA 5

6 2.What livelihoods (income, assets) and empowerment benefits do women smallholders gain from their participation in collective action in agricultural markets? Quantitative findings: For WCA members- Total value of vegetables produced is significantly higher (1,420,649 versus 958,425) Women in WCA are selling more and so receiving higher income from vegetable sales- high significance Produce higher yields per acre –one star sig (TS 664,000 more per acre) Market 4% less on average- 2 star sig Net value of vegetables- is higher (TS 465,710 difference) Improved decision-making on agricultural income at HH; increased ownership of agricultural assets; greater freedom to attend group meetings; and greater influence over all income decisions Quantitative findings: For WCA members- Total value of vegetables produced is significantly higher (1,420,649 versus 958,425) Women in WCA are selling more and so receiving higher income from vegetable sales- high significance Produce higher yields per acre –one star sig (TS 664,000 more per acre) Market 4% less on average- 2 star sig Net value of vegetables- is higher (TS 465,710 difference) Improved decision-making on agricultural income at HH; increased ownership of agricultural assets; greater freedom to attend group meetings; and greater influence over all income decisions 6

7 7 2.What livelihoods (income, assets) and empowerment benefits do women smallholders gain from their participation in collective action in agricultural markets? Conflicting findings /gaps in data: QUAL no empowerment over overall income QUANT no widows (Table 8) GAPS Some data have not been analysed Conflicting findings /gaps in data: QUAL no empowerment over overall income QUANT no widows (Table 8) GAPS Some data have not been analysed Complimentary findings: Higher quantity of veg production in WCA More empowerment of WCA members on decision over agric. income Complimentary findings: Higher quantity of veg production in WCA More empowerment of WCA members on decision over agric. income

8 3.How and to what extent does collective action help women smallholders to overcome key barriers to their engagement in markets? Qualitative findings: WCA members- More involved in quality assurance of product; Increased volume of production; Have more options for marketing, grow diverse crops Differences observed between women-only and mixed groups – better empowerment in regard to decision-making power in women only groups... Still strong barriers preventing women from selling at higher value markets- especially cultural restrictions around travel Qualitative findings: WCA members- More involved in quality assurance of product; Increased volume of production; Have more options for marketing, grow diverse crops Differences observed between women-only and mixed groups – better empowerment in regard to decision-making power in women only groups... Still strong barriers preventing women from selling at higher value markets- especially cultural restrictions around travel 8

9 3.How and to what extent does collective action help women smallholders to overcome key barriers to their engagement in markets? Quantitative findings: No findings from QUANT report Analysis of Section 4 Question 8 benefits of joining WCA could add value Quantitative findings: No findings from QUANT report Analysis of Section 4 Question 8 benefits of joining WCA could add value 9

10 10 3.How and to what extent does collective action help women smallholders to overcome key barriers to their engagement in markets? Conflicting findings /gaps in data: GAPS Analysis of Section 4 question 8 Conflicting findings /gaps in data: GAPS Analysis of Section 4 question 8 Complimentary findings: COULD NOT BE WORKED OUT Complimentary findings: COULD NOT BE WORKED OUT

11 4.Which strategies of development actors are most effective in promoting equitable benefits for women from their engagement in CA in agricultural markets? Qualitative findings: Few strategies to encourage womens participation in particular- Only organisation that has specifically supported women is government office (low interest) loans to womens groups/provision of plots of land etc. Interventions need to have focused strategies on benefits for women, otherwise can only be successfully accessed by men Involvement in VICOBA and or SACCOS has helped access to credit... Qualitative findings: Few strategies to encourage womens participation in particular- Only organisation that has specifically supported women is government office (low interest) loans to womens groups/provision of plots of land etc. Interventions need to have focused strategies on benefits for women, otherwise can only be successfully accessed by men Involvement in VICOBA and or SACCOS has helped access to credit... 11

12 4.Which strategies of development actors are most effective in promoting equitable benefits for women from their engagement in CA in agricultural markets? Quantitative findings: Access to credit Quantitative findings: Access to credit 12

13 13 4.Which strategies of development actors are most effective in promoting equitable benefits for women from their engagement in CA in agricultural markets? Conflicting findings /gaps in data: GAPS QUANT – Section 5 on motivation to join WCA need to be analysed. This could see what strategies worked to make women more involved Conflicting findings /gaps in data: GAPS QUANT – Section 5 on motivation to join WCA need to be analysed. This could see what strategies worked to make women more involved Complimentary findings: Access to credit Complimentary findings: Access to credit

14 14 FEEDBACK No.FindingsFeedback 1Table 7 data on horsesNeed to be checked as no horses in Lushoto 2Mboga vegetableBetter use vegetable and define it to exclude dry beans 31.5 acres average plot size for vegetables in WCA Very big, need verification 440% of treatment from Sunga ward Suggest to compare data within the treatment and reducing % of treatment to see the effect 5-ve correlation of WCA and empowerment Data analysis need to be revised

15 15 Asante sana! Thank you! Inicheh! Merci! Amesegenallo!


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