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Childhood and adolescent precursors of adult labour force attachment: Influences of neighbourhood characteristics Piotr Wilk Psychiatry and Bechavioural.

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Presentation on theme: "Childhood and adolescent precursors of adult labour force attachment: Influences of neighbourhood characteristics Piotr Wilk Psychiatry and Bechavioural."— Presentation transcript:

1 Childhood and adolescent precursors of adult labour force attachment: Influences of neighbourhood characteristics Piotr Wilk Psychiatry and Bechavioural Sciences McMaster University Hamilton, Ontario

2 Objectives Examine childhood and adolescent predictors of adult labour force attachment Focus on effects attributable to early exposure to neighbourhood influences

3 Past Research The collective socialization and social isolation theories posit that neighbourhood influences operate through – role modeling and enforcement of social norms – economic conditions of neighbourhoods

4 Past Research Timing of neighbourhood effects – focus on adolescents – growing interest in neighbourhood influences at earlier stages of child development

5 Research Questions Is adult labour force attachment shaped by childhood neighbourhood conditions? Is the nature of this relationship dependent on childs developmental stage? Is the nature of this relationship dependent on gender?

6 Data Child and family level data – OCHS 2000 (dependent variables) – OCHS 1983 (independent variables) Neighbourhood level data – 1981 Census of Canada

7 Measurements: Labour Force Attachment Work Attitudes – latent variable based on 7 items – scale from 1 (weak) to 5 (strong attachment) Work Stability – single indicator latent variable – based on work history calendar – number of months employed (last 3 years)

8 Measurements: Neighbourhoods Neighbourhoods are defined as Census enumeration areas Neighbourhood Socio-Economic Status – latent variable based on three items: educational attainment, occupational status, and income Employment Rate – single indicator measure of neighbourhood employment rate

9 Measurements: Families Family Socio-Economic Status (latent variable) – based on three items: parental educational attainment, parental occupational status, and family income Employment Stability (continuous variable) – number of months employed (last year) Immigration Status (dummy variable) – both parents born abroad Residential Stability (dummy variable) – family experienced residential mobility (last year)

10 Measurements: Children Age (Group variable) – Children (4-11 years old in 1983) – Adolescents (12-16 year old in 1983) Sex (Group variable)

11 Analytical Approach Longitudinal design Structural equation modeling Multi-group analysis

12 Estimation Procedure Base model – gross effect of neighbourhood variables Full model – neighbourhood effects controlling for family background variables Multi-group analysis – by age – by gender

13 Empirical Model

14 Results: Employment Stability Est.S.D.PEst.S.D.P Neighbourhood Predictors Socio-Economic Status Employment Rate Family Predictors Socio-Economic Status Employment Status Birth Place Family Mobility Base ModelFull Model

15 Results: Employment Stability by Age Est.S.E.PEst.S.E.P Neighbourhood Predictors SES Employment Rate Family Predictors SES Employment Status Birth Place Family Mobility Age 4-11Age 12-16

16 Results: Employment Stability by Sex Est.S.E.PEst.S.E.P Neighbourhood Predictors SES Employment Rate Family Predictors SES Employment Status Birth Place Family Mobility MalesFemales

17 Results: Work Attitudes Est.S.D.PEst.S.D.P Neighbourhood Predictors Socio-Economic Status Employment Rate Family Predictors Socio-Economic Status Employment Status Birth Place Family Mobility Base ModelFull Model

18 Results: Work Attitudes by Age Est.S.E.PEst.S.E.P Neighbourhood Predictors SES Employment Rate Family Predictors SES Employment Status Birth Place Family Mobility Age 4-11Age 12-16

19 Results: Work Attitudes by Sex Est.S.E.PEst.S.E.P Neighbourhood Predictors SESus Employment Rate Family Predictors SES Employment Status Birth Place Family Mobility MalesFemales

20 Conclusions As expected, neighbourhood employment rate has positive effect on employment stability but only among males and children age 4 to 11 Neighbourhood employment rate has negative effect on work attitudes but only among females and children age 4 to 11 No significant effect for neighbourhood socio- economic status Limited support for collective socialization and social isolation theories

21 Thank You!


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