2Buzzwords: Information Warfare and Cyberterrorism Information warfare is the gathering or use of information to gain an advantage over another party.Those actions intended to protect, exploit, corrupt, deny or destroy information or information resources in order to achieve a significant advantage, objective or victory over an adversary.
3Components of Information Warfare Information warfare consists of six components:Psychological operationsElectronic warfareMilitary deceptionPhysical destructionSecurity measuresInformation attacksElectronic warfare is the denial of information or accurate information to an adversary.
4Physical Information Warfare Physical information warfare involves a physical attack on an information systemTerrorism is the actual or threatened use of violence by an individual or group motivated by ideological or political objectives. The goal of terrorism is to intimidate or coerce a government or its people.Cyberterrorism cannot be as concretely defined.
5CyberterrorismTerrorism is defined by the nature of the act, not by the identity of the perpetrators or the nature of their cause.Cyberterrorism is specifically a premeditated, politically or ideologically motivated attack or threat of attack against information, computer systems, computer programs, and data that can result in violence against civilian targets.
6There are four categories of attacks: Infrastructure attacksAttacks designed to destroy a system that includes critical dataInformation attacksAttacks focused on demolishing or altering the content of electronic files or computer systemsTechnological facilitationUse of cyber communication to distribute and coordinate plans for a terrorist attack, incite an attack or assist in the facilitation of terrorismPromotionFundraising, solicitation and recruitment
7Information infrastructure is composed of five essential components: Communications networksPhones, satellites and cable networksEquipment used for the provision of informationTV's, radios, computers and phonesInformation resourcesEducational or medical programs or databasesApplicationsElectronic commerce or digital librariesPeople
8Facilitation of Attack Technology has allowed for reduced transmission time in communication, so that members of an organization all over the globe may coordinate their tasks.Information technology has also reduced the cost of communication.
9Data HidingData Hiding means that the information is hidden or imbedded in other apparently innocent data.Post September 11, 2001, reports surfaced that revealed that al Qaeda had been transmitting hidden data over the internet.
10Data Hiding - Cryptography An encryption program scrambles information in a controlled manner through the use of a cryptographic key.Ramzi Yousef, convicted of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, had encrypted plans to destroy 11 American airliners. This was only discovered after FBI agents spent over a year decoding files found in Yousef’s Manila apartment in 1995.
11Propaganda and Promotion Terrorist organizations and adversarial nations have also used the internet for purposes of propaganda and recruitment.
12Examples from Al-Qaeda Sheikh Omar Bakri Muhammad, an Islamic cleric with proven ties to bin Laden, posted information to the internet that al Qaeda was actively planning a “cyber jihad,” or holy war, against the United States and its allies.
13China and Information Warfare Cyber warfare has been almost totally incorporated intothe military lexicon,Military and academic training, andPolitical organization in China.