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© 2008 CHEMETALL GMBH - This document and all information contained herein is the proprietary information of CHEMETALL GMBH. No intellectual property rights.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2008 CHEMETALL GMBH - This document and all information contained herein is the proprietary information of CHEMETALL GMBH. No intellectual property rights."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2008 CHEMETALL GMBH - This document and all information contained herein is the proprietary information of CHEMETALL GMBH. No intellectual property rights are granted by the delivery of this document or the disclosure of its content. This document shall not be reproduced or disclosed to a third party without the express written consent of CHEMETALL GMBH. This document and its content shall not be used for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied. Beyond Lithium ion – future research trends and strategies Dr. Christoph Hartnig Business Development Lithium powered by Lithium

2 2 Forward Looking Statements This presentation may contain certain "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 concerning the business, operations and financial condition of Rockwood Holdings, Inc. and its subsidiaries (“Rockwood”). Although Rockwood believes the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are based upon reasonable assumptions, there can be no assurance that its expectations will be realized. "Forward-looking statements" consist of all non-historical information, including the statements referring to the prospects and future performance of Rockwood. Actual results could differ materially from those projected in Rockwood’s forward-looking statements due to numerous known and unknown risks and uncertainties, including, among other things, the "Risk Factors" described in Rockwood’s 2008 Form 10-K with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Rockwood does not undertake any obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which any such statement is made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

3 3 Lithium – de la nube al cristal Salar de Atacama

4 4 Sociedad Chilena de Litio (SCL) Chemetall’s daughter company in Chile History  SCL was established in August 13, 1980  First brine production in 1984  Lithium Carbonate plant (Li 2 CO 3 TG) since 1984  Potassium Chloride plant (KCl) since 1988, at El Salar  Lithium Chloride plant (LiCl) since 1997  High Purity Lithium Carbonate (Li 2 CO 3 HP) since 2004  Other products -Magnesium chloride (MgCl 2.6H 2 O) -Sodium Chloride (NaCl) -Potash (KCl)  Chemetall has invested about 10 Mio USD/year during the last 5 years  Chemetall employs about 200 people in Chile, of which about 70 people live in Peine area

5 5 Chemetall‘s strategic position in Lithium  world’s largest producer of lithium salts and Lithium based organic specialties  more than 50% market share for Lithium Products; for Li 2 CO 3 market share is approx. 30%  long history and experience in Lithium production since 1925  complete backward integration  long-term technology leader  leading-edge producer of lithium compounds used in Li-ion batteries  production and R&D facilities in North and South America, Europe and Asia-Pacific  significant additional investments to strengthen our global market presence: R&D facility at the Salar de Atacama and La Negra

6 6 Lithium – more than e-mobility Key ProductsKey Applications Lithium carbonate Butyl- lithium Lithium metal Lithium hydroxide Lithium specialties Pharmaceuticals Glass ceramics GreaseCO 2 Absorption Elastomers Aluminum Li primary batteries Electronic materials Cement Al - alloys Mining Agrochemicals Li-ion batteries

7 7 consumption of Lithium by end-use (2009) [total: mt LCE]

8 8 hot topic: e-mobility  CO 2 emissions –main driver: transportation  ambitious targets worldwide: –Japan: reduction of CO 2 emission by 25% compared to 1990 –Germany: 43 g CO2 /km in average by 2050 (>70% ZEVs) –USA: 165 g CO2 /km by 2016  new generation of vehicles: –1 Mio e-cars in Germany by 2020 –China: ~ 120 mio electrified vehicles (e-bikes, pedelecs, scooter,..) within the next years

9 9 electric cars – first generation  Lohner Porsche (1899)  410 kg lead acid batteries  driving range: 50 km (not too much of improvement so far)

10 10 the horsepower race  Toyota SUV today = Ferrari in 1984  attractive driving performance requires high energy batteries [taken from: D. Sperling, U. California, 2009]

11 11 batteries – energy densities  energy density – what do we need?  key issues: safety, cyclability, charging behavior type of battery energy density [Wh/kg] comment lead acid30-40high weight, low density NiCd40-70environment!, high self-discharge NiMH60-80currently used in hybrid vehicles Li-ion fast charge/discharge beyond lithium ion >450safety, price, stability, R&D level

12 12 Li-ion batteries  battery weight for 100 km driving distance (1 kWh  5 km) Gen III Gen IV

13 13 energy densities – future generations time today 130 Wh/kg LiB 300 Wh/kg Alloy anode high voltage cathode >500 - ca Wh/kg >500 - ca Wh/kg Li-sulfur Li-air Wh/kg LiB optimized effective range [km] near futurefuture risk

14 14 and now to the chemistry

15 15 Li-ion batteries  charge transport achieved by Li + ions, intercalation compounds on the anode and cathode [source: Axeon – Battery guide]

16 16 new battery technologies  severely enhanced power densities obeying –safety issues –high stability (number of cycles) –durability (calendar life) –target: >300 Wh/kg on cell level >200 Wh/kg on system level  most promising candidates –high voltage cathodes –Li / air –Li / sulfur Gen III Gen IV

17 17 Gen III – improved materials

18 18 future trends of existing materials LayeredSpinelOlivine commercialized Ni 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 (NCA) Ni 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 O 2 (NMC) LiCoO 2 (LCO) LiMn 2 O 4 (LMO)LiFePO 4 (LFP) next gen NMC-Al doped high energy NMC LiMn 1.5 Ni 0.5 O 4 LiMn 1.5 (Fe,Cr,Co) 0.5 O 4 LiCoPO 4, LiMnPO 4 LiFeSiO 4

19 19 adaption of particle size  influence of particle size on the performance of the electrode material  high surface for fast transport, large volume for high capacity [source: Th. Laars, Sued-Chemie, Battery Seminar, 2010] nano-sized high power density micro-aggregates high energy density example: Li-iron-phosphate (LFP)

20 20 state-of-the-art cathode materials  nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC)  NMC (1:1:1): 3.7 V  Al-doping: –Al 0.1 : 3.75 V –Al 0.13 : 3.85 V [source: J. Dahn, Dalhousie University, 2009]

21 21 layered-layered oxides (HE-NMCs)  Li 2 MnO 3  Li(Ni x Co y Mn z )O 2 : The Li 2 MnO 3 domains result in higher capacity when activated above 4.4V [source: J. Lampert, BASF, IBA-2011, Cape Town]

22 22 high-energy NMCs [source: J. Lampert, BASF, IBA-2011, Cape Town] 3.5 US$/kg 40 US$/kg 25 US$/kg

23 23 high capacity anodes

24 24 carbon composites – tin/silicon  increased capacity (by a factor of up to 5)  self assembly of tin-carbon and silicon-carbon composite anode materials leads to reduced volume expansion during charge and discharge [sources: J. Hassoun et al., J. Power Sources 196 (2011) 349; Georgia Institute of Technology, 2011; Biswal Lab, Rice Univ.]

25 25 Gen IV – beyond Li-ion

26 26 Li/sulfur – principle  discharge / power supply: 2 Li + S  Li 2 S –anodic reaction: Li  Li + + e – –cathodic reaction: 2 Li + + S x + 2 e –  Li 2 S x Li metal Li + separator sulfur electrode electrolyte 2 Li + + S 8 Li 2 S 8 Li 2 S 4 Li 2 S 2 Li 2 S anodecathode charging (Li plating) discharging (Li stripping) Li 0

27 27 most critical problem: dendrite formation  major challenge in Li-metal based batteries  inhomogeneous Li-deposition during charging (Li-plating)  in-situ study on dendrite formation 190 µm 0 sec 600 sec 900 sec separator interface [source: A. West, Columbia University, 2008]  penetration of separator leads to internal shortings  EOL

28 28 Li/sulfur [source: J. Affinito, Sion Power, ORNL, 2010] upper plateau lower plateau S8S8 S e – + 2 Li +  Li 2 S 8 Li 2 S e – + 2 Li +  2 Li 2 S 4 Li 2 S e – + 4 Li +  4 Li 2 S 2 4 Li 2 S e – + 8 Li +  4 Li 2 S 2 theoretical performance !

29 29 Li/sulfur [source: J. Affinito, Sion Power, ORNL, 2010]  theoretical  losses due to cross over  reduced shuttle activity

30 30 solubility of Li-sulfide compounds  high solubility plus fast kinetics of Li 2 S 8 leads to a loss of ~400 mAh/g S  S 8, Li 2 S 8, Li 2 S 6, Li 2 S 4, Li 2 S 3 are (highly) soluble, Li 2 S 2 and Li 2 S are very low or insoluble  formation of Li 2 S on the anode side by reduction of polysulfides Li 2 S 8 Li 2 S 6 /Li 2 S 4 Li 2 S 2 Li 2 S highgood/moderatevery lowinsoluble solubility upper plateau – fast kineticslower plateau – slow kinetics

31 31 Li/sulfur – conclusion  high theoretical capacity: –1672 Ah/kg (S)  high solubility and shuttle behavior of polysulfides might lead to severe performance losses: –Li 2 S x shuttle from cathode to anode –reduction and subsequent formation of Li 2 S on the anode –performance loss up to 400 mAh/g (S)  new separator materials and technologies to minimize polysulfide cross-over are needed

32 32 Li/air – principle  discharge / power supply: 2 Li + O 2  Li 2 O 2 –anodic reaction:Li  Li + + e – –cathodic reaction: 2 Li + + O e –  Li 2 O 2 Li metal O2O2 O2O2 O2O2 O2O2 separatorair electrode air charging (Li plating) discharging (Li stripping) Li + Li 0

33 33 Li/air – challenges at first glance, the stability looks ok for a lab cell (space for improvement) [source: F. Mizuno, Toyota, ORNL, 2010]

34 34 Li/air – challenges [source: F. Mizuno, Toyota, ORNL, 2010]

35 35 Li/air – challenges [source: F. Mizuno, Toyota, ORNL, 2010]

36 36 Li/air – challenges  state-of-the-art power densities of Li/air cells need to be increased by approx 2 orders of magnitude  challenge for highly active bi-functional catalysts [source: Y. Shao-Horn, MIT, ORNL, 2010]

37 37 Li/air – conclusion  maximum number of 100 cycles has been proven  Li 2 O 2 is not the main discharge product; XO-(C=O)-OLi-type alkylcarbonates are formed, with CO 2 formation during recharging  the large voltage gap of 1.4 V during discharging and charging is caused by the side reaction leading to the formation of alkyl carbonates  propylene carbonate is attacked by the O 2 radical  electrolyte solvents with high electrochemical stability against O 2, such as ionic liquids, are required  active bi-functional catalysts are key factor for application

38 38 R&D roadmap – market launch Li/S Li/air Li-ion III

39 39 Chemetall – R&D network

40 40 dedication – global R&D network Strong R&D network to meet future market needs for LIB Asia Americas Europe Other Research Institutes Industry and Trade Associations Equipment Suppliers Chemical Industry Automotive Industry ITRI DOE German & US Governmental Offices

41 41 Chemetall as the leading producer of lithium compounds is committed to continuously expand its R&D activities and to maintain its position as reliable supplier to new markets and technologies.


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