Presentation on theme: "Tribal or unity Diverge or Converge Barbie vs. Sara & Dara."— Presentation transcript:
Tribal or unity Diverge or Converge Barbie vs. Sara & Dara
McWorld Four Imperatives Market imperative A resource imperative An information-technology imperative Ecological imperative Is this a victory over nationalism?
Jihad or Lebanonization of the World Subnational factions in permanent rebellion against uniformity and integration Redraw boundaries War an instrument of policy but “rather as an emblem of identity, an expression of community, an end to itself” (Barber, Jihad vs. McWorld) Hyperdisentegrataion of former Soviet Union
Impact - Extremism Global Terrorism –Terrorism is the sustained, clandestine use of violence, including murder, kidnaping, hijacking, and bombing, to achieve a political purpose. Definitions in the U.S. intelligence and Surveillance Act of 1979 stress the use of violence to coerce or intimidate the civilian population with a view to affecting government policy. Used now as a generic term for all kinds of political violence, especially as manifested in revolutionary and guerrilla warfare. Characteristics: –Spectacular horror effects in order to attract media coverage. International dimension--the ability of terrorists to move across national frontiers, attract international media attention, and involve different international factions.
Events Oklahoma City Bombing Black September and the 1972 Olympics Iranian Seizure of the US Embassy in 1979 Gassing of commuters in Japan in 1995 by Aum Shrinrikyo Bombing of army Hqs in Lebanon Entebbe Hijacking World Trade Center Bombing Bombing of Pan Am flight 103 in 1987 Assassination of Yitsak Rabin
Terrorist Acts Irish Republican Army (IRA) "Bloody Friday" bombing attacks in Belfast, Northern Ireland (1972) Japanese Red Army and Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) attacks at Lod Airport, Israel (1972) Red Army Faction's (RAF) Baader-Meinhof Gang kidnapping of Hanns-Martin Schleyer in West Germany (1977) Unabomber Theodore Kaczynski's starts a serial bombing campaign in the United States (1978) Red Brigades' kidnapping of Aldo Morro in Italy (1978) Libyan intelligence officers' bombing of Pan Am flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland (1988) Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam's suicide bombing of former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in India (1991) Aum Shinrikyo's ("Supreme Truth") releasing of Sarin nerve gas in a Tokyo, Japan subway (1995) Timothy McVeigh's bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, United States (1995)
Groups Groups in Europe: –Irish Republican Army (IRA) –Sinn - Fein –Baader-Meinhoff Gang –Red Army FactionRed Army Faction –Red Brigades (Italy) –Basque Terrorists Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) Groups in Middle East: (all very closely related) –Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)( now government of Palestine) –Black September –Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) –Carlos the Jackal(Org. of Armed Arab Struggle) –Abu Nadal –Hizballah Groups in North America: RTBA (right to bear arms) military factions in the United States Front for the Liberation of Quebec Freemen in the United States FALN (Puerto Rican) Terrorists Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front Groups in Asia and Russia: Japanese Red Army Sikh Moslem Terrorists (India) Chechna Guerrilla Front Moluccan Freedom Fighters
Intolerance and unwilling to compromise or coexist with others Fundamentalism is a reaction to modernism –Reactionary –Changing institutions –Usually not inclusive but exclusionary Either isolate themselves or conquer and force themselves on others Ethnic and religious extremism Fundamentalism –Jewish hasidic –Taliban –Some LDS who broke away in early 1900s FLDS Nationalistic and Religious intolerance –Tribalism
Initial Phase – Post World War II “Economic Miracle” Germany (also Japan) –Unprecedented economic growth in European history –Result of Marshall Plan and Japanese model High rate of investment by Japanese and increased education by Europeans and Japanese –Europe entered period of rapid economic progress lasting into late 1960s. –By 1963, western Europe produced more than 2.5X more than before the war. Decolonization
Schuman Plan 1950 created the European Coal and Steel Community Put forth by French statesman Jean Monnet and Foreign Minister Robert Schuman. Special international organization to control & integrate European steel and coal production. West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, & Luxembourg accepted in 1952; Britain refused to enter Immediate economic goal: a single competitive market w/o national tariffs or quotas. "The Six": By 1958 coal and steel moved freely among six nations of the European Coal and Steel Community Far-reaching political goal: bind six member nations so closely together economically that war among them would become unthinkable and virtually impossible.
European Economic Community (EEC) Treaty of Rome, 1957 Created European Economic Community (EEC) or the Common Market Signed by same six nations in the Schuman Plan – “the Six” First goal of treaty: Gradual reduction of all tariffs among the Six in order to create a single market almost as large as the U.S. Other goals: –Free movement of capital and labor. –Common economic policies and institutions. –Tariffs were rapidly reduced and regions specialized in what they did best. –EEC encouraged hopes of political and economic union. Union frustrated in 1960s by resurgence of more traditional nationalism. Euratom (European Atomic Energy Agency) also created by agency. Communist states responded by forming their own economic association--COMECON
BRIC Brazil, Russia, India, China Brazil, Russia, India, China
Estimated Human Population Over the Past two Millennia (Cohen 1995)
WWII and beyond WWII forces changes in gender roles 1950s backlash against this Gradual rise of feminist movement in 1960s and 70s Growth of female employment, and female empowerment Patchy development, USA seen as forefront of gender battles, Latin America more backwards, but still developing
The Permissive Society The 1920’s introduced drugs, hardcore pornography, and a new sexual freedom to the world. The “sexual revolution” took place in the 1960’s in Sweden and the rest of the world soon followed. The introduction of the pill, which gave way to freedom in sexual behavior. Sexual explicit movies, books, and plays broke new ground in the treatment of once hidden subjects. Cities like Amsterdam allowed prostitution and the open sale of hardcore porn which attracted thousands of tourists. Divorce rates rose dramatically, especially in the 1960’s. Pre- and extramarital sexual experiences also rose substantially. The introduction of Playboy magazine confirmed the message the public sent to adult males, which was they were supposed to seek sexual gratification outside of marriage. The 1960’s was also the emergence of a drug culture. Although marijuana was the most widely used drug of the time, LSD was very present at the time. Timothy Leary had done research on the drug and became the high priest of hallucinogenic experiences.
Support staff (Majority women) Management Glass Ceiling WomenMen